Prince Shōtoku known as Prince Umayado or Prince Kamitsumiya, was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko. He was the son of Emperor Yōmei and his consort, Princess Anahobe no Hashihito, Yōmei's younger half-sister, his parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan and he was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe clan. The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki. Over successive generations, a devotional cult arose around the figure of Prince Shōtoku for the protection of Japan, the Imperial Family, for Buddhism. Key religious figures such as Saichō, Shinran and others claimed inspiration or visions attributed to Prince Shōtoku. According to tradition, Shōtoku was appointed regent in 593 by his aunt. Shōtoku, inspired by the Buddha's teachings, succeeded in establishing a centralized government during his reign. In 603, he established the Twelve Level Rank System at the court.
He is credited with promulgating a Seventeen-article constitution. The Prince was an ardent Buddhist and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Sangyō Gisho or "Annotated Commentaries on the Three Sutras"; the first of these commentaries, Hokke Gisho, is traditionally dated to 615 and thus regarded as "the first Japanese text", in turn making Shōtoku the first Japanese writer. A legend claims that when Bodhidharma came to Japan, he met with Prince Shōtoku whilst under the guise of a starving beggar; the Prince asked the beggar to identify himself. Instead of going ahead, Shōtoku gave him food and covered him with his purple garment, telling him to "lie in peace"; the Prince sang for the starving man. Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice On the hill of Kataoka Art thou become Parentless? Hast thou no lord Flourishing as a bamboo? Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice! The second day, the Prince sent a messenger to the starving man, but he was dead. Hereupon, Shōtoku was grieved and ordered his burial.
Shōtoku thought the man was no ordinary man for sure, sending another messenger, discovered the earth had not been disturbed. On opening the tomb there was no body inside, the Prince's purple garment lay folded on the coffin; the Prince sent another messenger to claim the garment, he continued to wear it just as before. Struck by awe, the people praised the Prince: "How true it is that a sage knoweth a sage." This legend is linked with the temple of Daruma-dera in Ōji, where a stone stupa was found underground, exceedingly rare. Prince Shōtoku commissioned the Shitennō-ji in Settsu Province after his military victory against the powerful Mononobe clan, for he is said to have summoned them to crush his enemies. Shōtoku's name has been linked with Hōryū-ji, a temple in Yamato Province, numerous other temples in the Kansai region. Documentation at Hōryū-ji claims that Suiko and Shōtoku founded the temple in the year 607. Archaeological excavations in 1939 have confirmed that Prince Shōtoku's palace, the Ikaruga no miya, stood in the eastern part of the current temple complex, where the Tō-in sits today.
Despite being credited as the founder of Japanese Buddhism, it is said that the Prince respected Shinto and never visited Buddhist temples without visiting Shinto shrines. In his correspondence with Emperor Yang of Sui, the Prince's letter contains the earliest known written instance in which the Japanese archipelago is referred to by a term meaning "land of the rising sun." The Sui Emperor had dispatched a message in 605 that said, "the sovereign of Sui respectfully inquires about the sovereign of Wa," and Shōtoku responded by sponsoring a mission led by Ono no Imoko in 607, who brought along a note reading: "From the sovereign of the land of the rising sun to the sovereign of the land of the setting sun."He is said to have been buried at Shinaga in Kawachi Province. His face has appeared on 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 yen bills. Two tickets made with different types of materials and special inks with a face value of 100,000,000 were issued; the characteristic of these bills is. As characteristics, it has a seal and figures in different positions starting from the middle outwards.
The measurements of these 2 issues of bills are 35.3 cm x 16 cm and the other with a small variation of 34.3 by 16.5 cm. These cloth tickets were used for the exchange of important values at that time. A number of institutes are named after him, such as Shotoku Gakuen University and its associated junior college; the first syllable of his name, can be read shō in Go-on and can be read sei in Kan-on. The reading is found in Seitoku University and its associated junior college as well as Tokyo's defunct Seitoku Junior College of Nutrition, he features as a playable character, represented by a horse archer, in Age of Empires: Definitive Edition. Shōtoku is known by several titles, although his real name is Prince Umayado since he was born in front of a stable, he is known as Toyotomimi or Kamitsumiyaō. In the Kojiki, his name appears as Kamitsumiya no Umayado no Toyotomimi no Mikoto. In the Nihon Shoki, in addition to Umayado no ōji, he is referred to as Toyomimit
Isaac Titsingh FRS was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. During a long career in East Asia, Titsingh was a senior official of the Dutch East India Company, he represented the European trading company in exclusive official contact with Tokugawa Japan, traveling to Edo twice for audiences with the shōgun and other high bakufu officials. He was the Dutch and VOC governor general in Bengal. Titsingh worked with his counterpart, Charles Cornwallis, governor general of the British East India Company. In 1795, Titsingh represented Dutch and VOC interests in China, where his reception at the court of the Qing Qianlong Emperor stood in stark contrast to the rebuff suffered by Britain's ambassador George Macartney in 1793, just prior to celebrations of Qianlong’s sixty-year reign. In China, Titsingh functioned as ambassador for his country at the same time as he represented the Dutch East India Company as a trade representative. Isaac Titsingh was born in Amsterdam, the son of Albertus Titsingh and his second wife, Catharina Bittner.
His baptism took place at the Amstelkerk in Amsterdam on 21 January 1745. His father was a prominent Amsterdam surgeon, he thus possessed the means for Titsingh to be brought up with an ‘enlightened education’ of the 18th century. Titsingh became a member of the Amsterdam Chirurgijngilde and received the degree of a Doctorate of Law from Leiden University in January 1765. In March 1764, Titsingh was appointed as 1766 went within his employment to Batavia. Titsingh was the commercial Opperhoofd or chief factor in Japan between 1779–1780, 1781–1783, in 1784; the singular importance of the head of the VOC in Japan during this period was enhanced by the Japanese policy of sakoku—imposed isolation. Because of religious proselytizing by Europeans during the 16th century, the Tokugawa shogunate introduced a policy in the early 17th century that no European or Japanese could enter or leave the Japanese archipelago on penalty of death; the sole exception to this "closed door" was the VOC "factory" on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay, on the southern Japanese island of Kyūshū.
During this period of seclusion, Titsingh is believed to have been the first Freemason in Japan. In this controlled context, the traders became the sole official conduit for trade and for scientific-cultural exchanges between Europe and Japan; the VOC Opperhoofd was accorded the status of a tributary of the shōgun. Given the scarcity of such opportunities, Titsingh's informal contacts with bakufu officials and Rangaku scholars in Edo may have been as important as his formal audiences with the shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu. During the 18th century there was an improvement of the social position of the Dutch merchants and the treatment of the Dutch vis-à-vis the Japanese, who showed a higher degree of respect and recognition than in the centuries before; the average Opperhoofd was not interested in the customs or culture of the Japanese. Titsingh showed an incredible interest and distinguished himself as an attentive observer of Japanese civilization for a European of his time when compared to his colleagues in Dejima.
Titsingh arrived in Nagasaki on 15 August 1779, where he took over the factory from Arend Willem Feith. He established amicable relations between the interpreters and Japanese. During his first audience with Ieharu in Edo from 25 March 1780 until 5 April 1780, he met a lot of Japanese nobles with whom he established vivid letter correspondence, he became prominent within the elite society of Edo and became friends with several daimyōs and retired daimyōs of the area. After a short return to Batavia in 1780, Titsingh returned to Nagasaki on 12 August 1781, due to his successes with the Dutch-Japanese trade in Dejima. There were no Dutch shipments from Batavia in 1782 due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War and thus the trading post in Dejima was cut off from communication with Java during this year. In this year Titsingh stayed in his position as Opperhoofd and concerned himself with befriending Japanese scholars, deepening relations with Japanese friends and researching on all scopes of Japanese customs and culture.
He achieved, due to the absence of Dutch shipping that year, important trade talks and great concessions with the Japanese on a long-debated increase to copper exports from Japan to the Dutch traders. Titsingh stayed a total of three years and eight months in Japan before leaving Nagasaki at the end of November 1784 to return to Batavia, where he arrived on 3 January 1785. In 1785, Titsingh was appointed director of the trading post at Chinsurah in Bengal. Titsingh was described by William Jones, the philologist and Bengal jurist, as "the Mandarin of Chinsura". Titsingh’s return to Batavia led to new positions as Ontvanger-Generaal and as Commissaris ter Zee. While at Batavia, he met with Lord Macartney, en route to China. Titsingh's comments were important factors in McCartney's decision to abandon a planned expedition to Japan in 1793. Mccartney's report to London explained: "... the expediency of attempting an intercourse with the Japanese subsists in its full force. Tho from the conversations I had at Batavia with a Dutch Gentleman of a liberal disposition, several years resident in Japan, Isaac Titsingh, I collected nothing that could induce m
Mononobe no Moriya
Mononobe no Moriya was an Ō-muraji, a high-ranking clan head position of the ancient Japanese Yamato state, having inherited the position from his father Mononobe no Okoshi. Like his father, he was a devoted opponent of Buddhism, introduced to Japan from the mainland. Alongside Nakatomi no Katsumi, Moriya worked to counteract the efforts of Soga no Umako, another high-ranking noble who supported the adoption of Buddhism. Though Mononobe and Nakatomi saw brief success under the reign of Emperor Bidatsu, his successor, Emperor Yōmei, became Buddhist and so Mononobe's fortunes turned. Following the death of Emperor Yōmei in 587, Mononobe's party and Soga's each sought to influence the succession; the dispute erupted into outright battle, in which Mononobe no Moriya is credited with setting fire to the first Buddhist temples in Japan, tossing the first images of the Buddha, imported from Baekje, into the canals of the city of Naniwa. The conflict culminated in the Battle of Shigisan. There, the Soga were victorious, Mononobe no Moriya was killed, along with Nakatomi no Katsumi and the young prince they sought to place on the throne.
Papinot, Edmond. "Moriya." Historical and geographical dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. Vol 1 p402
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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A Saiō known as Itsuki no Miko, was an unmarried female member of the Japanese Imperial Family, sent to Ise to serve at Ise Grand Shrine from the late 7th century until the 14th century. The Saiō's residence, Saikū, was about 10 km north-west of the shrine; the remains of Saikū are situated in the town of Mie Prefecture, Japan. According to Japanese legend, around 2,000 years ago the divine Yamatohime-no-mikoto, daughter of the Emperor Suinin, set out from Mt. Miwa in Nara Prefecture in search of a permanent location to worship the goddess Amaterasu-omikami, her search lasted for 20 years and brought her to Ise, Mie Prefecture, where the Ise Shrine now stands. Prior to Yamatohime-no-mikoto's journey, Amaterasu-omikami had been worshiped at the Imperial Palaces in Yamato. According to the Man'yōshū, the first Saiō to serve at Ise was Princess Ōku, daughter of Emperor Tenmu, during the Asuka period of Japanese history. Mention of the Saiō is made in the Aoi and Yugao chapters of The Tale of Genji, as well as in the 69th chapter of The Tales of Ise.
In the 13th century, Jien recorded in the Gukanshō that during the reign of Emperor Suinin, the first High Priestess was appointed for Ise Shrine. Hayashi Gahō's 17th century Nihon Ōdai Ichiran is somewhat more expansive, explaining that since Suinin's time, a daughter of the emperor was always appointed as high priestess, but across the centuries, there have been times when the emperor himself had no daughter; the role of the Saiō was to serve as High Priestess at Ise Shrine on behalf of the Emperor, to represent the role first set out by Yamatohime-no-mikoto. Three rituals a year were conducted at the Shrine in which the Saiō prayed for protection. In June and November each year, she journeyed to the Shrine to perform the Tsukinamisai Festival. In September in ancient Calendar, she performed the Kannamesai Festival 神嘗祭 to make offerings to the kami of the year's new grain harvest. For the rest of the year, the Saiō lived in Saikū, a small town of up to 500 people 10 kilometers north-west of Ise, in modern Meiwa, Mie Prefecture.
Life at Saikū was, for the most part, peaceful. The Saiō would spend her time composing waka verses, collect shells on the shore of Ōyodo beach, or set out in boats and recite poetry upon the water and wait to be recalled to Kyoto; when a former Emperor died or abdicated the throne, when the old Saiō's relative died, or when certain political power required, she would be recalled to the capital and a new Saiō selected from one of the new Emperor's unmarried female relatives using divination by either burnt tortoise shell or deer bones. The new Saiō would undergo a period of purification before setting out with her retinue of up to 500 people for Saikū, never to return to the capital until recalled by the next Emperor. Upon the selection of the new Saiō, the current Saiō and her retinue would return to the capital to resume their lives as part of the Imperial Court. A Saiō was quite young when she left the capital for Saikū, would only be in her mid-teens or early twenties when she returned to the capital.
