Nihon Ōdai Ichiran
Nihon Ōdai Ichiran, The Table of the Rulers of Japan, is a 17th-century chronicle of the serial reigns of Japanese emperors with brief notes about some of the noteworthy events or other happenings. According to the 1871 edition of the American Cyclopaedia, the 1834 French translation of Nihon Ōdai Ichiran was one of few books about Japan available in the Western world; the material selected for inclusion in the narrative reflects the perspective of its original Japanese author and his samurai patron, the tairō Sakai Tadakatsu, daimyō of the Obama Domain of Wakasa Province. It was the first book of its type to be brought from Japan to Europe, was translated into French as "Nipon o daï itsi ran". Dutch Orientalist and scholar Isaac Titsingh brought the seven volumes of Nihon Ōdai Ichiran with him when he returned to Europe in 1797 after twenty years in the Far East. All these books were lost in the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars, but Titsingh's French translation was posthumously published; the manuscript languished after Titsingh's death in 1812.
The Paris-based philologist and orientalist Julius Klaproth was engaged to shepherd the text into its final printed form in 1834, including a Supplément aux Annales des Daïri, which mirrors the pattern of Titsingh's initial Annales des empereurs du Japon. This became the first Japanese-authored historical account of its sort to be published and circulated for scholarly study in the West, it is fitting that this rare book was selected as one of the first to be scanned and uploaded for online study as part of an ongoing international digitization project which has now been renamed the Google Books Library Project: Titsingh, Isaac, ed.. Nipon o daï itsi ran. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.--Two copies of this rare book have now been made available online: from the library of the University of Michigan, digitized January 30, 2007. Click here to read the original text in French. Work on this volume was complete in 1783 when Titsingh sent a manuscript copy to Kutsuki Masatsuna, daimyo of Tamba.
Masatsuna's comments on this text were lost in a shipwreck as the edited manuscript was being forwarded from Japan to India in 1785 where Titsingh had become head of the Dutch East Indies Company trade operations at Hoogly in West Bengal. The final version of Titsingh's dedication of the book to his friend Masatsuna was drafted in 1807, a little more than a quarter-century before the book was published; the original multi-volume text was compiled in the early 1650s by Hayashi Gahō. His father, Hayashi Razan, had developed a compelling, practical blending of Shinto and Confucian beliefs and practices. Razan's ideas lent themselves to a well-accepted program of samurai and bureaucrat educational and testing protocols. In 1607, Razan was accepted as a political advisor to Tokugawa Hidetada. Sometime thereafter, he became the rector of Edo's Confucian Academy, the Shōhei-kō; this institution stood at the apex of the country-wide educational and training system, created and maintained by the Tokugawa shogunate.
In the elevated context his father engendered, Gahō himself was accepted as a noteworthy scholar in that period. The Hayashi and the Shōheikō links to the work's circulation are part of the explanation for this work's 18th and 19th century popularity. Gahō was the author of other works designed to help readers learn from Japan's history, including the 310 volumes of The Comprehensive History of Japan, published in 1670; the narrative of Nihon Ōdai Ichiran stops around 1600, most in deference to the sensibilities of the Tokugawa regime. Gahō's text did not continue up through his present day. In Keian 5, 5th month, Nihon Ōdai Ichiran was first published in Kyoto under the patronage of one of the three most powerful men in the Tokugawa bakufu, the tairō Sakai Tadakatsu. In supporting this work, Sakai Todakatsu's motivations appear to spread across a range anticipated consequences. Gahō's book was published in the mid-17th century and it was reissued in 1803, "perhaps because it was a necessary reference work for officials."
Contemporary readers must have found some degree of usefulness in this chronicle. Post-Meiji scholars who have cited Nihon Ōdai Ichiran as a useful source of information include, for example, Richard Ponsonby-Fane in Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869; the American poet Ezra Pound, writing to a contemporary Japanese poet in 1939, confirmed that his reference library included a copy of Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. At that time, Pound explained that "as far as time to re
Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara no Kamatari was a Japanese statesman and politician during the Asuka period. Kamatari became the founder of the Fujiwara clan. He, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto and fought the introduction of Buddhism to Japan; the Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari and the Mononobe clan and Buddhism became the dominant religion of the imperial court. Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji, launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji, thus establishing the Fujiwara clan. Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan, was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, named Nakatomi no Kamatari at birth, he was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku; as a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and Kamatari made a coup d'état in the court.
