Emperor Keitai was the 26th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 507 to 531. Keitai is considered to have ruled the country during the early-6th century, but there is a paucity of information about him. There is insufficient material available for further study. Significant differences exist in the records of the Nihon Shoki; the Kojiki puts this Emperor's birth year at 485. In the extant account, he is called Ohodo; the Nihon Shoki gives his birth year at 450. In this historical record, he is said to have been called Hikofuto. In other historical records, he is said to have been King of Koshi, a smaller tribal entity in northern parts of central Japan as far as the coast of Sea of Japan; some modern reference works of history call Keitai King Ohodo of Koshi. Keitai's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.
Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Keitai might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato". Keitai was not the son of the immediate previous monarch. According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Buretsu died without a successor, at which time a fifth generation grandson of Emperor Ōjin, Keitai and ascended the throne. If Emperor Keitai began a new dynasty as some historians believe Emperor Buretsu would have been the last monarch of the first recorded dynasty of Japan. According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, his father was Hikoushi no Ō/Hikoushi no Ōkimi and his mother was Furihime; when Buretsu died, Kanamura recommended Keitai as a possible heir to the Yamato throne. His mother, was a seventh generation descendant of Emperor Suinin by his son, Prince Iwatsukuwake, his father was a fourth generation descendant of Emperor Ōjin by his son, Prince Wakanuke no Futamata. Genealogy information is supplemented in Shaku Nihongi.
It says he was a son of Ushi no Ōkimi, a grandson of Ohi no Ōkimi, a great-grandson of Ohohoto no Ōkimi, a great-great-grandson of Prince Wakanuke no Futamata, a great-great-great-grandson of Emperor Ōjin. The genealogical trees of the Nihon Shoki have been lost, the accuracy of its account of events remains unknown; this uncertainty raises arguable doubts about this Emperor's genealogy. Although genealogical information in the Shaku Nihongi leaves room for discussion, many scholars acknowledge the blood relationship with the Okinaga clan, a powerful local ruling family or the collateral line of the Imperial family-governed Ōmi region; this family produced many consorts throughout history. According to the Nihon Shoki, Ohohoto no Ōkimi, the great-grandfather of Emperor Keitai, married into the Okinaga clan. Keitai's mother, was from a local ruling family in Koshi, so his mother brought him to her home after his father's death. Abundant traditions relating to the family have been passed down by shrines and old-established families in both regions.
Regardless of speculation about Keitai's genealogy, it is well settled that there was an extended period of disputes over the succession which developed after Keitai's death. A confrontation arose between adherents of two branches of the Yamato, pitting the supporters of sons who would become known as Emperor Ankan and Emperor Senka against those who were backers of the son who would become known as Emperor Kinmei. Keitai declared his ascension in Kusuba, in the northern part of Kawachi Province, married a younger sister of Emperor Buretsu, Princess Tashiraka, it is supposed that his succession was not welcomed by everyone, it took about 20 years for Keitai to enter Yamato Province, near Kawachi and the political center of Japan at the time. In Keitai's years, 527 or 528, the Iwai Rebellion broke out in Tsukushi province, Kyūshū. Keitai sent him to Kyūshū to put down the rebellion. Among his sons, Emperor Ankan, Emperor Senka and Emperor Kinmei ascended to the throne; the actual site of Keitai's grave is not known.
The Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at the Ooda Chausuyama kofun in Ibaraki, Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Keitai's mausoleum, it is formally named Mishima no Aikinu no misasagi. Empress: Princess Tashiraka, Emperor Ninken's daughter Prince Amekunioshiharakihironiwa Emperor KinmeiConsort: Menokohime, Owari no Muraji Kusaka's daughter First Son: Prince Magari no Ōe Emperor Ankan Secons son: Prince Hinokuma no Takata Emperor SenkaConsort: Wakakohime, Mio no Tsunoori no Kimi's younger sister Prince Ōiratsuko Princess Izumo Consort: Hirohime, Prince Sakata no Ōmata's daughter Princess Kamusaki Princess Manta Princess Umaguta Consort: Ominoiratsume, daughter of Okinaga no Mate Princess Sasage, SaiōConsort: Sekihime, daughter of Manda no Muraji Omochi Princess Manda no Ōiratsume Princess Shirasaka no Ikuhihime Princess Ono no Wakairatsume Consort: Yamatohime, daughter of Mio no Kimi
Kojiki sometimes read as Furukotofumi, is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei. The Kojiki is a collection of myths, early legends, genealogies, oral traditions and semi-historical accounts down to 641 concerning the origin of the Japanese archipelago, the Kami; the myths contained in the Kojiki as well as the Nihon Shoki are part of the inspiration behind many practices. The myths were re-appropriated for Shinto practices such as the misogi purification ritual. Emperor Tenmu ordered Hieda no Are to memorize stories and texts from history, many of which appear to have been, until the creation of the Kojiki known oral traditions. Beyond this memorization, nothing occurred until after Empress Jitō and Emperor Monmu had both passed and Empress Genmei came to reign. According to the Kojiki, Empress Genmei on the 18th of the 9th month of 711 ordered the courtier Ō no Yasumaro to record what had been learned by Hieda no Are.