It was considered a great honor to marry a former Saiō and her time at Saikū improved her own position at court and those of the people who served with her. The below is the explanation of the procession routes of the Saiō after the capital was moved to Heian-kyō in 794; the procession began in. In the Heian period, successive imperial princesses stayed in the Nonomiya Shrine for a year or more to purify themselves before becoming representatives of the imperial family at the Ise Shrine. Contemporary annual processions recreate a scene from a picture scroll of the imperial court during the Heian period, starting from the shrine and continuing as far as the Togetsu-kyo Bridge, Arashiyama; the procession of the Saiō from Kyoto to Saikū, the Saiō's official residence in Ise, was the largest procession of its kind in Japan for its time. Up to 500 people would set out from Kyoto as a part of the Saiō's retinue for the six-day-and-five-night journey. From Kyoto, they travelled in an eastward direction, passing through the Suzuka Pass, without doubt the most difficult part of the journey.
Once clearing the pass, the retinue would descend into the Ise region and turn south reaching the Kushida River. Here, the Saiō would stop to perform a final cleansing ritual before crossing the river and travelling the short distance to Saikū; the Saiō was expected to remain at Saikū until the emperor whom she represented either died or abdicated the throne. The Saiō was permitted to return to Kyoto only on the provision of a close relative's death; when returning to Kyoto, a different route was taken through the mountains to Nara to Osaka Bay where a ceremony was to be performed before she could return to the capital. The Man ` yōshū, tells the story of the first Saiō to serve at Ise Shrine; the daughter of Emperor Tenmu, Japan's 40th emperor, Princess Ōku and her younger brother, Prince Ōtsu, survived the Jinshin incident. After taking up her role as Saiō, her brother was put to death for treason in 686 and Princess Ōku was relieved of her duties and returned to Yamato. Here she enshrined her brother's remains on Mt. Futakami before an end was put to her life at the age of 41.
The Tale of Genji tells the story of Rokujo-no-miyasudokoro, believed to be based on Princess Yoshiko, who served as Saiō from 936 to 945. In The Tale of Genji, Ro
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory of something a deceased person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains and parks; the most common type of memorial is the memorial plaque. Common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars. Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses. Online memorials are created on websites and social media to allow digital access as an alternative to physical memorials which may not be feasible or accessible; when somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift be given to a designated charity, or that a tree be planted in memory of the person. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are called grassroots memorials. Sometimes, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship, to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years. Bell Memorial Culture of Remembrance Ghost bike Historical marker List of memorials Memorial bench Monument National memorial National monument Public history Roadside memorial Viewlogy War memorial Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum; the word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Mausolea were, still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were ranged in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for miles outside Rome. However, when Christianity became dominant, mausoleums were out of use. Mausolea became popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods.
A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure; this contains the body or bodies within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may act as columbaria with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located on private land. In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church; the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called catacombs. Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria; the Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in South Sudan. Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt. Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Angola. Mausolée du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Benin. Omar Bongo's Mausoleum in Gabon.
Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Gabon. Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum Mausoleum of Late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park in Lusaka, Zambia. Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum. Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; the pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are types of mausolea. Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Egypt. Unknown Soldier Memorial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson. Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum to be built.
Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret. Palm Grove Cemetery, Liberia. National Hall, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Liberia. Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried. Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Swaziland. Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Tanzania. Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya. Nnamdi Azikiwe's Burial Site In Onitsha, Nigeria. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Taj Mahal at Agra, India Qutb Shahi Tombs at Hyderabad, India Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, India Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, India Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor biggest underground mausoleum The pyramids of ancient China are types of mausolea.
Qianling Mausoleum in China, houses the remains of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and the ruling Empress Wu Zetian, along with 17 others in auxiliary tombs. Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia. Thirteen Imperial Mausoleums of Ming Dynasty Emperors, Beijing Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing Fuling Tomb, Shenyang Zhao Mausoleum Eastern Qing Tombs Western Qing Tombs Tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, near Lahore, Pakistan. Mazar-e-Quaid at Karachi, Pakistan Data Durbar at Lahore, Pakistan Mausoleum of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il-sung Mausoleum, Democratic People's Republic of Korea Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing. National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei. National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei. Mausoleum of Late President Lord Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan. Mausoleum of Late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan.
Astana Giribangun Suharto family complex in traditional Javanese architectural style in Matesih, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Imogiri co