U.S. Route 67
U. S. Route 67 is a major north–south U. S. highway. The southern terminus of the route is at the United States-Mexico border in Presidio, where it continues south as Mexican Federal Highway 16 upon crossing the Rio Grande; the northern terminus is at U. S. Route 52 in Sabula, Iowa. US 67 crosses the Mississippi River twice along its routing; the first crossing is at West Alton, where US 67 uses the Clark Bridge to reach Alton, Illinois. About 240 miles to the north, US 67 crosses the river again at the Rock Island Centennial Bridge between Rock Island and Davenport, Iowa. Additionally, the route crosses the Missouri River via the Lewis Bridge a few miles southwest of the Clark Bridge. Throughout Texas, US 67 runs in a northeast–southwest manner violating the norms for numbering U. S. highways as odd-numbered routes are north–south in orientation, because prevailing north–south versus prevailing east–west designation is determined by the ultimate termini as the route traverses multiple states. US 67 is part of the La Entrada al Pacifico international trade corridor from its southern terminus to an intersection with U.
S. Route 385 in McCamey. Between Dallas and Weaver in eastern Hopkins County, the highway runs concurrently with Interstate 30, is unsigned between Dallas and Royse City. From Weaver east to the Arkansas state line in Texarkana, US 67 runs parallel to I-30. East of the Interstate 35E/Interstate 30 "mixmaster" in Downtown Dallas, U. S. Route 67 follows Interstate 30. West of the "mixmaster," U. S. 67 follows I-35E south through Oak Cliff. Along this portion, the Route 67 shield is alongside the Interstate shield. Just north of Kiest Boulevard, U. S. Route 67 breaks off from Interstate 35E and maintains controlled-access status down to Midlothian, where it becomes a four-lane divided highway to the western edge of Cleburne; the route from Alpine to San Angelo was a previous route of SH 99. Though it passes through the heart of the Ozarks, the highest elevation along US 67 is the last 150 miles between Fort Stockton and Presidio. Below Fort Stockton, US 67 passes near the Glass Mountains and the Sierra Del Norte range at 6810 ft. West of Alpine, US 67 passes near the Twin Sisters, Ranger Peak, Paisano Peak before going through Paisano Pass.
East of Marfa are views of Twin Mountains, Goat Mountain, Cathedral Peak, Cienega Mountain. The Puertacitas Mountains and the Davis Mountains can be seen from the Marfa Ghost Lights observatory to the north; the Davis Mountains are the highest elevation near US 67. Thirty miles south of Marfa, US 67 reaches its highest point at 5428 ft, with Chinatti Peak seen to the southwest. In Arkansas, US 67 runs parallel with Interstate 30 from Texarkana to Benton, where it runs concurrently with I-30 to North Little Rock, it runs on a freeway north to US 412 in Walnut Ridge, where the freeway ends and the road becomes a five-lane undivided highway to Pocahontas. After Pocahontas, the road returns to a two-lane alignment north to the state line. In 2009, a bill was introduced to rename the portion of US 67; the bill, by Rep. J. R. Rogers of Walnut Ridge, designates US 67 in Jackson and Randolph Counties as "Rock'n' Roll Highway 67." Besides Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash, the bill notes that Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, Fats Domino played at clubs along that stretch of highway.
Going from south to north, US 67 enters Missouri at the Arkansas state line. About 10 miles north of the state line, it intersects US 160. At the southwest corner of Poplar Bluff, Business Route 67 goes into Poplar Bluff while US 67 bypasses Poplar Bluff to the west on a freeway-grade highway, it joins US 60 at the northwest corner of Poplar Bluff. Both 60 and 67 follow a four-lane route to an interchange about 6 miles northwest of Poplar Bluff, where US 60 heads west toward Springfield, while US 67 heads north to St. Louis. Construction is complete to divide the highway through Wayne and Butler Counties, including bypasses around Greenville and Cherokee Pass; the new divided highway opened on August 2011, with a ribbon-cutting ceremony. Additionally, MoDOT has extended the divided highway south to US 160 south of Poplar Bluff. From Fredericktown, US 67 passes through Farmington, where an existing interchange with Route 221 was converted to a diverging diamond interchange in September 2012. US 67 proceeds through Park Hills and Bonne Terre.