They slew Soga no Iruka. Empress Kōgyoku was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother. Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial power, he acted as one of the principal editors responsible for the development of the Japanese legal code known as Sandai-kyaku-shiki, sometimes referred to as the Rules and Regulations of the Three Generations. During his life Kamatari continued to support Prince Naka no Ōe, who became Emperor Tenji in 661. Tenji granted him a new clan name, Fujiwara, as honors. Kamatari's son was Fujiwara no Fuhito. Kamatari's nephew, Nakatomi no Omimaro became head of Ise Shrine, passed down the Nakatomi name. In the 13th century, the main line of the Fujiwara family split into five houses: Konoe, Kujō, Nijō and Ichijō; these five families in turn provided regents for the Emperors, were thus known as the Five Regent Houses. The Tachibana clan claimed descent from the Fujiwara.
Emperor Montoku of the Taira clan was descended through his mother to the Fujiwara. Until the marriage of the Crown Prince Hirohito to Princess Kuni Nagako in January 1924, the principal consorts of emperors and crown princes had always been recruited from one of the Sekke Fujiwara. Imperial princesses were married to Fujiwara lords - throughout a millennium at least; as as Emperor Shōwa's third daughter, the late former Princess Takanomiya, Prince Mikasa's elder daughter, the former Princess Yasuko, married into Takatsukasa and Konoe families, respectively. Empress Shōken was a descendant of the Fujiwara clan and through Hosokawa Gracia of the Minamoto clan. A daughter of the last Tokugawa Shōgun married a second cousin of Emperor Shōwa. Among Kamatari's descendants are Fumimaro Konoe the 34th/38th/39th Prime Minister of Japan and Konoe's grandson Morihiro Hosokawa the 79th Prime Minister of Japan. Father: Nakatomi no Mikeko Mother: Ōtomo no Chisen-no-iratsume, daughter of Otomo no Kuiko. Known as "Ōtomo-bunin".
Main wife: Kagami no Ōkimi Wife: Kurumamochi no Yoshiko-no-iratsume, daughter of Kurumamochi no Kuniko. 1st son: Jōe, buddhist monk who traveled to China. 2nd son: Fujiwara no Fuhito Children with unknown mother: Daughter: Fujiwara no Hikami-no-iratsume, Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, mother of Princess Tajima. Daughter: Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume, Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, wife of Fujiwara no Fuhito and mother of Prince Niitabe and Fujiwara no Maro. Daughter: Fujiwara no Mimimotoji, Bunin of Emperor Kōbun, mother of Princess Ichishi-hime. Daughter: Fujiwara no Tome/Tone-no-iratsume, wife of Nakatomi no Omimaro, mother of Nakatomi no Azumahito. Portrayed by Noh Seung-jin in the 2012-2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Tōshi Kaden, a bibliographic record Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi.. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. OCLC 413099 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory of something a deceased person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains and parks; the most common type of memorial is the memorial plaque. Common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars. Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses. Online memorials are created on websites and social media to allow digital access as an alternative to physical memorials which may not be feasible or accessible; when somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift be given to a designated charity, or that a tree be planted in memory of the person. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are called grassroots memorials. Sometimes, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship, to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years. Bell Memorial Culture of Remembrance Ghost bike Historical marker List of memorials Memorial bench Monument National memorial National monument Public history Roadside memorial Viewlogy War memorial Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby-Fane was a British academic, specialist of Shinto and Japanologist. Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby was born at Gravesend on the south bank of the Thames in Kent, England to John Henry and Florence Ponsonby, his boyhood was spent in the family home in London and at the Somerset country home, Brympton d'Evercy, of his grandfather, Spencer Ponsonby-Fane. Ponsonby was educated at Harrow School, he added "Fane" to his own name when he inherited Brympton d'Evercy in 1916 after the deaths of both his grandfather and father. In 1896, Ponsonby traveled to Cape Town to serve as Private Secretary to the Governor of the British Cape Colony. For the next two decades, his career in the British Empire's colonial governments spanned the globe, he worked with a number of colonial leaders as private secretary to the Governor of Natal, to the Governor of Trinidad and Tobago, to the Governor of Ceylon, to the Governor of Hong Kong. He was re-posted to Natal in 1907. In 1910 he played a single first-class cricket match for the Marylebone Cricket Club.
