Francis Brinkley was an Anglo-Irish newspaper owner and scholar who resided in Meiji period Japan for over 40 years, where he was the author of numerous books on Japanese culture and architecture and an English-Japanese Dictionary. He was known as Frank Brinkley or as Captain Francis Brinkley and was the great uncle of Cyril Connolly. In 1841, Frank Brinkley was born at Co.. Meath, the thirteenth and youngest child of Matthew Brinkley J. P. of Parsonstown and his wife Harriet Graves. His paternal grandfather, John Brinkley, was the last Bishop of Cloyne and the first Royal Astronomer of Ireland, while his maternal grandfather, Richard Graves, was a Senior Fellow of Trinity College and the Dean of Ardagh. One of Brinkley's sisters, Jane Vernon of Clontarf Castle, was the grandmother of Cyril Connolly. Another sister, became the Dowager Countess of Kingston after the death of her first husband, James King, 5th Earl of Kingston and was the last person to live at Mitchelstown Castle. Through his mother's family Brinkley was related to Richard Francis Burton, a distinguished linguist who shared Brinkley's passion for foreign culture.
Brinkley went to Royal School Dungannon before entering Trinity College, where he received the highest records in mathematics and classics. After graduating he chose upon a military career and was subsequently accepted at the Royal Military Academy, becoming an artillery officer. In this capacity his cousin, Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell the 6th Governor of Hong Kong, invited him out to the east to serve as his Aide-de-camp and Adjutant. In 1866, on his way to Hong Kong, Brinkley visited Nagasaki and witnessed a duel between two samurai warriors. Once the victor had slain his opponent he covered him in his haori and "knelt down with hands clasped in prayer", it is said that Brinkley was so impressed by the conduct of the Japanese warrior that this enticed him to live in Japan permanently. In 1867 Captain Brinkley returned to Japan, never again to return home. Attached to the British-Japanese Legation, still an officer in the Royal Artillery, he was assistant military attache to the Japanese Embassy.
He resigned his commission in 1871 to take up the post of foreign advisor to the new Meiji government, taught artillery techniques to the new Imperial Japanese Navy at the Naval Gunnery School. He mastered the Japanese language soon after his arrival, both spoke and wrote it well. In 1878 he was invited to teach mathematics at the Imperial College of Engineering, which became part of Tokyo Imperial University, remaining in this post for two and a half years. In the same year he married a daughter of a former samurai from the Mito clan. Interracial marriages could be registered under Japanese law from 1873. Brinkley sought but was refused permission by the British Legation to register his marriage in order that his wife would have undisputed claim to British nationality, he fought this refusal and succeeded by appealing to the British judiciary, with the help of some influential friends. They were the parents of a son named Jack Ronald Brinkley. In 1881 until his death he owned and edited the Japan Mail newspaper, receiving financial support from the Japanese government and maintaining a pro-Japanese stance.
The newspaper was the most influential and read English language newspaper in the far East. After the First Sino-Japanese War Brinkley became the Tokyo-based correspondent for The Times of London, gained fame for his dispatches during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure by Emperor Meiji for his contributions to better Anglo-Japanese relations. He was an adviser to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Japan's largest shipping line. F. A. MacKenzie, a prominent English journalist, wrote: Captain Brinkley's great knowledge of Japanese life and language is admitted and admired by all, his independence of judgment is, weakened by his close official connection with the Japanese Government and by his personal interest in Japanese industry. His journal is regarded as a government mouth-piece, he has succeeded in making himself a more vigorous advocate of the Japanese claims than the Japanese themselves, it can safely be forecasted that whenever a dispute arises between Japanese and British interests, Captain Brinkley and his journal will play the part, through thick and thin, of defenders of the Japanese.
Brinkley's last dispatch to The Times was written from his deathbed in 1912, reporting on a seppuku: Emperor Meiji had died and to show fealty to the deceased emperor, General Nogi Maresuke together with his wife committed hara-kiri. Frank Brinkley had many hobbies which included gardening, collecting Japanese art and pottery, tennis, horse riding and hunting. Part of his significant collection of art and pottery was donated to various museums around the world, but the most part was reduced to rubble and ash after the Great Tokyo earthquake and World War II, he wrote books for English beginners interested in the Japanese language, his grammar books and English-Japanese Dictionary were regarded as the definitive books on the subject for those studying English in the latter half of the Meiji period. He wrote much on Japanese art, his book A History of the Japanese People, published after his death by The Times in 1915, covered Japanese history, fine arts and literature from the origins of the Japanese race up until the latter half of the Meiji period.