He finished and presented his work to Empress Genmei on the 28th of the 1st month of 712. The Kojiki could be made to further the Imperial right to rule; this historical narrative is broken into the Age of Gods and the Age of Humans, wherein the mythology of the gods which gave birth to the land is told and transitioned in a chronological fashion to the reign of the Emperors. This narrative sets forth the divine mandate by which the Yamato line has right to rule, through the rhetoric used in the Age of Humans, the historical and military qualifications were established. Several of the narratives which give support to the imperial line, such as the subjugation of certain Korean kingdoms, have been confirmed as false and were included to erase failures and bolster reputations of Emperors past. Vast amounts of the Age of Humans is spent recounting genealogies, which served not only to give age to the imperial family, much newer than the Kojiki claims as little evidence has been found to support the existence of early Emperors, but served to tie, whether true or not, many existing clan's genealogies to their own.
Regardless of the original intent of the Kojiki, it finalized and even formulated the framework by which Japanese history was examined in terms of the reign of Emperors. The Kojiki contains various poems. While the historical records and myths are written in a form of Chinese with a heavy mixture of Japanese elements, the songs are written with Chinese characters, though only used phonetically; this special use of Chinese characters is called Man'yōgana, a knowledge of, critical to understanding these songs, which are written in Old Japanese. The Kojiki is divided into three parts: the Nakatsumaki and the Shimotsumaki; the Kamitsumaki known as the Kamiyo no Maki, includes the preface of the Kojiki, is focused on the deities of creation and the births of various deities of the kamiyo period, or Age of the Gods. The Kamitsumaki outlines the myths concerning the foundation of Japan, it describes how Ninigi-no-Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu and great-grandfather of Emperor Jimmu, descended from heaven to Takachihonomine in Kyūshū and became the progenitor of the Japanese Imperial line.
The Nakatsumaki begins with the story of Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor, his conquest of Japan, ends with the 15th Emperor, Emperor Ōjin. The second through ninth Emperors' reigns are recorded in a minimum of detail, with only their names, the names of their various descendants, the place-names of their palaces and tombs listed, no mention of their achievements. Many of the stories in this volume are mythological, the historical information in them is suspect; the Shimotsumaki covers the 16th to 33rd Emperors and, unlike previous volumes, has limited references to the interactions with deities. These interactions are prominent in the first and second volumes. Information about the 24th to the 33rd Emperors is missing, as well. What follows is a condensed summary of the contents of the text, including many of the names of gods and locations as well as events which took place in association to them; the original Japanese is included in parentheses where appropriate. The handing down of old folklore and its significance Emperor Tenmu and setting out the Kojiki Ō no Yasumaro compiling the Kojiki In the Edo period, Motoori Norinaga studied the Kojiki intensively.
He produced. Chamberlain, Basil Hall. 1882. A translation of the "Ko-ji-ki" or Records of ancient matters. Yokohama, Japan: R. Meiklejohn and Co. Printers. Philippi, Donald L. 1968/1969. Kojiki. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press and Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. Heldt, Gustav. 2014. The Kojiki: An Account of Ancient Matters. New York: Columbia University Press. There are two major branches of Kojiki manuscripts: Urabe; the extant Urabe branch consists of 36 existing manuscripts all based on the 1522 copies by Urabe Kanenaga. The Ise branch may be subdivided into the Shinpukuji-bon manuscript of 1371–1372 and the Dōka-bon manuscripts; the Dōka sub-branch consists of: the Dōka-bon manuscript of 1381.
