Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Ermoupoli known by the formal older name Ermoupolis or Hermoupolis, is a town and former municipality on the island of Syros, in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality Syros-Ermoupoli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it is the capital of the South Aegean region. The municipal unit has an area of 11.181 km2. Ermoupoli was founded during the Greek Revolution in the 1820s, as an extension to the existing Ano Syros township, by refugees from other Greek islands because of the War, it soon became the leading industrial center of Greece, as well as its main port. The renowned Greek Steamship Company was founded in the city in 1856. Thousands of ships were built in the various Syros shipyards. Ermoupoli was eclipsed by Piraeus in the late 19th century. In the following decades the city declined, its economy has improved, based on the service industry. Emmanouil Benakis and politician Olga Broumas and translator Manos Eleutheriou, lyricist Stelios Mainas, actor Michael Melas, father of Pavlos Melas, fighter of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia Emmanuel Rhoides and journalist Georgios Souris, poet Markos Vamvakaris, rebetiko musician Demetrius Vikelas, businessman and the first president of the International Olympic Committee Official website of Ermoupoli University of the Aegean in Ermoupoli
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Iași is the second largest city in Romania, the seat of Iași County. Located in the historical region of Moldavia, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural and artistic life; the city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1564 to 1859 of the United Principalities from 1859 to 1862, the capital of Romania from 1916 to 1918. Known as The Cultural Capital of Romania, Iași is a symbol in Romanian history; the historian Nicolae Iorga said "There should be no Romanian who does not know of it". Still referred to as The Moldavian Capital, Iași is the main economic and business centre of the Moldavian region of Romania. In December 2018, Iași was declared Historical capital of Romania. At the 2011 census, the city proper had a population of 290,422. With 474,035 residents, the Iași urban area is the second most populous in Romania, whereas more than 500,000 people live within its peri-urban area. Home to the oldest Romanian university and to the first engineering school, Iași is one of the most important education and research centres of the country, accommodates over 60,000 students in 5 public universities.
The social and cultural life revolves around the Vasile Alecsandri National Theater, the Moldova State Philharmonic, the Opera House, the Iași Athenaeum, a famous Botanical Garden, the Central University Library, the high quality cultural centres and festivals, an array of museums, memorial houses and historical monuments. The city is known as the site of the largest Romanian pilgrimage which takes place each year, in October; the city is referred to as: Bulgarian: Яш English, Polish: Jassy French: Iassy German: Jassy, Jassenmarkt Greek: Ιάσιο Hebrew: יאסי or יאשי. Hungarian: Jászvásár Italian: Iassi Russian: Яссы Serbian: Јаши or Jaši Turkish: Yaş Ukrainian: Ясси, Яси - Я́сси, Я́си Yiddish: יאס Arabic: ياشي/اياشي/ياسي Scholars have different theories on the origin of the name "Iași"; some argue that the name originates with the Sarmatian tribe Iazyges, one mentioned by Ovid as Latin: "Ipse vides onerata ferox ut ducata Iasyx/ Per media Histri plaustra bubulcus aquas" and "Iazyges et Colchi Metereaque turba Getaque/ Danubii mediis vix prohibentur aquis".
A now lost inscription on a Roman milestone found near Osijek, Croatia by Matija Petar Katančić in the 18th century, mentions the existence of a Jassiorum municipium, or Municipium Dacorum-Iassiorum from other sources. Other explanations show that the name originated from the Iranian Alanic tribe of Jassi, having same origin with Yazyges tribes Jassic people; the Prut river was known as the city as Forum Philistinorum. From this population derived the plural of town name, "Iașii". Another historian wrote that the Iasians lived among the Cumans and that they left the Caucasus after the first Mongolian campaign in the West, settling temporarily near the Prut, he asserts that the ethnic name of Jasz, given to Iasians by Hungarians has been erroneously identified with the Jazyges. The Hungarian name of the city means "Jassic Market". Archaeological investigations attest to the presence of human communities on the present territory of the city and around it as far back as the prehistoric age. Settlements included those of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, a late Neolithic archaeological culture.