About 25 miles north of Bonne Terre, US 67 crosses Interstate 55 and enters Festus and Crystal City and picks up US 61. This becomes known as Truman Boulevard in Festus and Crystal City, Highway 61-67 from Herculaneum to Imperial, Jeffco Boulevard from Arnold until it exits Jefferson County and enters St. Louis County, over the Meramec River where it becomes Lemay Ferry Road; when US 67/61 reaches St. Louis County, It travels Lemay Ferry Road until it reaches Lindbergh Boulevard. There, it overlaps Lindbergh Boulevard. US 61 turns west onto I-64/US 40 West towards Wentzville. Lindbergh, named for aviator Charles Lindbergh, continues north through Frontenac, Creve Coeur, Maryland Heights, Bridgeton and Florissant until it reaches Lewis & Clark Boulevard. From there, it continues straight north to West Alton and crosses the Mississippi River on the Clark Bridge and enters Alton, Illinois; the only vehicular tunnel in Missouri is located on US 67 at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, where the road
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Iowa, Oklahoma and Nebraska, its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon the First Consul of the French Republic, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States to fund his military; the Americans sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but accepted the bargain.
The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition. Jefferson agreed that the U. S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics, it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. France ceded the territory to Spain in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi and the British the territory to the east of the river. Following the establishment of the United States, the Americans controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans; the main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea.
As the lands were being settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired "piece by piece." The risk of another power taking it from a weakened Spain made a "profound reconsideration" of this policy necessary. New Orleans was important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckney's Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, gave American merchants "right of deposit" in New Orleans, granting them use of the port to store goods for export. Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, pork, lard, cider and cheese; the treaty recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, which had become vital to the growing trade of the western territories. In 1798, Spain revoked the treaty allowing American use of New Orleans upsetting Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, restored the American right to deposit goods.
However, in 1800 Spain had ceded the Louisiana territory back to France as part of Napoleon's secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The territory nominally remained under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the formal cession of the territory to the United States on December 20, 1803. A further ceremony was held in Upper Louisiana regarding the New Orleans formalities; the March 9–10, 1804 event is remembered as Three Flags Day. James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803, their instructions were to purchase control of New Orleans and its environs. The Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. history. Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, the purchase doubled the size of the United States. Before 1803, Louisiana had been under Spanish control for forty years. Although Spain aided the rebels in the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish didn't want the Americans to settle in their territory.
Although the purchase was thought of by some as unjust and unconstitutional, Jefferson determined that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties allowed the purchase of what became fifteen states. In hindsight, the Louisiana Purchase could be considered one of his greatest contributions to the United States. On April 18, 1802, Jefferson penned a letter to United States Ambassador to France Robert Livingston, it was an intentional exhortation to make this mild diplomat warn the French of their perilous course. The letter began: The cession of Louisiana and the Floridas by Spain to France works most sorely on the U. S. On this subject the Secretary of State has written to you fully, yet I cannot forbear recurring to it s
European colonization of the Americas
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe. Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World", he ran aground on the northern part of Hispaniola on 5 December 1492, which the Taino people had inhabited since the 9th century. Western European conquest, large-scale exploration and colonization soon followed. Columbus's first two voyages reached the Bahamas and various Caribbean islands, including Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba. In 1497, Italian explorer John Cabot, on behalf of England, landed on the North American coast, a year Columbus's third voyage reached the South American coast; as the sponsor of Christopher Columbus's voyages, Spain was the first European power to settle and colonize the largest areas, from North America and the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America.
The Spaniards began building their American empire in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola as bases. The North and South American mainland fell to the conquistadors, with an estimated 8,000,000 deaths of indigenous populations, argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. Florida fell to Juan Ponce de León after 1513. From 1519 to 1521, Hernán Cortés waged a campaign against the Aztec Empire, ruled by Moctezuma II; the Aztec capital, became Mexico City, the chief city of what the Spanish were now calling "New Spain". More than 240,000 Aztecs died during the siege of Tenochtitlan. Of these, 100,000 died in combat. Between 500 and 1,000 of the Spaniards engaged in the conquest died; the areas that are today California, New Mexico, Texas, Missouri and Alabama were taken over by other conquistadors, such as Hernando de Soto, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Farther to the south, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire during the 1530s.
The de Soto expedition was the first major encounter of Europeans with North American Indians in the eastern half of the United States. The expedition journeyed from Florida through present-day Georgia and the Carolinas west across the Mississippi and into Texas. De Soto fought his biggest battle at the walled town of Mabila in present-day Alabama on October 18, 1540. Spanish losses were 148 wounded; the Spaniards claimed. If true, Mabila was the bloodiest battle fought between red men and white in the present-day United States; the centuries of continuous conflicts between the North American Indians and the Anglo-Americans were secondary to the devastation wrought on the densely populated Meso-American and Caribbean heartlands. Other powers such as France founded colonies in the Americas: in eastern North America, a number of Caribbean islands and small coastal parts of South America. Portugal colonized Brazil, tried colonizing the eastern coasts of present-day Canada and settled for extended periods northwest of the River Plate.