Emperor Suizei, sometimes romanized as Suisei, known as Kamununakawamimi no Mikoto was the second Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 581 to 549 BC. Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors; the name Suizei-tennō was assigned to him posthumously by generations. Suizei is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" and there is a paucity of information about him. There is insufficient material available for further study; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. In the Kojiki, little more than his name and genealogy are recorded; the Nihon Shoki is more expansive, though the section is mythical, wholly cut from the cloth of Chinese legends. An Imperial misasagi or tomb for Suizei is maintained, despite the lack of any reliable early records attesting to his historical existence.
He is ranked as the first of eight Emperors without specific legends associated with them known as the "eight undocumented monarchs". The Kojiki does, record his ascent to the throne. According to its account Suizei was the younger son of Isukeyorihime, his older brother, Kamuyawimimi was crown-prince. On Jimmu's death Tagishimimi, a son of Jimmu by a lesser wife, attempted to seize the throne. Suizei encouraged Kamuyawimimi to slay Tagishimimi, but since he was overcome by fright at the prospect, Suizei accomplished the deed. On this, Kamuyawimimi declared that Suizei, being braver, should be Emperor; the story may reflect an attempt to explain the ancient practice of ultimogeniture, whereby the last-born exercised superior rights of inheritance, a practice replaced by primogeniture. The Kojiki records that Suizei was one of the sons of Emperor Jimmu, that he ruled from the palace of Takaoka-no-miya at Katsuragi in what would come to be known as Yamato Province; the Emperor's posthumous name means "joyfully healthy peace".
It is suggested that the name must have been regularized centuries after the lifetime ascribed to Suizei during the time in which legends about the origins of the Yamato dynasty were compiled as the chronicles known today as the Kojiki. The actual site of his grave is not known; the Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine in Kashihara. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as his mausoleum, it is formally named Tsukida no oka no e no misasagi. Empress: Isuzuyori-hime, Kotoshironushi's daughter Prince Shikitsuhikotamatemi Emperor Annei Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on April 12, May 10, June 21, 1882. OCLC 1882339 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
The Yayoi period is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD. Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi; the date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. A hierarchical social class structure has its origin in China. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were introduced from China over Korea to Japan in this period; the Yayoi followed the Jōmon period and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Archaeological evidence supports the idea that during this time, an influx of farmers from the Asian continent to Japan absorbed or overwhelmed the native hunter-gatherer population.
The Yayoi period is traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD. During this period Japan transitioned to a settled agricultural society; the earliest archaeological evidence of the Yayoi is found on northern Kyūshū, but, still debated. Yayoi culture spread to the main island of Honshū, mixing with native Jōmon culture. A recent study that used accelerator mass spectrometry to analyze carbonized remains on pottery and wooden stakes, suggests that they dated back to 900–800 BC, 500 years earlier than believed; the name Yayoi is borrowed from a location in Tokyo where pottery of the Yayoi period was first found. Yayoi pottery was decorated and produced using the same coiling technique used in Jōmon pottery. Yayoi craft specialists made bronze ceremonial bells and weapons. By the 1st century AD, Yayoi farmers began using iron agricultural weapons; as the Yayoi population increased, the society became more complex. They wove textiles, lived in permanent farming villages, constructed buildings with wood and stone.
They accumulated wealth through land ownership and the storage of grain. Such factors promoted the development of distinct social classes. Contemporary Chinese sources described the people as having tattoos and other bodily markings which indicated differences in social status. Yayoi chiefs, in some parts of Kyūshū, appear to have sponsored, politically manipulated, trade in bronze and other prestige objects; that was possible by the introduction of an irrigated, wet-rice culture from the Yangtze estuary in southern China via the Ryukyu Islands or Korean Peninsula. Wet-rice agriculture led to the growth of a sedentary, agrarian society in Japan. Local political and social developments in Japan were more important than the activities of the central authority within a stratified society. Direct comparisons between Jōmon and Yayoi skeletons show that the two peoples are noticeably distinguishable; the Jōmon tended to be shorter, with longer forearms and lower legs, more wide-set eyes and wider faces, much more pronounced facial topography.
