Kōkyū is the section of the Japanese Imperial Palace called the "Dairi" where Imperial Family and court ladies lived. Many cultured women gathered as wives of Emperors, court ladies, as well as the maids for these women. Significant contributions to the literature of Japan were created in the Kōkyū during this period: works such as The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu, The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, many anthologies of waka poems; the term "Dairi" refers not only to the buildings. The names of the several gates in the walls surrounding the Imperial grounds refer not only to the specific wall-openings themselves. In this same way, the term kōkyū has multiple meanings, referring to the group of buildings situated near the sovereign's personal apartments where the consorts resided, describing the staff of female palace officials assigned to the service of those consorts. More broadly, the term kōkyū could be used in identifying the array of consorts below the empress; the structure of the royal household and ranks for court ladies were defined in Taihō Code and Yōrō Code.
In these Codes, there were to have been twelve sections, the various ranks for ladies' of the Imperial household within the Kōkyū were defined. Fine distinctions were collapsed or expanded in a gradual re-organization which became formalized during the Heian period. For example, in 806, Emperor Heizei elevated the former Fujiwara no Tarashiko known as Taishi, by giving her the Imperial title of Kōgō or empress; this occurred 12 years after her death, it became the first time this posthumously elevated rank was bestowed. Many of the court ranks which were not defined in either the Taihō or Yōrō Codes have been in continuous use in the centuries following the early Heian period. Emperor's Wives Kōgō: Empress Consort. Chūgū: Originally, the word meant the Palace where Empress Consort lived. Since Emperor Ichijō had two Empress Consorts, one of Empress Consort was called this word. Hi: Collapsed since Heian period. Princesses could be appointed. Bunin: Collapsed since Heian period. Hin: Collapsed since Heian period.
Nyōgo: Not defined in Codes. Daughters of Ministers could be appointed. Koui: Not defined in Codes. Other Imperial women's titles Kōtaigō: Empress Mother, Empress Dowager, or the former Empress Consort. Tai-Kōtaigō: the former Kōtaigō. Ju-Sangū/Ju-Sangō: Kōgō, Kōtaigō and Tai-Kōtaigō are called Sangū/Sangō. Ju-Sangū/Ju-Sangō means quasi-Sangū/Sangō. Ju-Sangū/Ju-Sangō got the subequal treatment with Sangū/Sangō. Not only consorts and princesses, but Ministers or high-ranking monks became Ju-Sangū/Ju-Sangō. Nyoin/Nyōin: Wives of the former Emperors or princesses who could receive the same treatment with Daijō Tennō. Kōkyū Jūni-Shi Naishi-no-Tsukasa got involved Imperial ceremonies and communication between Emperor and court officials, they keep Ummei-den called Naishi-dokoro where the sacred mirror was enshrined. Naishi-no-Kami: Head of Naishi-no-Tsukasa. Daughters of Ministers could be appointed; some of them were wives of Crown Prince. Naishi-no-Suke: Usually daughters of Dainagon and Chūnagon could be appointed.
Some of them were the concubines of Emperor. The nurses of Emperors were appointed. Naishi-no-Jō/Naishi; the following 11 sections were collapsed in the early Heian period. Kura-no-Tsukasa treated Imperial treasures. Fumi-no-Tsukasa treated books. Kusuri-no-Tsukasa treated medicine. Tsuwamono-no-Tsukasa treated arms. Mikado-no-Tsukasa got involved closing the gates. Tonomori-no-Tsukasa treated fuel. Kanimori-no-Tsukasa got involved cleaning. Moitori-no-Tsukasa treated rice gruel. Kashiwade-no-Tsukasa treated meals. Sake-no-Tsukasa treated liquor. Nui-no-Tsukasa treated clothes. Other Titles Mikushige-dono-no-Bettō: Head of Mikushige-dono where clothes of Emperor were treated; some of them were the concubines of Emperor. Nyo-kurōdo got involved Imperial ceremonies. Uneme: Lower-grade court lady from countries; the Asuka-, Nara- and Heian-period Imperial court hierarchy encompassed a Ministry of the Imperial Household. The origin of the current Imperial Household Agency can be traced back to the provisions on the government structure which were put into effect during the reign of Emperor Monmu.