In 1915-1919, he was re-posted as private secretary to the Governor of Hong Kong. In addition to his government duties in Hong Kong, he began lecturing at the University of Hong Kong in 1916. After 1919, Ponsonby-Fane became a permanent resident of Japan, traveling four months of the year to Hong Kong for lectures at the Crown colony's university. In 1921, when the Japanese Crown Prince visited Hong Kong en route to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane was introduced as his interpreter; when Emperor Shōwa was enthroned in 1928, he was the only non-Japanese guest, invited to witness the ceremonies from in front of the palace's Kenreimon gate. In 1930, when HIH Prince Takamatsu and his wife traveled to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane sailed on the same ship. In 1932, Ponsonby-Fane built a Japanese-style home in one of the northern suburbs of Kyoto. In the last decades of his life, he was always photographed with a long woolen scarf draped around his shoulders; this unique scarf was said to be hand-knit by Dowager Empress Teimei, the widow of Emperor Taishō.
Ponsonby-Fane died at home in Kyoto in December 1937. In an overview of writings by and about Richard Ponsonby-Fane, OCLC/WorldCat lists 74 works in 136 publications in 2 languages and 1,443 library holdings; this list is not finished. The Imperial Family of Japan, 1915 The Capital and Palace of Heian, 1924 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1931 The Nomenclature of the N. Y. K. Fleet, 1931 Kamo Mioya Shrine, 1934 Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, 1956 The Imperial House of Japan, 1959 Sovereign and Subject, 1962 Studies in Shinto and Shrines, 1962 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1963 Visiting Famous Shrines in Japan, 1964 Order of the Rising Sun. Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1921. University of Hong Kong, Honorary Doctor of Laws, 1926. Private Secretary to the Sovereign Britton, Dorothy.. "Richard Ponsonby-Fane, A Modern William Adams," pp. 190-204 in Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-873410-62-2 Fiévé, Nicolas.. Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place and Memory in Kyoto and Tokyo.
ISBN 9780700714094. "A Biographical sketch of Dr. R. Ponsonby-Fane," Studies in Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
Emperor Yōzei was the 57th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Yōzei's reign spanned the years from 876 through 884. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Sadaakira Shinnō. Yōzei was the oldest son of Emperor Seiwa, his mother was the Empress Fujiwara no Takaiko, known after Seiwa's abdication as the Nijō empress. Yōzei's mother was the sister of Fujiwara no Mototsune, who would figure prominently in the young emperor's life. In ancient Japan, there were the Gempeitōkitsu. One of these clans, the Minamoto clan are known as Genji, of these, the Yōzei Genji are descended from the 57th emperor Yōzei. Yōzei had nine Imperial children, born. Yōzei was made emperor when he was an unformed young boy. 869: Yōzei was born, he is named Seiwa's heir in the following year. 18 December 876: In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign, he ceded his throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei formally acceded to the throne.
20 January 877: Yōzei was formally enthroned at age 8. However, the new residence being constructed for the emperor had not been completed. 877: Ambassadors from Baekje arrived in the province of Izumo. 877: There was a great drought. It rained. 883: In his early teens, Yōzei spent time alone. In time, these amusements became more dangerous, he himself executed criminals. When he became angry, he sometimes chased. Fujiwara no Mototsune, the Kanpaku, used every possible opportunity to turn Yōzei towards more seemly conduct, but the emperor closed his ears to all remonstrances. 884: The extravagant and dangerous habits of the emperor continued unabated. At one point, Mototsune came to the court and discovered that Yōzei had arranged a bizarre scenario for his diversion: He ordered some men to climb high into trees, he ordered others to use sharp lances to poke at these men in trees until they fell to their deaths; this extraordinary event convinced Motosune. Mototsune reluctantly realized. Shortly thereafter, Mototsune approached Yōzei and remarked that it must be boring to be so alone, Mototsune suggested that the emperor might be amused by a horse race.
Yōzei was attracted to this proposition, he eagerly encouraged Mototsune to set a time and place for the event. It was decided that this special amusement for the emperor would take place on the 4th day of the 2nd month of Gangyō 8. 4 March 884: The pretext of a special horse race enticed the emperor to leave his palace. Yōzei traveled in a carriage, surrounded by a heavy guard; the carriage was redirected to Yo seí in palace at Ni zio, a town situated a short distance to the south-west of Miyako. Mototsune confronted the emperor, explaining that his demented behavior made him incapable of reigning, that he was being dethroned. At this news, Yōzei cried sincerely, which did attract feelings of compassion from those who witnessed his contrition. According to scanty information from the Imperial archives, including sources such as Rikkokushi, Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku, Emperor Yōzei murdered one of his retainers, an action that caused massive scandal in the Heian court. Japanese society during the Heian era was sensitive to issues of "pollution," both spiritual and personal.