They have strikingly raised brow ridges and nose bridges. Yayoi people, on the other hand, averaged an inch or two taller, with close-set eyes and narrow faces, flat brow ridges and noses. By the Kofun period all skeletons excavated in Japan except those of the Ainu are of the Yayoi type with Jomon admixture, resembling those of modern-day Japanese; the origin of Yayoi culture has long been debated. The earliest archaeological sites are Itazuke or Nabata in the northern part of Kyūshū. Contacts between fishing communities on this coast and the southern coast of Korea date from the Jōmon period, as witnessed by the exchange of trade items such as fishhooks and obsidians. During the Yayoi period, cultural features from China and Korea arrived in this area at various times over several centuries, spread to the south and east; this was a period of mixture between immigrants and the indigenous population, between new cultural influences and existing practices. Chinese influence was obvious in the bronze and copper weapons, dōkyō, dōtaku, as well as irrigated paddy rice cultivation.
Three major symbols of Yayoi culture are the bronze mirror, the bronze sword, the royal seal stone. Between 1996 and 1999, a team led by Satoshi Yamaguchi, a researcher at Japan's National Museum of Nature and Science, compared Yayoi remains found in Japan's Yamaguchi and Fukuoka prefectures with those from China's coastal Jiangsu province and found many similarities between the Yayoi and the Jiangsu remains; some scholars have concluded. Mark J. Hudson has cited archaeological evidence that included "bounded paddy fields, new types of polished stone tools, wooden farming implements, iron tools, weaving technology, ceramic storage jars, exterior bonding of clay coils in pottery fabrication, ditched settlements, domesticated pigs, jawbone rituals." The migrant transfusion from the Korean peninsula gains strength because Yayoi culture began on the north coast of Kyūshū, where Japan is closest to Korea. Yayoi pottery, burial mounds, food preservation were discovered to be similar to the pottery of southern Korea.
However, some scholars argue that the rapid increase of four million people in Japan between the Jōmon and Yayoi periods cannot be explained by migration alone. They attribute the increase to a shift from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural diet on the islands, with the introduction
Empress Jitō was the 41st monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Jitō's reign spanned the years from 686 through 697. In the history of Japan, Jitō was the third of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the two female monarchs before Jitō were Kōgyoku/Saimei. The five women sovereigns reigning after Jitō were Genmei, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Empress Jitō was the daughter of Emperor Tenji, her mother was Ochi-no-Iratsume, the daughter of Minister Ō-omi Soga no Yamada-no Ishikawa Maro. She was the wife of Tenji's full brother Emperor Tenmu. Empress Jitō's given name was Unonosasara, or alternately Uno. Jitō took responsibility for court administration after the death of her husband, Emperor Tenmu, her uncle, she acceded to the throne in 687 in order to ensure the eventual succession of her son, Kusakabe-shinnō. Throughout this period, Empress Jitō ruled from the Fujiwara Palace in Yamato. In 689, Jitō prohibited Sugoroku, in 690 at enthronement she performed special ritual gave pardon and in 692 she travelled to Ise against the counsel of minister Miwa-no-Asono-Takechimaro.
Prince Kusakabe was named as crown prince to succeed Jitō. Kusakabe's son, Karu-no-o, was named as Jitō's successor, he would become known as Emperor Monmu. Empress Jitō reigned for eleven years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. In 697, Jitō abdicated in Mommu's favor. After this, her imperial successors who retired took the same title after abdication. Jitō continued to hold power as a cloistered ruler, which became a persistent trend in Japanese politics; the actual site of Jitō's grave is known. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Jitō's mausoleum.
It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Jitō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Daijō-daijin, Takechi-shinnō Sadaijin Udaijin Naidaijin Jitō's reign is not linked by scholars to any era or nengō; the Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701. See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Jitō period; however and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation which muddies a sense of easy clarity: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō. In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."
The Man'yōshū includes poems said to have been composed by Jitō: After the death of the Emperor Tenmu:Composed when the Empress climbed the Thunder Hill: One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika for inclusion in the popular anthology Hyakunin Isshu: Emperor of Japan Imperial cult Japanese empresses List of Emperors of Japan Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. "Hyakunin-Isshu: Single Songs of a Hundred Poets" in Transactions of the Asia Society of Japan. Tokyo: Asia Society of Japan.... Click link for digitized, full-text copy __________.. Kokka taikan. Tokyo: Teikoku Toshokan, Meiji 30–34. [reprinted Shinten kokka taikan, 10 vols. + 10 index vols. Kadokawa Shoten, Tokyo, 1983–1992. ISBN 978-4-04-020142-9 Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai..