There were specific Daijō-kan officials within this ministry structure whose attention was focused on the women of the Imperial household. These were: Female physician. No male physician would be permitted to care for the health of the emperor's women. Senior equerry or chamberlain for the women of the Emperor's household. First assistant equerry for the women of the Emperor's household (采女佑, Uneme no
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father Emperor Shōwa on 7 January 1989. According to Japan's traditional order of succession, he is the 125th member of the world's oldest reigning dynasty; the Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019 due to his age and declining health. In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor" which may be shortened to His Majesty. In writing, the Emperor is referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor"; the Era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei", according to custom he will be renamed Emperor Heisei by order of the Cabinet after his death. At the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established. If the Emperor abdicates as planned, he will receive the title of Jōkō, an abbreviation of Daijō Tennō, the new era, "Reiwa", will be established. Accordingly, the Imperial Household Agency designated the official translation of Jōkō as "Emperor Emeritus".
Akihito was born in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Japan, is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun. Titled Prince Tsugu as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School from 1940 to 1952. Unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito. During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, Prince Masahito, were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, Prince Akihito was tutored in the English language and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining, he studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, though he never received a degree. Akihito was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth, his formal Investiture as Crown Prince was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952.
In June 1953 Akihito represented Japan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London. Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries; as an Imperial Prince, Akihito compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot. He expressed the desire to help bring the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan. Upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, Akihito acceded to the throne, with the enthronement ceremony taking place on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom, he was invested with the UK Order of the Garter. On 23 December 2001, during his annual birthday meeting with reporters, the Emperor, in response to a reporter's question about tensions with Korea, remarked that he felt a kinship with Koreans and went on to explain that, in the Shoku Nihongi, the mother of Emperor Kammu is related to Muryeong of Korea, King of Baekje, a fact, considered taboo. Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for prostate cancer on 14 January 2003.
In response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the Fukushima I nuclear crisis, the Emperor made a historic televised appearance urging his people not to give up hope and to help each other. The Emperor and Empress made a visit on Wednesday, 30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster, in order to inspire hope in the people; this kind of event is extremely rare, though in line with the Emperor's attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people. In 2011 he was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia. In February 2012, it was announced. In August 1957, he met Michiko Shōda on a tennis court at Karuizawa near Nagano; the Imperial Household Council formally approved the engagement of the Crown Prince to Michiko Shōda on 27 November 1958. At that time, the media presented their encounter as a real "fairy tale", or the "romance of the tennis court", it was the first time a commoner had married into the Imperial Family, breaking more than 2,600 years of tradition.
The engagement ceremony took place on 14 January 1959, the marriage on 10 April 1959. The Emperor and Empress had three children: sons Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan and Fumihito, Prince Akishino and daughter Mrs. Sayako Kuroda; the announcement about the then-Crown Prince Akihito's marriage to the then-Ms. Michiko Shōda drew opposition from traditionalist groups, because Shōda came from a Roman Catholic family. Although Shōda was never baptized, she was educated in Catholic schools and seemed to share the faith of her parents. Rumors speculated that Empress Kōjun had opposed the engagement. After the death of Empress Kōjun in 2000, Reuters reported that she was one of the strongest opponents of her son's marriage, that in the 1960s, she had driven her daughter-in-law and grandchildren to depression by persistently accusing her of not being suitable for her son. According to the Constitution of Japan, Akihito is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Unlike other constitutional monarchs, his function is defined as representative and ceremonial in nature, without a nominal role in government.