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Isaac Titsingh FRS was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. During a long career in East Asia, Titsingh was a senior official of the Dutch East India Company, he represented the European trading company in exclusive official contact with Tokugawa Japan, traveling to Edo twice for audiences with the shōgun and other high bakufu officials. He was the Dutch and VOC governor general in Bengal. Titsingh worked with his counterpart, Charles Cornwallis, governor general of the British East India Company. In 1795, Titsingh represented Dutch and VOC interests in China, where his reception at the court of the Qing Qianlong Emperor stood in stark contrast to the rebuff suffered by Britain's ambassador George Macartney in 1793, just prior to celebrations of Qianlong’s sixty-year reign. In China, Titsingh functioned as ambassador for his country at the same time as he represented the Dutch East India Company as a trade representative. Isaac Titsingh was born in Amsterdam, the son of Albertus Titsingh and his second wife, Catharina Bittner.
His baptism took place at the Amstelkerk in Amsterdam on 21 January 1745. His father was a prominent Amsterdam surgeon, he thus possessed the means for Titsingh to be brought up with an ‘enlightened education’ of the 18th century. Titsingh became a member of the Amsterdam Chirurgijngilde and received the degree of a Doctorate of Law from Leiden University in January 1765. In March 1764, Titsingh was appointed as 1766 went within his employment to Batavia. Titsingh was the commercial Opperhoofd or chief factor in Japan between 1779–1780, 1781–1783, in 1784; the singular importance of the head of the VOC in Japan during this period was enhanced by the Japanese policy of sakoku—imposed isolation. Because of religious proselytizing by Europeans during the 16th century, the Tokugawa shogunate introduced a policy in the early 17th century that no European or Japanese could enter or leave the Japanese archipelago on penalty of death; the sole exception to this "closed door" was the VOC "factory" on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay, on the southern Japanese island of Kyūshū.
During this period of seclusion, Titsingh is believed to have been the first Freemason in Japan. In this controlled context, the traders became the sole official conduit for trade and for scientific-cultural exchanges between Europe and Japan; the VOC Opperhoofd was accorded the status of a tributary of the shōgun. Given the scarcity of such opportunities, Titsingh's informal contacts with bakufu officials and Rangaku scholars in Edo may have been as important as his formal audiences with the shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu. During the 18th century there was an improvement of the social position of the Dutch merchants and the treatment of the Dutch vis-à-vis the Japanese, who showed a higher degree of respect and recognition than in the centuries before; the average Opperhoofd was not interested in the customs or culture of the Japanese. Titsingh showed an incredible interest and distinguished himself as an attentive observer of Japanese civilization for a European of his time when compared to his colleagues in Dejima.
Titsingh arrived in Nagasaki on 15 August 1779, where he took over the factory from Arend Willem Feith. He established amicable relations between the interpreters and Japanese. During his first audience with Ieharu in Edo from 25 March 1780 until 5 April 1780, he met a lot of Japanese nobles with whom he established vivid letter correspondence, he became prominent within the elite society of Edo and became friends with several daimyōs and retired daimyōs of the area. After a short return to Batavia in 1780, Titsingh returned to Nagasaki on 12 August 1781, due to his successes with the Dutch-Japanese trade in Dejima. There were no Dutch shipments from Batavia in 1782 due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War and thus the trading post in Dejima was cut off from communication with Java during this year. In this year Titsingh stayed in his position as Opperhoofd and concerned himself with befriending Japanese scholars, deepening relations with Japanese friends and researching on all scopes of Japanese customs and culture.
He achieved, due to the absence of Dutch shipping that year, important trade talks and great concessions with the Japanese on a long-debated increase to copper exports from Japan to the Dutch traders. Titsingh stayed a total of three years and eight months in Japan before leaving Nagasaki at the end of November 1784 to return to Batavia, where he arrived on 3 January 1785. In 1785, Titsingh was appointed director of the trading post at Chinsurah in Bengal. Titsingh was described by William Jones, the philologist and Bengal jurist, as "the Mandarin of Chinsura". Titsingh’s return to Batavia led to new positions as Ontvanger-Generaal and as Commissaris ter Zee. While at Batavia, he met with Lord Macartney, en route to China. Titsingh's comments were important factors in McCartney's decision to abandon a planned expedition to Japan in 1793. Mccartney's report to London explained: "... the expediency of attempting an intercourse with the Japanese subsists in its full force. Tho from the conversations I had at Batavia with a Dutch Gentleman of a liberal disposition, several years resident in Japan, Isaac Titsingh, I collected nothing that could induce m
Emperor Sujin known as Mimakiirihikoinie no Mikoto in the Kojiki, Mimakiiribikoinie no Sumeramikoto or Hatsukunishirasu Sumeramikoto in the Nihon Shoki was the tenth Emperor of Japan. The legendary Emperor's reign is conventionally assigned the years of reign 97 BC – 30 BC, but he may have lived in the early 1st century, or the third or fourth century. Sujin's grave site has not been identified, Andonyama kofun in Tenri, Nara has been designated by the Imperial Household Agency as the kofun, it is formally named Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi. Sujin is responsible for setting up the Ise Shrine or the Saikū associated with it to enshrine Amaterasu, he is credited with initiating the worship of Ōmononushi. He confiscated certain sacred treasures, passed down the line in Izumo; the Emperor may have been the first to perform a census and establish and regularize a system of taxation. Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors. Sujin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" and the paucity of material information about him makes difficult any further verification and study.
The reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. Sujin is a Posthumous name assigned by generations ascribed during the compilation of the Kojiki. According to the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Sujin was the second son of Emperor Kaika Sujin's mother was Ikagashikome no Mikoto, a stepmother of his father, he acceded to the throne purportedly in 97 BC. On the third year of his reign, he removed the capital to Shiki, naming it the Palace of Mizu-gaki, or Mizugaki-no-miya; the Kujiki records the legendary appointment of 137 governors for the provinces ruled by Emperor Sujin. Pestilence struck the 5th year of his rule, half the populace died. By the 6th year, peasants abandoning fields and rebellion became rampant. Up to this time, both the sun goddess Amaterasu and the god Yamato-ōkunitama were enshrined in Imperial Residence; the Emperor, over-awed with having to cohabit with these two powerful deities, set up separate enshrinements to house them.
Amaterasu was moved to Kasanui village in Yamato Province, there built as Himorogi altar out of solid stone, placing a daughter, the princess Toyosukiiri-hime in charge. The other god was entrusted to another daughter named Nunakiiri-hime but her hair fell out and became emaciated so she could not perform her duties. In the 7th year, the Emperor decreed a divination to be performed, so he made a trip to the plain of Kami-asaji or Kamu-asaji-ga-hara, invoked the eighty myriad deities. Yamatototohimomoso-hime acting as a shaman became possessed by a god, who identified himself as Ōmononushi and said that the land will be pacified if he were to be venerated; the Emperor complied. The Emperor was given guidance in a dream to seek out a certain Ōtataneko and appoint him as head priest; the pestilence subsided, the land was calmed, the five cereal crops ripened. The Miwa sept of the Kamo clan claim descent from this Ōtataneko personage; the Emperor appointed Ikagashikoo, ancestor of the Mononobe clan and elder brother of the empress as kami-no-mono-akatsu-hito, i.e. one who sorts the offerings to the gods.
Other gods were vernerated as dictated by divinations, eight red shields and spears were offered to Sumisaka Shrine in the east, eight black shields and spears were offered to Ōsaka Shrine in the west. In his 10th year of rule, Sujin instituted the Generals to the Four Cardinal Quarters Shidō shōgun, instructing them to quell those who would not submit to their rule. General Prince Ōhiko, sent up north, was at the top of the Wani acclivity, when a certain maiden approached him and sang him a cryptic song, disappeared; the Emperor's aunt, Yamatototohimomoso-hime was skilled at clairvoyancy and interpreted this to mean that Take-hani-yasu-hiko was plotting an insurrection. She pieced it together from the news she heard that the prince's wife Ata-bime came to Mount Amanokaguya and took a clump of earth in the corner of her neckerchief. Just as the Emperor gathered his generals in meeting, the couple had mustered troops to the west and was ready to attack the capital; the Emperor sent an army under Isaseri-hiko no Mikoto, which crushed the rebel forces, Ata-bime too was slain.
Subsequently, Hiko-kuni-fuku was sent to Yamashiro Province to punish the rebel prince, in an exchange of bowshots, the rebel prince Take-hani-yasu-hiko was struck in the chest and died. In the 12th year of his rule, he decreed a census be taken of the populace, "with grades of seniority, the order of forced labour"; the taxes, imposed in the form of mandatory labor, were called yuhazu no mitsugi for men and tanasue no mitsugi for women. Peace and prosperity ensued; the Emperor received the title Hatsu kuni shirasu sumeramikoto (
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources
Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby-Fane was a British academic, specialist of Shinto and Japanologist. Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby was born at Gravesend on the south bank of the Thames in Kent, England to John Henry and Florence Ponsonby, his boyhood was spent in the family home in London and at the Somerset country home, Brympton d'Evercy, of his grandfather, Spencer Ponsonby-Fane. Ponsonby was educated at Harrow School, he added "Fane" to his own name when he inherited Brympton d'Evercy in 1916 after the deaths of both his grandfather and father. In 1896, Ponsonby traveled to Cape Town to serve as Private Secretary to the Governor of the British Cape Colony. For the next two decades, his career in the British Empire's colonial governments spanned the globe, he worked with a number of colonial leaders as private secretary to the Governor of Natal, to the Governor of Trinidad and Tobago, to the Governor of Ceylon, to the Governor of Hong Kong. He was re-posted to Natal in 1907. In 1910 he played a single first-class cricket match for the Marylebone Cricket Club.