Deaths were the worst acts of pollution possible, warranted days of seclusion in order to purify oneself. Since the Emperor was seen as a divine figure and linked to the deities, pollution of such extreme degree committed by the highest source was seen as ruinous. Many of the high court officials construed Emperor Yōzei's actions as exceeding the bounds of acceptable behavior, as justifiable cause for the emperor to be forcibly deposed. In Kitabatake Chikafusa's 14th-century account of Emperor Yōzei's reign, the emperor is described as possessing a "violent disposition" and unfit to be a ruler. In the end, when Fujiwara no Mototsune, Sesshō, Daijō Daijin, decided that Yōzei should be removed from the throne, he discovered that there was general agreement amongst the kuge that this was a correct and necessary decision. Yōzei was succeeded by his father's uncle, Emperor Kōkō. Yōzei would address courtiers he would meet with the greatest rudeness, he became furious. He garroted women with the strings of musical instruments and threw the bodies into a lake.
While riding on horseback, he directed his moun
Empress Kōgyoku known as Empress Saimei, was the 35th and 37th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōgyoku's reign spanned the years from 642 to 645, her reign as Saimei encompassed 655 to 661. In other words, 642: She ascended the throne as Kōgyoku-tennō, she stepped down in response to the assassination of Soga no Iruka. 645: She abdicated in favor of her brother, who would become known as Emperor Kōtoku. 654: Kōtoku died and the throne was vacant. 655: She re-ascended, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennō. 661: Saimei ruled until her death caused the throne to be vacant again. The two reigns of this one woman spanned the years from 642 through 661. In the history of Japan, Kōgyoku/Saimei was the second of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the sole female monarch before Kōgyoku/Saimei was Suiko-tennō. The six women sovereigns reigning after Kōgyoku/Saimei were Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Takara.
As empress, her name would have been Ametoyo Takara Ikashi Hitarashi hime. Princess Takara was a great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. During her first reign the Soga clan seized power, her son Naka no Ōe planned a coup slew Soga no Iruka at the court in front of her throne. The Empress, shocked by this incident, abdicated the throne. Kōgyoku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Kōgyoku might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Empress Kōgyoku reigned for four years; the years of Kōgyoku's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – was yet to be initiated during her son's too-brief reign. In this context and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō.
In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."The years of Kōgyoku's reign are not more identified by more than one era name or nengō, an innovation of Kōtoku's brief reign. When Kōtoku died, his designated heir was Naka no Ōe; when Naka no Ōe's mother re-ascended, he continued in the role of her crown prince. In this role, he did remain active in the political life of Japan. In the fifth year of Saimei's reign, Paekche in Korea was destroyed in 660. Japan assisted Paekche loyals in an attempt to aid the revival of Paekche dynasty. Early in 661, Saimei responded to the situation by leaving her capital in Yamato Province, her plan was to lead a military expedition to Korea. The empress stayed in Ishiyu Temporary Palace in today Dōgo Onsen. In May she arrived at Asakura Palace in the north part of Tsukushi province in Kyūshū, today a part of Fukuoka Prefecture; the allied army of Japan and Baekje was preparing for war against Silla, but the death of the empress thwarted those plans.
In 661, Saimei died in the Asakura Palace. In October her body was brought from Kyūshū by sea to Port Naniwa-zu. Empress Saimei ruled for seven years; the years of Saimei's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701; the actual site of Kōgyoku/Saimei's grave is known, having been identified as the Kengoshizuka tomb in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kōgyoku/Seimei's mausoleum. It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career.
During Kōgyoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sadaijin UdaijinThe kugyō during Saimei's reign included: Sadaijin, Kose no Tokoda, 649–658 Udaijin Naidaijin, Nakatomi no Kamako, 645–669 First Husband: Prince Takamuku, Prince Tame’s son First Son: Prince Kara Second Husband: Prince Tamura Emperor Jomei, Prince Oshisaka-no-hikohito-no-Ōe‘s son Second Son: Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji) First Daughter: Princess Hashihito, married Emperor Kōtoku Third Son: Prince Ōama Emperor Tenmu Portrayed by Kim Min-kyung in the 2012–2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Japanese empresses Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press