He is limited to acting in matters of state as del
Isonokami no Maro
Isonokami no Maro was a Japanese statesman of the Asuka period and early Nara period His family name was Mononobe no Muraji Mononobe no Ason and Isonokami no Ason. He attained the court rank of shō ni-i and sadaijin, posthumously ju ichi-i. In 672 Maro supported Prince Ōtomo in the Jinshin War until the prince's suicide, he was forgiven and sent as an envoy to Silla in 676. After this he served as a judge, as head of the dazaifu in 700, he became centrally involved in politics with a promotion to dainagon in 701, making udaijin in 704 and sadaijin in 708. Between 715 and his death in 717 Maro was the most powerful man in the daijō-kan. Maro is thought to be the model of Isonokami no Marotari, one of Princess Kaguya's five noble suitors in The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter. Mononobe no Maro first appears in historical documents at the conclusion of the Jinshin War of 672, on the side of Prince Ōtomo, his activities in the war are not known, but Maro, along with a few other retainers, followed the Prince until his suicide.
In 676, Maro was sent to Silla as an ambassador. Japan and Silla exchanged frequent envoys at this time. Maro returned some four months later. Why Emperor Tenmu granted Maro such a position after his side's defeat is uncertain, it may be. Alternately, the meritorious service of Enoi no Okimi of the Mononobe family, on Tenmu's side may have softened his family's treatment. Four months after Maro's return, Okimi was posthumously named the head of the family. With the 684 reform of the kabane system, the Mononobe clan's kabane was changed from Muraji to Ason; the clan's name appears to have been changed to Isonokami around this time. At the funeral service of Emperor Tenmu, Maro spoke a condolence message as a representative of the ministry of justice. In 689, Maro was dispatched with Ishikawa no Mushina to Tsukushi Province to deliver court rank diplomas, he participated in Empress Jitō's enthronement ceremony in 690, in 700 was put in charge of the Dazaifu. In 701, Maro was promoted from chūnagon to dainagon under the new Taihō Code.
That year, Tajihi no Shima died, Maro went with Prince Osakabe to deliver a gift from the Emperor to his house. When the udaijin Abe no Miushi died in 703, Maro was again the deliverer of condolences. In 704, Maro possessed the rank of ju ni-i, was promoted to udaijin, he was now the second highest-ranking official after the chi-daijō-kanji. Prince Osakabe, the highest-ranking official outside of the imperial family. In 705, Osakabe was replaced as chi-daijō-kanji by Prince Hozumi. In 708, Maro was granted the rank of shō ni-i, along with Fujiwara no Fuhito. Two months Maro was promoted to the long-vacant position of sadaijin, Fuhito filled his vacancy as udaijin. However, Fuhito is supposed to have been the real political power at this time. In 710, the capital was moved to Heijō-kyō, Maro was put in charge of the old capital. Four months his servant Musa no Saga offered to the Emperor an auspicious melon, officials both civil and military reported to the Emperor their congratulations. In 715, Prince Hozumi died.
On March 3, 717, Maro died at the age of 78. Empress Genshō lamented his loss sending Prince Nagaya and Tajihi no Miyakemaro on a condolence call to his home and granting him the posthumous rank of ju ichi-i. Condolences were presented by representatives of the daijō-kan, nobles above the fifth rank, nobles below the sixth rank; the Shoku Nihongi records. Eight months additional presents were made to him, of rough silk, thread and cloth. Father: Mononobe no Umaro Mother: Unknown Wife: Unknown Son: Isonokami no Azumabito Son: Isonokami no Katsuo Son: Isonokami no Otomaro Son: Isonokami no Morō Son: Isonokami no Ōshima Daughter: Main wife of Fujiwara no Umakai Ōtsuka, Taijirō. "左大臣物部麻呂と壬申の乱". Ancient Cultures of East Asia. Ōmi, Shōji. "石上左大臣家をめぐって". Research on Japanese Culture. Kimoto, Yoshinobu. "Isonokami no Maro and Fujiwara no Fuhito". 律令貴族と政争. Hanawa sensho
Emperor Saga was the 52nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Saga's reign spanned the years from 809 through 823. Saga was the second son of Fujiwara no Otomuro, his personal name was Kamino. Saga was an "accomplished calligrapher" able to compose in Chinese who held the first imperial poetry competitions. According to legend, he was the first Japanese emperor to drink tea. Saga is traditionally venerated at his tomb. 806 Saga became the crown prince at age 21. June 17, 809: In the 4th year of Emperor Heizei's reign, he fell ill and abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Saga is said to have acceded to the throne. Soon after his enthronement, Saga himself took ill. At the time the retired Heizei had quarreled with his brother over the ideal location of the court, the latter preferring the Heian capital, while the former was convinced that a shift back to the Nara plain was necessary, Heizei, exploiting Saga's weakened health, seized the opportunity to foment a rebellion, known as the Kusuko Incident.
