The Marion is a name, applied to at least four different automobile companies: Marion, Ohio 1901 Marion, Indiana 1904-1915 Marion-Handley, Michigan 1916-1919 Marion Flyer Marion, Indiana 1910 The Marion was an automobile produced in Marion, Ohio, in 1901 by the Marion Automobile Company. Fred S. Titus was the proprietor. In 1907, he sold the concern to H. T. Love; the company produced two different models of steam-powered cars, two different electric cars and a gasoline-powered version. Mutual Motors Company resulted from a merger between Marion of Indianapolis and Imperial Automobile Company in 1916; the Marion-Handley was a product of this new company. List of defunct automobile manufacturers
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into another form of energy, dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot. Pneumatic and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston. One design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid. In hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, the dissipated energy can be stored and used later. In general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality and vehicle handling.
While shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations. Shock absorbers use gasses to absorb excess energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the manufacturer based on the weight of the vehicle and unloaded; some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use. Along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance. Spring-based shock absorbers use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as springs only store and do not dissipate or absorb energy. Vehicles employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars. In this combination, "shock absorber" refers to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used in 2 wheelers and leaf spring are made up of composite material in 4 wheelers.
In common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. One of the features of these springs was that the friction between the leaves offered a degree of damping, in a 1912 review of vehicle suspension, the lack of this characteristic in helical springs was the reason it was "impossible" to use them as main springs; however the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs, whether wet or dry. It operated in both directions. Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, similar designs added rotary friction dampers, which damped both ways - but they were adjustable; these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the large variation in sprung weight between loaded and loaded for the rear springs; when loaded the springs could bottom out, apart from fitting rubber'bump stops', there were attempts to use heavy main springs with auxiliary springs to smooth the ride when loaded, which were called'shock absorbers'.
Realising that the spring and vehicle combination bounced with a characteristic frequency, these auxiliary springs were designed with a different period, but were not a solution to the problem that the spring rebound after striking a bump could throw you out of your seat. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound. Although C. L. Horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only, it does not seem to have gone into production right away, whereas mechanical dampers such as the Gabriel Snubber started being fitted in the late 1900s. These used a belt coiled inside a device such that it wound in under the action of a coiled spring, but met friction when drawn out. Gabriel Snubbers were fitted to an 11.9HP Arrol-Johnston car which broke the 6 hour Class B record at Brooklands in late 1912, the Automotor journal noted that this snubber might have a great future for racing due to its light weight and easy fitment. One of the earliest hydraulic dampers to go into production was the Telesco Shock Absorber, exhibited at the 1912 Olympia Motor Show and marketed by Polyrhoe Carburettors Ltd.
This contained a spring inside the telescopic unit like the pure spring type'shock absorbers' mentioned above, but oil and an internal valve so that the oil damped in the rebound direction. The Telesco unit was fitted at the rear end of the leaf spring, in place of the rear spring to chassis mount, so that it formed part of the springing system, albeit a hydraulically damped part; this layout was selected as it was easy to apply to existing vehicles, but it meant the hydraulic damping was not applied to the action of the main leaf spring, but only to the action of the auxiliary spring in the unit itself. The first production hydraulic dampers to act on the main leaf spring movement were those based on an original concept by Maurice Houdaille patented in 1908 and 1909; these used a lever arm. The main advantage over the friction disk dampers was that it would resist sudden movement but allow slow movement, whereas the rotary friction dampers tended to stick and offer the same resistance regardless of speed of movement.
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A runabout is a car body style, popular in North America until about 1915. It was a single row of seats. Runabouts became indistinguishable from roadsters and the term fell out of use in the United States; the approach has evolved into the modern "city car". The runabout was a light, open car with basic bodywork and no windshield, top, or doors. Most runabouts had just a single row of seats; some had a rumble seat at the rear to provide optional seating for one or two more passengers. They differed from buggies and high wheelers by having smaller wheels. Early runabouts had their engines under the body toward the middle of the chassis; this sometimes made maintenance difficult, as on the Oldsmobile Curved Dash where the body had to be removed in order to access the engine. The Gale runabout dealt with this problem by hinging the body at the rear of the car such that it could be tilted to access the engine; some runabouts had the engine in what became the conventional position at the front of the car.
