Emperor Wu of Liu Song
Emperor Wu of Song, personal name Liu Yu, courtesy name Dexing, nickname Jinu, was an excellent statesman and strategist of ancient China, the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song. He came from a humble background, but became prominent after leading a rebellion in 404 to overthrow Huan Xuan, who had usurped the Jin throne in 403. After that point, using a mixture of political and military skills, Liu Yu concentrated power in his own hands while expanding Jin's territory. In 420, he forced Emperor Gong of Jin to yield the throne to him, thus ending Jin and establishing Song, he ruled only for two years, before dying and passing the throne to his son, Emperor Shao of Liu Song. Liu Yu was born in 363, to his father Liu Qiao and mother Zhao Anzong, while they were living at Jingkou, his great grandfather Liu Hun was from Pengcheng, before moving to Jingkou. Liu Qiao was said to be a 20th generation descendant of Han Dynasty's Prince of Chu, Liu Jiao, a younger brother of Han's founder Emperor Gaozu of Han.
Liu Qiao was a police officer. They had married in 360, lived in fair poverty. Lady Zhao died after giving birth to Liu Yu, Liu Qiao, unable to take care of the child financially or otherwise, considered abandoning the child. Upon hearing this, Liu Yu's aunt, who had given birth to his cousin Liu Huaijing less than a year ago, went to Liu Qiao's house and took Liu Yu, weaning Liu Huaijing and giving her milk to Liu Yu instead. At some point, Liu Qiao remarried, his new wife Xiao Wenshou bore him two sons, Liu Daolian and Liu Daogui. Liu Yu was treated her as his own mother, it is not known when Liu Qiao died, but in any case, Liu Yu grew up with great ambitions and was said to be strong and brave, but he was poor and uneducated, knowing only a few characters. He maintained himself by selling straw sandals, he liked gambling; the people in his village all looked down on him. At some point, he became an officer under the general Sun Wuzhong; when the magician Sun En rebelled against Jin rule in 399, Liu Yu joined the army of the general Liu Laozhi, he became friends with Liu Laozhi's son Liu Jingxuan.
On one occasion, he led some tens of soldiers on a scouting mission, when they encountered several thousand of Sun's soldiers. All of Liu Yu's soldiers were killed, Liu Yu fell onto a riverbank, but he stood his position there and killed all of Sun's soldiers who dared to approach. Liu Jingxuan, realizing that Liu Yu had been away from camp for too long, went to try to find him, saw him alone trying to hold off Sun's soldiers, he praised Liu Yu. Both because of his bravery and his friendship with Liu Jingxuan, Liu Yu rose through the ranks of Liu Laozhi's army. Liu Laozhi, at the time, was a powerful warlord who controlled modern Jiangsu and Zhejiang except for the region around the capital Jiankang. In 401, with Sun En, who had fled to Zhoushan Island in late 399, trying to launch a comeback and attacking Haiyan, Liu Yu fought him, winning several victories over him despite being outnumbered; however Sun En was able to regroup and head toward Jiankang, which he could not capture and was forced to withdraw from.
He regrouped on a sea island. By imperial edict, Liu Yu was made the governor of Xiapei Commandery, he was ordered to attack Sun En on his island, winning victories over him. Sun En began to grow weaker and headed south on the coast, with Liu Yu following. In winter 401, Liu Yu defeated Sun En again at Haiyan. In 402, as the regent Sima Yuanxian and the warlord Huan Xuan prepared to battle, Sima Yuanxian believed that he had Liu Laozhi's support, Liu Laozhi postured in support of Sima Yuanxian by bringing his forces to Jiankang. However, when Liu Yu requested to engage Huan Xuan, Liu Laozhi refused to give permission. Huan Xuan sent messengers to try to persuade Liu Laozhi to switch sides, despite the oppositions of his nephew He Wuji and Liu Jingxuan, as well as Liu Yu. Without support from Liu Laozhi, Sima Yuanxian's forces collapsed in face of Huan Xuan's attack, Sima Yuanxian and his father Sima Daozi were killed by Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan, who did not trust Liu Laozhi stripped Liu Laozhi of his military command, Liu Laozhi, upon receiving the order, considered resisting it.
He requested Liu Yu's opinion, Liu Yu found the idea foolish, left Liu Laozhi's army, returned to Jingkou as a civilian. With the rest of the army not willing to go with his plan either, Liu Laozhi committed suicide, Liu Jingxuan fled to Later Qin and to Southern Yan. By summer 402, Liu Yu was again in the army, by 403 he carried a general rank, when Sun En's nephew Lu Xun, who succeeded him after his death in battle in 401, attacked Dongyang, Liu Yu repelled Lu's attack, he counterattacked and won several battles over Lu, forcing Lu to head south on the sea. At this time, He Wuji tried to persuade him to declare a rebellion at Shanyin against Huan Xuan, but at the advice of Kong Jing, he declined at this time, waiting for Huan Xuan to seize the throne so that he would have a reason to; when Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Qian asked Liu Yu's opinion on whether Huan Xuan should receive the throne, Liu Yu pretended to be a Huan clan loyalist and encouraged Huan Xuan to
Emperor Wu of Jin
Emperor Wu of Jin, personal name Sima Yan, courtesy name Anshi, was the grandson of Sima Yi and son of Sima Zhao. He became the first emperor of the Jin dynasty after forcing Cao Huan, last ruler of the state of Cao Wei, to abdicate to him, he reigned from 266 to 290, after conquering the state of Eastern Wu in 280, was the emperor of a unified China. Emperor Wu was known for his extravagance and sensuality after the unification of China. Emperor Wu was viewed as a generous and kind, but wasteful, ruler, his generosity and kindness undermined his rule, as he became overly tolerant of the noble families' corruption and wastefulness, which drained the people's resources. Further, when Emperor Wu established the Jin Dynasty, he was concerned about his regime's stability, believing that the predecessor state, Cao Wei, had been doomed by its failures to empower the princes of the imperial clan, he empowered his uncles, his cousins, his sons with authority, including independent military authority.
This led to the destabilization of the Jin Dynasty, as the princes engaged in an internecine struggle known as the War of the Eight Princes soon after his death, the Wu Hu uprisings that nearly destroyed the Jin Dynasty and forced its relocation to the region south of the Huai River. Sima Yan was born to Sima Zhao and his wife Wang Yuanji, daughter of the Confucian scholar Wang Su, in 236, as their oldest son. At that time, Sima Zhao was a mid-level official in the government of Cao Wei and a member of a privileged clan, as the son of the general Sima Yi. After Sima Yi seized power from the regent Cao Shuang in 249 in the Incident at Gaoping Tombs, Sima Zhao became more influential in the state. After his father's death in 251, Sima Zhao became the assistant to his brother, the new regent Sima Shi. After Sima Shi died in 255, Sima Zhao became regent and the paramount authority in the Wei government. Sima Yan's first important appearance in history was in 260, when forces loyal to his father, led by Jia Chong, defeated an attempt by the Wei emperor Cao Mao to take back power and killed Cao Mao.
At that time, as a mid-level army general, he was commissioned by his father to escort the new emperor Cao Huan from his dukedom to the capital Luoyang. After his father was created the Duke of Jin on 9 December 263 in light of the army's conquest of Shu Han, he was named heir. However, at times Sima Zhao hesitated as to whether Sima Yan or his brother Sima You would be the more appropriate heir—as Sima You was considered talented and had been adopted by Sima Shi, who had no biological sons of his own, Sima Zhao, remembering his brother's role in the Simas' takeover of power, thought it might be appropriate to return power to his branch of the clan. However, a number of high level officials favored Sima Yan, Sima Zhao agreed. After he was created the King of Jin on 2 May 264, Sima Yan was created the Crown Prince of Jin. On 6 September 265, Sima Zhao died without having formally taken imperial authority. Sima Yan became the King of Jin by the next day. On 4 February 266, he forced Cao Huan to abdicate.
Four days on 8 February 266, he declared himself emperor of the Jin dynasty. Emperor Wu sought to avoid what he saw as Cao Wei's fatal weakness—lack of power among the imperial princes. In 265 after taking the throne, he made princes of many of his uncles, cousins and sons, each with independent military commands and full authority within their principalities; this system, while it would be scaled back after the War of the Eight Princes and the loss of northern China, would remain in place as a Jin institution for the duration of the dynasty's existence, would be adopted by the succeeding Southern dynasties as well. Another problem that Emperor Wu saw with Cao Wei's political system was its harshness in penal law, he sought to reform the penal system to make it more merciful—but the key beneficiaries of his changes turned out to be the nobles, as it became clear that the mercy was being dealt out in an unequal manner. Nobles who committed crimes received simple rebukes, while there were no meaningful reductions in penalties for commoners.
This led to massive corruption and extravagant living by the nobles, while the poor went without government assistance. For example, in 267, when several high level officials were found to have worked in conjunction with a county magistrate to seize public land for themselves, Emperor Wu refused to punish the high level officials while punishing the county magistrate harshly. Emperor Wu faced two major military issues immediately—incessant harassment from the rival Eastern Wu's forces, under emperor Sun Hao, Xianbei and Qiang rebellions in Qin and Liang provinces. Most officials were more concerned about the Xianbei and Qiang rebellions and with another non-Han people—the Xiongnu, who had settled down in modern Shanxi after the dissolution of their state by Cao Cao in 216 under the watchful eyes of Chinese officials, were feared for their military abilities; these officials advised Emperor Wu to try to suppress the Xianbei and the Qiang before considering conquests of Eastern Wu. Under the encouragement of the generals Yang Hu and Wang Jun and the strategist Zhang Hua, Emperor Wu, while sending a number of generals to combat the Xianbei and the Qiang, prepared the southern and eastern border regions for war against Eastern Wu throughout this part of his reign.
He was particularly
Jiankang, or Jianye, as it was called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu, the Jin dynasty and the Southern Dynasties. Its walls are extant ruins in the modern municipal region of Nanjing. Before the Eastern Jin the city was known as Jianye, the capital of the kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. Renamed Jiankang in 313 CE, it served as the capital of the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties, following the retreat from the north due to Xiongnu raids, it rivaled Luoyang in terms of population and commerce and at its height in the sixth century was home to around 1 million people. During the rebellion of Hou Jing, Jiankang was captured in 549 CE after a year-long siege that devastated the city, with most of the population killed or starved to death. During the Sui dynasty national reunification it was completely destroyed, was renamed Jiangzhou and Danyang Commandery. Under the Tang dynasty, the city regained the name became Jinling. By the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period it was called Jiangning.
When Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor in 1368, he made Jiankang the capital of China, renaming it Nanjing "the Southern Capital". The Tang historian Xu Song, in his work Jiankang Shilu, coined the term "Six Dynasties" as a mnemonic to mark the various regimes which had centred their power on the site: Eastern Wu Jin Liu Song dynasty Southern Qi Liang Chen In the 6th century, Jiankang became the largest city in the world, with a population of more than 1 million people; this was compared to contemporaneous Rome, Constantinople and the devastated Chang'an
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Jin dynasty (265–420)
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (. It was founded by Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao, who himself was made the King of Jin and posthumously declared one of the founders of the dynasty, along with his older brother, Sima Shi, father, Sima Yi, it followed the Three Kingdoms period, which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu by Jin, culminating in the reunification of China. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty; the Western Jin was established as a successor state to Cao Wei after Sima Yan usurped the throne, had its capital at Luoyang and Chang'an. The rebels and invaders began to establish new self-proclaimed states along the Yellow River valley in 304, inaugurating the "Sixteen Kingdoms" era; these states began fighting each other and the Jin Empire, leading to the second division of the dynasty, the Eastern Jin, when Sima Rui moved the capital to Jiankang. The Eastern Jin dynasty was overthrown by Liu Yu and replaced with the Liu Song in 420. Under the Wei, who dominated the northern parts of China during the Three Kingdoms period, the Sima clan—with its most accomplished individual being Sima Yi—rose to prominence after the 249 coup d'état.
After Sima Yi's death, his eldest son, Sima Shi, kept a tight grip on the political scene, after his own death, his younger brother, Sima Zhao, assisted his clans' interests by further suppressing rebellions and dissent, as well as recovering all of Shu and capturing Liu Shan in 263. His ambitions for the throne remain proverbial in Chinese, but he died in 265 before he could rise higher than a King of Jin, a title named for the Zhou-era marchland and duchy around Shaanxi's Jin River; the Jin dynasty was founded in AD 266 by Sima Yan, posthumously known as Emperor Wu. He forced Cao Huan's abdication but permitted him to live in honor as the Prince of Chenliu and buried him with imperial ceremony; the Jin dynasty united the country. The period of unity was short-lived as the state was soon weakened by corruption, political turmoil, internal conflicts. Sima Yan's son Zhong, posthumously known as Emperor Hui, was developmentally disabled. Conflict over his succession in 290 expanded into the devastating War of the Eight Princes.
The weakened dynasty was engulfed by the Uprising of the Five Barbarians and lost control of northern China. Large numbers of Chinese fled south from the Central Plains; the Jin capital Luoyang was captured by Xiongnu King Liu Cong in 311. Sima Chi, posthumously known as Emperor Huai, was captured and executed, his successor Sima Ye, posthumously known as Emperor Min, was captured at Chang'an in 316 and later executed. The remnants of the Jin court fled to the south-east, reestablishing their government at Jiankang within present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu. Sima Rui, the prince of Langya, was enthroned in 318; the rival northern states, who denied the legitimacy of his succession, sometimes referred to his state as "Langya". At first, the southerners were resistant to the new ruler from the north; the circumstances obliged the Emperors of Eastern Jin to depend on both local and refugee gentry clans, the latter convinced the former of the emperor enjoying high prestige by showing superficial respect to Rui, the pinnacle of menfa politics, Several immigrated gentry clans were active and they grasped the national affairs: Wang clans from Langya and Taiyuan, Xie clan from Chenliu, Huan clan from Qiao Commandery, Yu clan from Yingchuan.
The Emperors of Eastern Jin had limited power. There was a prevalent remark that "王與（司）馬，共天下" among the people, it is said that when Emperor Yuan was holding court, he invited Dao to sit by himself accepting jointly the congratulations from ministers, but Dao declined it. The local gentry clans were at odds with the immigrants; as such, tensions increased. Two of the biggest local clans: Zhou clan from Yixing and Shen clan from Wuxing's ruin was a bitter blow from which they never quite recovered. Moreover, there was a conflict among the immigrated clans' interests. Although there was a stated goal of recovering the "lost northern lands", paranoia within the royal family and a constant string of disruptions to the throne caused the loss of support among many officials. Military crises—including the rebellions of the generals Wang Dun and Su Jun, but lesser fangzhen revolts—plagued the Eastern Jin throughout its 104 years of existence. Special "commanderies of immigrants" and "white registers" were created for the massive amounts of Han Chinese from the north who moved to the south during the Eastern Jin dynasty.
The southern Chinese aristocrac
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.