This same Tamuramaro is remembered in Aomori's annual Nebuta Matsuri which feature a number of gigantic, specially-constructed, illuminated paper floats. These great lantern-structures are colorfully painted with mythical figures; this early ninth century military leader is commemorated in this way because he is said to have ordered huge illuminated lanterns to be placed at the top of hills. August 24, 842: Saga died at the age of 57; the years of Saga's reign are more identified by more than one era name. Daidō Kōnin In ancient Japan, there were the Gempeitōkitsu. One of these clans, the Minamoto clan are known as Genji, of these, the Saga Genji are descended from 52nd emperor Saga. Saga's son, Minamoto no Tōru, is thought to be an inspiration for the protagonist of the novel The Tale of Genji. In the 9th century, Emperor Saga made a decree prohibiting meat consumption except fish and birds and abolished capital punishment in 818; this remained the dietary habit of Japanese until the introduction of European dietary customs in the 19th century.
Emperor Saga played an important role as a stalwart supporter of the Buddhist monk Kūkai. The emperor helped Kūkai to establish the Shingon School of Buddhism by granting him Tō-ji Temple in the capital Heian-kyō. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Saga's reign, this kugyō included: Sadaijin Udaijin, Fujiwara no Uchimaro, 806–812. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Sonohito, 812–818. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu, 821–825. Udaijin, Tachibana no Ujikimi. Naidaijin Dainagon Saga had 49 children by at least 30 different women. Many of the children received the surname Minamoto. Empress: Tachibana no Kachiko known as Empress Danrin, Tachibana no Kiyotomo's daughter. Second Son: Imperial Prince Masara Emperor Ninmyō Imperial Princess Seishi, married to Emperor Junna Imperial Princess Hideko Imperial Prince Hidera Imperial Princess Toshiko Fifth Daughter: Imperial Princess Yoshiko Imperial Princess Shigeko Hi: Imperial Princess Takatsu, Emperor Kanmu’s daughter Second Prince: Imperial Prince Nariyoshi Imperial Princess Nariko Hi: Tajihi no Takako, Tajihi no Ujimori's daughter Bunin: Fujiwara no Onatsu, Fujiwara no Uchimaro's daughter Court lady: Kudara no Kyomyō, Kudara no Kyōshun's daughter Minamoto no Yoshihime Minamoto no Sadamu Minamoto no Wakahime Minamoto no Shizumu Nyōgo: Kudara no Kimyō, Kudara no Shuntetsu's daughter Imperial Prince Motora Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Tadara Imperial Princess Motoko Nyōgo: Ōhara no Kiyoko, Ōhara no Ietsugu's daughter Tenth Daughter: Imperial Princess Ninshi, 15th Saiō in Ise Shrine 809–823Koui: Iidaka no Yakatoji, Iidaka Gakuashi Minamoto no Tokiwa Minamoto no Akira Koui: Akishino no Koko, Akishino no Yasuhito's daughter Minamoto no Kiyoshi Koui: Yamada no Chikako Minamoto no Hiraku Minamoto no Mituhime Nyōgo: Princess Katano, Prince Yamaguchi's daughter Eighth Daughter: Imperial Princess Uchiko, 1st Saiin in Kamo Shrine 810–831Court lady: Takashina no Kawako, Takashina no Kiyoshina's daughter Imperial Princess Sōshi Court lad