There is archaeological evidence of human settlements in the area of Iași dating from the 6th to 7th centuries and 7th to 10th centuries. Many of the vessels found in Iași had a cross indicating that the inhabitants were Christians; the name of the city is first found in a document from 1408. This is a grant of certain commercial privileges by the Moldavian Prince Alexander to the Polish merchants of Lvov. However, as buildings older than 1408 still exist, e.g. the Armenian Church believed to be built in 1395, it is certain that the city existed before its first surviving written mention. Around 1564, Prince Alexandru Lăpușneanu moved the Moldavian capital from Suceava to Iași. Between 1561 and 1563, a school and a Lutheran church were founded by the Greek adventurer Prince, Ioan Iacob Heraclid. In 1640, Vasile Lupu established the first school in which the Romanian language replaced Greek, set up a printing press in the Byzantine Trei Ierarhi Monastery. Between 15 September - 27 October 1642, the city hosted the Synod of Jassy.
In 1643, the first volume printed in Moldavia was published in Iași. The city was burned down by the Tatars in 1513, by the Ottomans in 1538, by Imperial Russian troops in 1686. In 1734, it was hit by the plague, it was through the Peace of Iași that the sixth Russo-Turkish War was brought to a close in 1792. A Greek revolutionary manoeuvre and occupation under Alexander Ypsilanti and the Filiki Eteria led to the storming of the city by the Turks in 1822. In 1844 a severe fire affected much of the city. Between 1564 and 1859, the city was the capital of Moldavia.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage, its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung, non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, whether it is poetry or prose, it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as short story or drama. Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all writing. A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing.
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more inclusive notions. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover those writings that possess high quality or distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres tradition; this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as "the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing." Problematic in this view is that there is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything can be literature, anything, universally regarded as literature has the potential to be excluded, since value judgments can change over time. The formalist definition is. Jim Meyer considers this a useful characteristic in explaining the use of the term to mean published material in a particular field, as such writing must use language according to particular standards; the problem with the formalist definition is that in order to say that literature deviates from ordinary uses of language, those uses must first be identified.
Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". In spite of this, the term has been applied to spoken or sung texts. Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature. A French term for "a literary type or class". However, such classes are subject to change, have been used in different ways in different periods and traditions; the history of literature follows the development of civilization. When defined as written work, Ancient Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, are considered the world's oldest literatures; the primary genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts and prayers, tales—were written entirely in verse. Most Sumerian literature is poetry, as it is written in left-justified lines, could contain line-based organization such as the couplet or the stanza, Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras.
The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, the great Indian epics of a later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. Literature in all its forms can be seen as written records, whether the literature itself be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through things like characters' actions and words or the authors' style of writing and the intent behind the words; the plot is for more than just entertainment purposes. Studying and analyzing literature becomes important in terms of learning about human history. Literature provides insights about how society has evolved and about the societal norms during each of the different periods all throughout history. For instance, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we make sense of the past, it is asserted that both of these are "discourses, human constructs, signifying systems, both derive their major claim to truth from that identity."
Literature provides views of life, crucial in obtaining truth and in understanding human life throughout history and its periods. It explores the possibilities of living in terms of certain values under given social and historical circumstances. Literature helps us understand references made in more modern literature because authors reference mythology and other old religious texts to describe ancient civi
Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states
The 1848 Revolutions in the Italian states, part of the wider Revolutions of 1848 in Europe, were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control. During this time period of 1848, Italy was not a unified country, was divided into many states, which, in Northern Italy, were ruled by the Austrian Empire. A desire to be independent from foreign rule, the conservative leadership of the Austrians, led Italian revolutionaries to stage revolution in order to drive out the Austrians; the revolution was led by the state of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The uprisings in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia in Milan, forced the Austrian General Radetzky to retreat to the Quadrilatero fortresses. King Charles Albert, who ruled Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849, aspired to unite Italy under the leadership of the Bishop of Rome aka the Pope, he launched a full-out attack on the Quadrilateral.
Lacking allies, Charles Albert was no match for the Austrian Empire Army. He was defeated at the Battle of Custoza on 24 July 1848, signed a truce, withdrew his forces from Lombardy. and thus Austria remained dominant in a divided Italy and the Revolution was lost. After witnessing the liberal friendly events that were occurring in Rome, the people of other states started to demand similar treatment, it commenced on 12 January in Sicily, where the people began to demand a Provisional Government, separate from the government of the mainland. King Ferdinand II tried to resist these changes, however a full-fledged revolt erupted in Sicily, a revolt erupted in Salerno and Naples; these revolts drove Ferdinand and his men out of Sicily, forced him to allow a provisional government to be constituted. Notwithstanding the events in Rome and Naples, the states still were under a conservative rule. Italians in Lombardo-Veneto could not enjoy these freedoms; the Austrian Empire of this region had tightened their grip on the people by further oppressing them with harsher taxes.
Tax gatherers were sent out along with the 100,000 man army standing in place, letting their presence be known. These revolts in Sicily helped to spark revolts in the northern Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia. Revolutions in the Lombardy city of Milan forced about 20,000 of an Austrian General Radetsky's troops to withdraw from the city. General Radetsky was forced to withdraw his troops from the two states, due to his expertise, he was able to keep the Quadrilateral fortresses of Verona, Peschiera and Mantua. Through his skillful tactics he brought his men, withdrawn into the key forts. Meanwhile, the Italian insurgents were encouraged when news of Prince Metternich abdicating in Vienna spread out, but were unable to eradicate Radetsky's troops. By this time Charles Albert of Piedmont had published a liberal constitution for Piedmont. In the Quadrilateral General Radetsky and his men were plotting a counterattack in order to regain their lost ground. However, they were interrupted by Charles Albert of Sardinia, the King of Sardinia, who had by taken the forefront of the attack, had launched an attack against the Quadrilateral.
Charles charged the fortress from all sides aided by 25,000 reinforcements, who came in assistance of their fellow citizens. While journeying to the fortress preparing for the attack, Charles garnered the support of princes of other states, his fellow princes responded by sending reinforcements to his aid: Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany sent 8,000, Pope Pius contributed 10,000, Ferdinand II sent 16,050 men on the advice of general Guglielmo Pepe. They attacked the fortresses and on 3 May 1848 succeeded in winning the battle of Goito and capturing the fortress of Peschiera. At that point, Pope Pius IX became nervous about defeating the Austrian empire and withdrew his troops, citing that he could not endorse a war between two Catholic nations. King Ferdinand of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies called his soldiers back and retired his troops. However, some of them did not comply with the order and continued on under the guidance of Generals Pepe and Giovanni. A year Charles launched another attack, due to the lack of troops, he was defeated in the Battle of Novara.
Despite the fact that Pius had abandoned the war against the Austrians, many of his people had still fought alongside Charles Albert. The people of Rome rebelled against Pius' government and assassinated Pellegrino Rossi, Pius' minister. Pope Pius IX fled to the fortress of Gaeta, under the protection of King Ferdinand II. In February 1849, he was joined by Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany who had to flee from there because of another insurrection. Piedmont was lost to the Austrians in 1849 and Charles Albert had to abdicate leaving his son, Victor Emanuel II, to rule. In Rome, the authority that did take over passed popular legislation to eliminate burdensome taxes and give work to the unemployed. Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini came to build a "Rome of the People," and the short-lived Roman Republic was proclaimed; the Republic succeeded in inspiring the people to build an independent Italian nation. It attempted to improve economically the lives of the underserved by giving some of the Church's large landholdings and giving it to poor peasants.
It made prison and insane asylum reforms, gave freedom to the press, provided secular education, but shied away from the "Right to Work", having seen this fail in France. Runaway price inflation doomed the economy of the Republic. In addition sending troops to defend the Piedmont from Austrian forces put Rome at risk of attack from