The Age of Exploration was the beginning of territorial expansion for several European countries. Europe had been preoccupied with internal wars and was recovering from the loss of population caused by the Black Death. Most of the Western Hemisphere came under the control of Western European governments, leading to changes to its landscape and plant and animal life. In the 19th century over 50 million people left Western Europe for the Americas; the post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a widespread exchange of animals, culture, human populations and communicable disease between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas. Henry F. Dobyns estimates that before European colonization of the Americas there were between 90 and 112 million people in the Americas. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by archaeological evidence. A Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late 10th century, lasted until the mid 15th century, with court and parliament assemblies taking place at Brattahlíð and a bishop located at Garðar.
The remains of a Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, were discovered in 1960 and were dated to around the year 1000. L'Anse aux Meadows is the only site accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact, it was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978. It is notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland, established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with the Norse colonization of the Americas. Early explorations and conquests were made by the Spanish and the Portuguese following their own final reconquest of Iberia in 1492. In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, ratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil. Based on this treaty and on early claims by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513, the Spanish conquered large territories in
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Prairie D'Ane Battlefield
The Prairie D'Âne Battlefield known as Prairie D'Ann Battlefield or Prairie De Ann Battlefield in anglicized forms, was the site of the Civil War Battle of Prairie d'Âne, one of the engagements in southwestern Arkansas of the Union's Camden Expedition of 1864. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, with other sites, is part of the Camden Expedition Sites National Historic Landmark, it was declared part of the National Historic Landmark in 1994. In February 2018 the Nevada County Depot and Museum announced it was deeded an 800-acre tract of this battlefield, which it will improve for heritage tourism; the Civil War Trust, a division of the American Battlefield Trust, acquired the acreage. Note: The Trust's website shows the parcel as 811 acres; the 1864 Camden Expedition was part of a two-pronged strategy by the Union Army to drive Confederate resistance out of southwestern Arkansas and northern Louisiana, pentetrated into Confederate Texas. Union Major General Frederick Steele led a Union force from Little Rock on March 23, 1864, with the objective of joining forces with Major General Nathaniel Prentice Banks at Shreveport, Louisiana.
Confederate forces in Arkansas were directed from Washington, where the Confederate government of the state relocated after the fall of Little Rock. Confederate Major General Sterling Price ordered Brigadier General John S. Marmaduke to harry the Union column and to prevent it from crossing the Little Missouri River as it moved toward Washington. Advance Union forces established a beachhead on the south side of the Little Missouri on April 3, clashed with Confederate defenders in the Battle of Elkin's Ferry; the outnumbered Confederates were forced to withdraw, General Price established a defensive position fortified by earthworks, on the road between Elkin's Ferry and Washington at the western edge of the sparsely-populated Prairie d'Ane, a circular area of prairie surrounded by woodlands. General Steele delayed his advance toward Washington until April 9, awaiting the arrival of addition troops from Fort Smith; the leading edge of Steele's force began skirmishing with Price's force on April 10, both sides brought up reinforcements, but the Union advance was halted by fighting that lasted into the night.
The next day Union forces advance across the prairie in a battle line in the afternoon, but the lateness of the march meant no general engagement took place, the Union forces ended up returning to their camps. That night Price withdrew most of his force further down the Washington road, leaving a small guard in the entrenchments on the prairie; the Union again advanced on the 12th, prompting this rearguard to withdraw, with Union cavalry giving chase for a time. At this point, whose forces were on half-rations, decided it was necessary to resupply his army. Instead of advancing further toward Washington, he turned toward Camden, a Confederate-held town whose defenses Price had stripped to defend Washington. Price advanced troops in pursuit of the Union army, engaging them in a rearguard skirmish near the hamlet of Moscow. Due to difficulties resupplying is force while in Camden, Steele ended up withdrawing all the way back to Little Rock; the main battle took place over an area estimated to cover some 5,000 acres in and around where the city of Prescott developed after being established in 1873.
Much of this area has been cultivated for agriculture, remains developed. The only major intrusion constructed since the battle is a corridor containing railroad tracks and Interstate 30; the Moscow area, where the rearguard action took place, is unaltered, with some development taking place outside the known bounds of the battle area. The Moscow Methodist Church and Cemetery, a site which existed at the time of the battle, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A land area of more than 2,600 acres was designated in 1994 as part of the Camden Expedition Sites, a National Historic Landmark District. In February 2018, the Nevada County Depot and Museum announced acquisition of an 800-acre tract of the battlefield and planned a celebration to accept the deed, it had conducted fundraising and was aided by a grant from the American Battlefield Protection Program of the National Park Service. The Civil War Trust, a division of the American Battlefield Trust, America's largest non-profit battlefield organization, purchased the property and deeded it to the museum..
The site will be prepared as a heritage tourism destination. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Nevada County, Arkansas