Runabouts were popular in North America from the late 19th century to about 1915. They were designed for light use over short distances. By the mid-1910s, they became indistinguishable from roadsters. Notable examples of runabouts include the Oldsmobile Curved Dash mentioned earlier, the first mass-produced car, the Cadillac runabout, which won the Dewar Trophy for 1908 by demonstrating its use of interchangeable parts; the 1964 GM Runabout was a three wheel concept car first exhibited at Futurama II, part of the 1964 New York World's Fair. The car was designed for housewives and had detachable shopping carts built into it; the term "runabout" is still in use in the UK, denoting a small car used for short journeys. Anderson, Sandra. "runabout". Collins Concise Dictionary & Thesaurus. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins Publishers. P. 750. ISBN 978-0-00-722971-0. N. 1 a small car used for short journeys Clough, Albert L.. A dictionary of automobile terms; the Horseless Age Company. LCCN 13003001. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
Georgano, G. N. ed.. "Glossary". Encyclopedia of American Automobiles. New York, NY USA: E. P. Dutton. Pp. 215–217. ISBN 0-525-097929. LCCN 79147885. Runabout. A general term for a light two-passenger car of the early 1900s. Haajanen, Lennart W.. Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles. Illustrations by Bertil Nydén. Jefferson, NC USA: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1276-3. LCCN 2002014546. Posthumus, Cyril. "The Motoring Boom". The story of Veteran & Vintage Cars. John Wood, illustrator. London: Hamlyn / Phoebus. Pp. 36–49. ISBN 0-600-39155-8. Under RAC observation three cars from stock were dismantled, their parts intermixed, three new cars assembled, all working flawlessly — a feat that won Cadillac the coveted Dewar Trophy. Sedgwick, Michael. "Chapter One The Pioneer Days 1769 – 1904". Early Cars. London, UK: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-0058-5; the Oldsmobile merits its niche in history as the first true example of mass-production, some 3,750 being turned out in 1903 alone... Despite the Oldsmobile's known reliability, the makers' handbook launches out on the first page of text with the alarming suggestion:'Let us first remove the body'!
Smith, Michael L.. "Making Time". In Fox, Richard Wightman; the Power of Culture: Critical Essays in American History. Chicago, IL US: University of Chicago. Pp. 222–243. ISBN 0-2262-5955-2
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Overland Automobile Company was a United States-based automobile manufacturer. The Overland Automobile "runabout" was founded by Claude Cox, a graduate of Rose Polytechnic Institute, while he was employed by Standard Wheel Company of Terre Haute, United States, in 1903. In 1905, Standard Wheel allowed Cox to relocate the Overland Automobile Company to Indianapolis, he got a partner. In 1908, Overland Motors was purchased by John North Willys. In 1912, it was renamed Willys-Overland. One of the more unusual uses of an Overland was in 1911 when Milton Reeves used a 1910 model to create his eight-wheel Reeves Octo-Auto. Overlands continued to be produced until 1926; the last vestige of the Overland automobile empire remains in the form of bricks spelling out "Overland" in the smoke stacks at the Toledo factory that once formed the core of Willys automotive empire. But the name would come back when DaimlerChrysler introduced the Overland name for a trim package on the 2002–present Jeep Grand Cherokee.
The badging is a recreation of the Overland nameplate from the early twentieth century. History of Overland from Willys-Overland-Knight Registry Photographs of Overland automobiles from Willys-Overland-Knight Registry Overland at Manitoba Auto Museum Overland at the Internet Movie Cars Database
Cord was the brand name of an American luxury automobile company from Connersville, manufactured by the Auburn Automobile Company from 1929 to 1932 and again in 1936 and 1937. The Cord Corporation was founded and run by E. L. Cord as a holding company for his many transportation interests, including Auburn. Cord was noted for streamlined designs. Cord innovations include front-wheel drive on the L-29 and hidden headlamps on the 810 and 812. Hidden headlamps did not become common as a standard feature until the 1960s; the early Oldsmobile Toronados, whose GM stylists stated they were trying to capture the "feel" of the Cord's design featured hidden headlamps. "Servo" shifting was accomplished through a bendix electro-vacuum pre-selector mechanism. This was the first American front-wheel drive car to be offered to the public, beating the Ruxton automobile by several months, in 1929; the brainchild of former Miller engineer Cornelius Van Ranst, its drive system borrowed from the Indianapolis 500-dominating racers, using the same de Dion layout and inboard brakes.
Built in Auburn, the Cord was the first front-wheel-drive car to use constant-velocity joints. While used today in all front-wheel-drive vehicles, their first use was on the 1929 Cord; the lack of rear drivetrain components allowed it to be much lower than competing cars. Both stock cars and special bodies built on the Cord chassis by American and European coachbuilders won prizes in contests worldwide; the L-29 came with full instrumentation, including a temperature gauge, oil pressure gauge, speedometer on the left with a gas gauge, oil level gauge, Ammeter on the right of the steering wheel. It was powered by Auburn's 4,934 cc 125 hp L-head Lycoming inline 8 from the Auburn 120, with the crankshaft pushed out through the front of the block and the flywheel mounted there, driving a three-speed transmission. Gearing in both transmission and front axle was inadequate, the 4,700 lb car was underpowered, limited to a trifle over 80 mph, inadequate at the time, exceeded by the less expensive Auburn.
Still, the styling was lovely, despite the 137.5 in wheelbase and steering demanding four turns lock-to-lock, handling was superb. Priced around US$3,000, it was competitive with Cadillac, Lincoln, Packard and Stutz, it could not outrun the Great Depression, by 1932, it was discontinued, with just 4,400 sold. Wheelbase was 137.5" and the height of the sedan was 61". The Model 810/812 are the best-known of the company's products. Styled by Gordon M. Buehrig, they featured independent front suspension. Powered by a 4,739 cc Lycoming V8 of the same 125 horsepower as the L-29, the 810 had a four-speed electrically-selected semi-automatic transmission, among other innovative features; the car caused a sensation at the New York Auto Show in November 1935. Orders were taken at the show with Cord promising Christmas delivery, expecting production of 1,000 per month. Production delays pushed the expected delivery date to February 1936; this proved optimistic. In all, Cord managed to sell only 1,174 of the new 810 in its first model year.
The car is well known for the flat front nose with a louvered grille design. The front was so similar in look to a coffin, the car was called "Coffin Nose". Early reliability problems, including slipping out of gear and vapor lock, cooled initial enthusiasm, the dealer base shrank rapidly. Unsold left-over and in-process 1936 810s were sold as 1937 812s. In 1937, Auburn ceased production of the Cord. A single 1938 Cord prototype with some changes to the grille and transmission cover was built, it still exists; the Cord empire, amid allegations of financial fraud, was sold to the Aviation Corporation, E. L. Cord moved to Nevada where he earned millions in other enterprises; the Cord 812 design was re-marketed immediately in 1940, as ailing automakers Hupmobile and Graham-Paige tried to save money, revive the companies, by using the same body dies. Except for their similarity to the 810, their four-door sedans, the Hupp Skylark and the Graham Hollywood, were unremarkable. Retractable headlights gave way to plain headlight pods, power came from a standard front-engine/rear-wheel drive design.
While Hupp Motor Company built a few prototypes in 1939 that gained them sales orders for the 1939 model year they did not have the resources to manufacture the car. Graham Paige stepped in offering to build the Hupmobile Skylarks on a per piece contract basis. Graham built a combined 1850 units for sale in the 1940 model year. Hupmobile closed. Of the 1850 cars produced in the 1940 model year by Graham only about 450 were the Hupmobile Skylarks. Graham continued to build the Hollywood late into 1941, they stopped production in November of that year having only built a rumored 400 units. The Hollywood was powered by a supercharged Continental in line six making 124 HP 50 less than the original supercharged Cord; the plot of the David Niven movie Where the Spies Are features a rare Cord convertible as the incentive for the hero to undertake an espionage mission. In the novel Live and Let Die, Felix Leiter drives a Cord of unspecified model when he and James Bond are in Florida; the original design for the Batmobile was a red convertible based on the Cord 812, which Batman creator Bob Kane considered one of hi