In 1915-1919, he was re-posted as private secretary to the Governor of Hong Kong. In addition to his government duties in Hong Kong, he began lecturing at the University of Hong Kong in 1916. After 1919, Ponsonby-Fane became a permanent resident of Japan, traveling four months of the year to Hong Kong for lectures at the Crown colony's university. In 1921, when the Japanese Crown Prince visited Hong Kong en route to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane was introduced as his interpreter; when Emperor Shōwa was enthroned in 1928, he was the only non-Japanese guest, invited to witness the ceremonies from in front of the palace's Kenreimon gate. In 1930, when HIH Prince Takamatsu and his wife traveled to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane sailed on the same ship. In 1932, Ponsonby-Fane built a Japanese-style home in one of the northern suburbs of Kyoto. In the last decades of his life, he was always photographed with a long woolen scarf draped around his shoulders; this unique scarf was said to be hand-knit by Dowager Empress Teimei, the widow of Emperor Taishō.
Ponsonby-Fane died at home in Kyoto in December 1937. In an overview of writings by and about Richard Ponsonby-Fane, OCLC/WorldCat lists 74 works in 136 publications in 2 languages and 1,443 library holdings; this list is not finished. The Imperial Family of Japan, 1915 The Capital and Palace of Heian, 1924 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1931 The Nomenclature of the N. Y. K. Fleet, 1931 Kamo Mioya Shrine, 1934 Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, 1956 The Imperial House of Japan, 1959 Sovereign and Subject, 1962 Studies in Shinto and Shrines, 1962 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1963 Visiting Famous Shrines in Japan, 1964 Order of the Rising Sun. Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1921. University of Hong Kong, Honorary Doctor of Laws, 1926. Private Secretary to the Sovereign Britton, Dorothy.. "Richard Ponsonby-Fane, A Modern William Adams," pp. 190-204 in Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-873410-62-2 Fiévé, Nicolas.. Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place and Memory in Kyoto and Tokyo.
ISBN 9780700714094. "A Biographical sketch of Dr. R. Ponsonby-Fane," Studies in Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
Shinto or kami-no-michi is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of "spirits", "essences" or "gods", suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods; the word Shinto was adopted as Jindō or Shindō, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: shin, meaning "spirit" or kami.
The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami is rendered in English as "spirits", "essences", or "gods", refers to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the singular divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, objects and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate; as much as nearly 80% of the population in Japan participates in Shinto practices or rituals, but only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is. Most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional Shinto religion. There are no formal rituals to become a practitioner of "folk Shinto". Thus, "Shinto membership" is estimated counting only those who do join organised Shinto sects. Shinto has about 85,000 priests in the country. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organised religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions.
In 2008, 26% of the participants reported visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of a god or gods in general. According to Inoue: "In modern scholarship, the term is used with reference to kami worship and related theologies and practices. In these contexts,'Shinto' takes on the meaning of'Japan's traditional religion', as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam and so forth." Shinto religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories: Shrine Shinto, the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration, shrines were disorganized institutions attached to Buddhist temples; the current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines, oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. Imperial Household Shinto are the religious rites performed by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds, including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of the Kami.
Folk Shinto includes the numerous folk beliefs in spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, shamanic healing; some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions. Sect Shinto is a legal designation created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities; these communities originated in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a development and grew self-consciously, they can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto groups are thirteen, classified under five headings: pure Shinto sects, Confucian sects,mountain worship sects, purification sects, faith-healing sects (Kurozumikyo／黒住教, Konkokyo/金光教 and its branching Omotokyo/大本教 and Tenrikyo／天理教. Koshintō, literally'Old Shinto', is a reconstructed "Shinto from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices.
It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane. Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have departed from traditional Shinto and are not always regarded as part of it. Kami, shin, or, jin is defined in English as "god", "spirit", or "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning "the energy generating a thing". Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, rivers, objects, places