Man'yōshū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten. [reprinted by Columbia University Press, New York, 1965. ISBN 0-231-08620-2. Rprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2005. ISBN 978-0-486-43959-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Emperor Sujin known as Mimakiirihikoinie no Mikoto in the Kojiki, Mimakiiribikoinie no Sumeramikoto or Hatsukunishirasu Sumeramikoto in the Nihon Shoki was the tenth Emperor of Japan. The legendary Emperor's reign is conventionally assigned the years of reign 97 BC – 30 BC, but he may have lived in the early 1st century, or the third or fourth century. Sujin's grave site has not been identified, Andonyama kofun in Tenri, Nara has been designated by the Imperial Household Agency as the kofun, it is formally named Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi. Sujin is responsible for setting up the Ise Shrine or the Saikū associated with it to enshrine Amaterasu, he is credited with initiating the worship of Ōmononushi. He confiscated certain sacred treasures, passed down the line in Izumo; the Emperor may have been the first to perform a census and establish and regularize a system of taxation. Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors. Sujin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" and the paucity of material information about him makes difficult any further verification and study.
The reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. Sujin is a Posthumous name assigned by generations ascribed during the compilation of the Kojiki. According to the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Sujin was the second son of Emperor Kaika Sujin's mother was Ikagashikome no Mikoto, a stepmother of his father, he acceded to the throne purportedly in 97 BC. On the third year of his reign, he removed the capital to Shiki, naming it the Palace of Mizu-gaki, or Mizugaki-no-miya; the Kujiki records the legendary appointment of 137 governors for the provinces ruled by Emperor Sujin. Pestilence struck the 5th year of his rule, half the populace died. By the 6th year, peasants abandoning fields and rebellion became rampant. Up to this time, both the sun goddess Amaterasu and the god Yamato-ōkunitama were enshrined in Imperial Residence; the Emperor, over-awed with having to cohabit with these two powerful deities, set up separate enshrinements to house them.
Amaterasu was moved to Kasanui village in Yamato Province, there built as Himorogi altar out of solid stone, placing a daughter, the princess Toyosukiiri-hime in charge. The other god was entrusted to another daughter named Nunakiiri-hime but her hair fell out and became emaciated so she could not perform her duties. In the 7th year, the Emperor decreed a divination to be performed, so he made a trip to the plain of Kami-asaji or Kamu-asaji-ga-hara, invoked the eighty myriad deities. Yamatototohimomoso-hime acting as a shaman became possessed by a god, who identified himself as Ōmononushi and said that the land will be pacified if he were to be venerated; the Emperor complied. The Emperor was given guidance in a dream to seek out a certain Ōtataneko and appoint him as head priest; the pestilence subsided, the land was calmed, the five cereal crops ripened. The Miwa sept of the Kamo clan claim descent from this Ōtataneko personage; the Emperor appointed Ikagashikoo, ancestor of the Mononobe clan and elder brother of the empress as kami-no-mono-akatsu-hito, i.e. one who sorts the offerings to the gods.
Other gods were vernerated as dictated by divinations, eight red shields and spears were offered to Sumisaka Shrine in the east, eight black shields and spears were offered to Ōsaka Shrine in the west. In his 10th year of rule, Sujin instituted the Generals to the Four Cardinal Quarters Shidō shōgun, instructing them to quell those who would not submit to their rule. General Prince Ōhiko, sent up north, was at the top of the Wani acclivity, when a certain maiden approached him and sang him a cryptic song, disappeared; the Emperor's aunt, Yamatototohimomoso-hime was skilled at clairvoyancy and interpreted this to mean that Take-hani-yasu-hiko was plotting an insurrection. She pieced it together from the news she heard that the prince's wife Ata-bime came to Mount Amanokaguya and took a clump of earth in the corner of her neckerchief. Just as the Emperor gathered his generals in meeting, the couple had mustered troops to the west and was ready to attack the capital; the Emperor sent an army under Isaseri-hiko no Mikoto, which crushed the rebel forces, Ata-bime too was slain.
Subsequently, Hiko-kuni-fuku was sent to Yamashiro Province to punish the rebel prince, in an exchange of bowshots, the rebel prince Take-hani-yasu-hiko was struck in the chest and died. In the 12th year of his rule, he decreed a census be taken of the populace, "with grades of seniority, the order of forced labour"; the taxes, imposed in the form of mandatory labor, were called yuhazu no mitsugi for men and tanasue no mitsugi for women. Peace and prosperity ensued; the Emperor received the title Hatsu kuni shirasu sumeramikoto (
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank