The National Diet is Japan's bicameral legislature. It is composed of a lower house called the House of Representatives, an upper house, called the House of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under parallel voting systems. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister; the Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of adopting the Meiji Constitution. The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution, which considers it the highest organ of state power; the National Diet Building is in Nagatachō, Tokyo. The houses of the Diet are both elected under parallel voting systems; this means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method. Voters are asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, one for a party list. Any national of Japan at least 18 years of age may vote in these elections.
The age of 18 replaced 20 in 2016. Japan's parallel voting system is not to be confused with the Additional Member System used in many other nations; the Constitution of Japan does not specify the number of members of each house of the Diet, the voting system, or the necessary qualifications of those who may vote or be returned in parliamentary elections, thus allowing all of these things to be determined by law. However it does guarantee universal adult suffrage and a secret ballot, it insists that the electoral law must not discriminate in terms of "race, sex, social status, family origin, property or income". The election of Diet members is controlled by statutes passed by the Diet; this is a source of contention concerning re-apportionment of prefectures' seats in response to changes of population distribution. For example, the Liberal Democratic Party had controlled Japan for most of its post-war history, it gained much of its support from rural areas. During the post-war era, large numbers of people were relocating to the urban centers in the seeking of wealth.
The Supreme Court of Japan began exercising judicial review of apportionment laws following the Kurokawa decision of 1976, invalidating an election in which one district in Hyōgo Prefecture received five times the representation of another district in Osaka Prefecture. The Supreme Court has since indicated that the highest electoral imbalance permissible under Japanese law is 3:1, that any greater imbalance between any two districts is a violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. In recent elections the malapportionment ratio amounted to 4.8 in the House of Councillors and 2.3 in the House of Representatives. Candidates for the lower house must be 25 years old or older and 30 years or older for the upper house. All candidates must be Japanese nationals. Under Article 49 of Japan's Constitution, Diet members are paid about ¥1.3 million a month in salary. Each lawmaker is entitled to employ three secretaries with taxpayer funds, free Shinkansen tickets, four round-trip airplane tickets a month to enable them to travel back and forth to their home districts.
Article 41 of the Constitution describes the National Diet as "the highest organ of State power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State". This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which described the Emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet; the Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can initiate draft constitutional amendments, which, if approved, must be presented to the people in a referendum; the Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government". The Prime Minister must be designated by Diet resolution, establishing the principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies; the government can be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. Government officials, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet members, are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries.
The Diet has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct. In most circumstances, in order to become law a bill must be first passed by both houses of the Diet and promulgated by the Emperor; this role of the Emperor is similar to the Royal Assent in some other nations. The House of Representatives is the more powerful chamber of the Diet. While the House of Representatives cannot overrule the House of Councillors on a bill, the House of Councillors can only delay the adoption of a budget or a treaty, approved by the House of Representatives, the House of Councillors has no power at all to prevent the lower house from selecting any Prime Minister it wishes. Furthermore, once appointed it is the confidence of the House of Representatives alone that the Prime Minister must enjoy in order to continue in office; the House of Representatives can overrule the upper house in the following circumstances: If a bill is adopted by the House of Representatives and either rejected, amended or not approved within 60 days by th
South Pacific Mandate
The South Pacific Mandate was a League of Nations mandate given to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations following World War I. The South Pacific Mandate consisted of islands in the north Pacific Ocean, part of German New Guinea within the German colonial empire until they were occupied by Japan during World War I. Japan governed the islands under the mandate as part of the Japanese colonial empire until World War II, when the United States captured the islands; the islands became the United Nations-established Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands governed by the United States. The islands are now part of Palau, Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands. In Japan, the territory is known as "Japanese mandate for the South Seas Islands" and was governed by the Nan'yō Government. Japan has few natural resources, the shortage of raw materials during industrialisation in the Meiji Restoration period meant that the development of the Japanese colonial empire was considered a political and economic necessity.
By the outbreak of WWI the empire included Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands the southern half of Sakhalin island, the Kuril Islands, Port Arthur. The policy of Nanshin-ron, popular with the Imperial Japanese Navy, held that Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands were the area of greatest potential value to the Japanese Empire for economic and territorial expansion; the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 had been signed to serve Britain's and Japan's common interest of opposing Russian expansion. Amongst other provisions the treaty called on each party to support the other in a war against more than one power, although it did not require a signatory state to go to war to aid the other. Within hours of Britain's declaration of war on Germany in 1914, Japan invoked the treaty and offered to declare war on the German Empire if it could take German territories in China and the South Pacific; the British government asked Japan for assistance in destroying the raiders from the Imperial German Navy in and around Chinese waters, Japan sent Germany an ultimatum demanding that it vacate China and the Marshall and Caroline islands.
The ultimatum went unanswered and Japan formally declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Japan participated in a joint operation with British forces in autumn 1914 in the Siege of Tsingtao to capture the Kiautschou Bay concession in China's Shandong Province; the Japanese Navy was tasked with pursuing and destroying the German East Asiatic Squadron and protection of the shipping lanes for Allied commerce in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. During the course of this operation, the Japanese Navy seized the German possessions in the Marianas, Marshall Islands and Palau groups by October 1914. After the end of World War I, the protectorate of German New Guinea was divided amongst the war's victors by the Treaty of Versailles; the southern part of the protectorate was mandated to come under Australian administration as the Territory of New Guinea, consisting of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and the German-controlled islands south of the equator. Meanwhile, Japanese occupation of the northern part of the protectorate, consisting of the Micronesian islands north of the equator, was formally recognised by the treaty.
Japan was given a League of Nations Class C mandate to govern them, the terms of which specified that the islands should be demilitarised and Japan should not extend its influence further into the Pacific. The Mandate was subject to yearly scrutiny by the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva, though by the late 1920s Tokyo was rejecting requests for official visitation or international inspection. Following the initial Japanese occupation of the islands, a policy of secrecy was adopted. Japan made it plain that it did not welcome the entry of foreign ships into Micronesian waters those of its wartime allies. During the first five years that Japan occupied the islands, it consolidated its presence and the islands became a virtual Japanese colony; the Imperial Japanese Navy divided the territory into five naval districts in Palau, Truk and Jaluit Atoll, all reporting to a rear admiral at the naval headquarters at Truk. A proposal at the Versailles Conference to allow trade and migration between those islands to be administered by Japan and those to be administered by Australia and New Zealand was rejected.
Japan was able to continue administering the islands as if they were colonial possessions, keeping their waters off limits to foreigners. When the islands became a League of Nations Mandate, Japan administered them as Japanese territory and as part of the Japanese Empire; this situation continued after Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 and lost its legal claim to administer the islands. Militarily and economically, Saipan, in the Marianas archipelago, was the most important island in the South Pacific Mandate and became the center of subsequent Japanese settlement; the towns of Garapan and Colony were developed to resemble small towns in Japan, with cinemas, beauty parlours and geisha houses. Another important island was Truk in the Carolines archipelago, fortified into a major navy base by the Imperial Japanese Navy. Between 1914 and 1920 the islands began the slow transition from naval to civilian administration. By 1920 all authority had been transferred from the Naval Defense Force to the Civil Affairs Bureau, directly responsible to the Navy Ministry.
Based in Truk, the Civil Affairs Bureau was moved to Koror in the
Inukai Tsuyoshi was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, Prime Minister of Japan from 13 December 1931 to his assassination on 15 May 1932. Inukai was born to a samurai family of Niwase Domain, in Niwase village, Bizen Province, where his father had been a local official and magistrate under the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1876, Inukai travelled to Tokyo and subsequently graduated from the Keio Gijuku where he specialized in Chinese studies. In his early career, Inukai worked as a journalist for the Yūbin Hōchi Shimbun and Akita Sakigake Shimpō, he went with the Imperial Japanese Army to the front during the Satsuma Rebellion as a reporter. Ōkuma Shigenobu invited Inukai to help form the Rikken Kaishintō political party in 1882, which supported liberal political causes opposed the domination of the government by members of the former Chōshū and Satsuma domains, called for a British-style constitutional monarchy within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. Inukai was first elected to the Lower House of the Imperial Diet in 1890, was subsequently reelected 17 times, holding the same seat for 42 years until his death.
Inukai's first cabinet post was as Minister of Education in the first Ōkuma Shigenobu administration of 1898, succeeding Ozaki Yukio, forced to resign due to a speech that conservative elements in the Diet charged promoted republicanism. However, Ozaki's resignation did not end the crisis, which culminated with the fall of the Ōkuma administration, so Inukai's term lasted only eleven days. Inukai was a leading figure in the successors to the Rikken Kaishintō, the Shimpotō, Kenseitō and the Rikken Kokumintō, which toppled the government of Katsura Tarō in 1913. During this time, his politics became increasing conservative and he was associated with both leading figures from the Pan-Asian movement and with nationalists such as Tōyama Mitsuru, he was a strong supporter of the Chinese republican movement, visiting China in 1907, subsequently lending aid to Sun Yat-sen during the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 which overthrew the Qing dynasty. He assisted Sun when Sun had to flee to Japan after his attempt to overthrow Yuan Shikai failed.
Inukai has a deep respect for Chinese culture, felt that Sino-Japanese cooperation was the cornerstone of Asian solidarity. Although in years his vision of Sino-Japanese cooperation diverged from Sun's, Inukai maintained close personal ties with many leading Chinese politicians. Inukai supported the Vietnamese independence leader, Prince Cường Để, invited him to Japan in 1915. Inukai returned to the cabinet as Minister of Communications in the second Yamamoto Gonnohyōe administration from 1923 to 1924, he was concurrently Education Minister again for a four-day period in September 1923 In 1922 the Rikken Kokumintō became the Kakushin Club, joined forces with other minor parties to form the cabinet during the premiership of Katō Takaaki in 1924. During his time, Inukai served on the cabinet again as Minister of Communications; the Kakushin Club merged with the Rikken Seiyūkai, Inukai continued as a senior member. In July 1929, Inukai travelled to Nanjing, with several other Japanese delegates at the invitation of Chinese government to a memorial service for Sun Yat-sen.
The delegates travelled to numerous other cities, noted with concern the growing anti-Japanese sentiment. In 1929, after the sudden death of Tanaka Giichi, Inukai became president of the Rikken Seiyūkai. Inukai was an outspoken critic of Japan's signing of the London Naval Treaty, which reduced military spending, supported the actions of the Imperial Japanese Army in invading Manchuria in 1931, rejected criticism from the League of Nations over the Mukden Incident. Following the resignation of the Wakatsuki administration over its failure to control the military and the failure of its economic policies, the genrō turned to Inukai to form a new government in 1931. Saionji Kinmochi charged Inukai with avoiding drastic changes in economics. Inukai, at a disadvantage in that his Seiyukai was not the majority party in the Diet, was saddled with a cabinet composed of competing factions, ranging from his ultra-rightist Army Minister Sadao Araki to the liberal Finance Minister Takahashi Korekiyo. With a divided cabinet and a hostile Diet, Inukai governed with the assistance of the Privy Council, which passed emergency imperial edicts and budgetary measures to circumvent the normal Diet budgetary process.
Inukai took steps to inflate the economy and to take Japan off the gold standard, implementing protectionist trade policies and attempting to stem Japan's trade deficit. These actions devaluated the yen, thus lowering the price of Japanese goods in world markets, increasing exports. However, Inukai was forced to accede to a request by the Imperial Japanese Army to dispatch additional troops to Manchuria and to Tianjin, despite instructions as late as 23 December 1931 from Emperor Hirohito to maintain international trust per the Nine-Power Treaty in not attacking China, on 27 December 1931 not to authorize any moves by the Kwantung Army to occupy Jinzhou. However, by now the Imperial Japanese Army was beyond any civilian control and from January to March 1932 the conflict had spread to Shanghai with the 1st Shanghai Incident. During the 1932 General Election, buoyed by an upsurge in public opinion due to Japanese military successes in China, the Rikken Seiyukai won an overwhelming majority.
On 8 January 1932, a Korean independence activist named Lee Bong Chang attempted to assassinate Emperor Hirohito in the Sakuradamon Incident. Inukai and his c
Amaterasu, Amaterasu-ōmikami, or Ōhirume-no-muchi-no-kami is a deity of the Japanese myth cycle and a major deity of the Shinto religion. She is seen as the goddess of the universe; the name Amaterasu is derived from Amateru and means "shining in heaven". The meaning of her whole name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august kami who shines in the heaven". According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in Japanese mythology, the Emperors of Japan are considered to be direct descendants of Amaterasu. Records of the worship of Amaterasu are found from the c. 712 CE Kojiki and c. 720 CE Nihon Shoki, the oldest records of Japanese history. In Japanese mythology, the goddess of the sun, is the sister of Susanoo, the god of storms and the sea, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon, it was written that Amaterasu had painted the landscape with her siblings while she created ancient Japan. Amaterasu was said to have been created by the divine couple Izanagi and Izanami, who were themselves created by, or grew from, the originator of the Universe, Amenominakanushi.
All three deities were born from Izanagi when he was purifying himself upon entering Yomi, the underworld, after breaking the promise not to see dead Izanami and he was chased by her and Yakusan-no-ikaduchigami, surrounding rotten Izanami. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Amaterasu became the ruler of the sun and the heavens along with her brother, Tsukuyomi as the ruler of the night, Susanoo as the ruler of the seas. Amaterasu shared the sky with Tsukuyomi, her husband and brother until, out of disgust, he killed the goddess of food, Uke Mochi, when she pulled "food from her rectum and mouth"; this killing upset Amaterasu causing her to split away from him. The texts tell of a long-standing rivalry between Amaterasu and her other brother, Susanoo. Susanoo is said to have insulted claiming she had no power over the higher realm; when Izanagi ordered him to leave Heaven, he went to bid his sister goodbye.
Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted. Each of them took an object belonging from it, birthed deities. Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's sword. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women. After Susanoo's defeat he went on a rampage destroying much of the heavenly and earthly realm, Amaterasu's rice fields, hurled a flayed pony at her loom, killing one of her attendants in a fit of rage. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, plunging the earth into darkness and chaos, she was persuaded to leave the cave. Omoikane threw a party outside of the Ama-no-Iwato to lure Amaterasu out but it was not until the Goddess Ame-no-Uzume danced promiscuously outside of the cave that Amaterasu came out. Susanoo was punished by being banished from heaven. Both amended their conflict when Susanoo gave her the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi sword as a reconciliation gift.
According to legend, responsible from keeping balance and harmony within the earthly realm, bequeathed to her descendant Ninigi: the mirror, Yata no Kagami. Collectively, the sacred mirror and sword became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan; the Ise Shrine located in Ise, Mie Prefecture, houses the inner shrine, dedicated to Amaterasu. Her sacred mirror, Yata no Kagami, is said to be kept at this shrine as one of the imperial regalia objects. A ceremony known as Shikinen Sengu is held every twenty years at this shrine to honor the many deities enshrined, formed by 125 shrines altogether. At that time, new shrine buildings are built at a location adjacent to the site first. After the transfer of the object of worship, new clothing and treasure and offering food to the goddess the old buildings are taken apart; the building materials taken apart are given to buildings to renovate. This practice is a part of the Shinto faith and has been practiced since the year 690, but is not only for Amaterasu but for many other deities enshrined in Ise Shrine.
The Amanoiwato Shrine in Takachiho, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan is dedicated to Amaterasu and sits above the gorge containing Ama-no-Iwato. The worship of Amaterasu to the exclusion of other kami has been described as "the cult of the sun"; this phrase may refer to the early pre-archipelagoan worship of the sun. Himiko Shinto in popular culture Sól Surya Vairocana Zalmoxis Ōkami Amaterasu, fictional character from video game Ōkami
Viscount Takahashi Korekiyo was a Japanese politician who served as a member of the House of Peers, as the 20th Prime Minister of Japan from 13 November 1921 to 12 June 1922, as the head of the Bank of Japan and Ministry of Finance. Takahashi made many contributions to Japan's development during the early 20th century, including introducing its first patent system and securing foreign financing for the Russo-Japanese War. Following the onset of the Great Depression, he introduced controversial financial policies which included abandoning the gold standard, lowering interest rates, using the Bank of Japan to finance deficit spending by the central government, his decision to cut government spending in 1935 led to unrest within the Japanese military, who assassinated him in February 1936. Takahashi's policies are credited for pulling Japan out of the Depression, but led to soaring inflation following his assassination, as Takahashi's successors became reluctant to cut off funding to the government.
Takahashi was born in Edo. He was the illegitimate son of a court painter in residence at Edo Castle, adopted as the son of Takahashi Kakuji, a low-ranking samurai in the service of the Date daimyō of Sendai Domain, he studied English language and American culture in a private school run by the missionary James Hepburn. On July 25, 1867, he set sail from Japan to Oakland, California, in the United States, found employment as a menial laborer. Another version of the story has it that he went to the United States to study, but was sold as a slave by his landlord and only with some difficulty was he able to return to Japan. After his return to Japan in 1868, Takahashi taught English conversation, he became the first master of the Kyōritsu Gakkō high school in Tokyo, at the same time worked as a low-ranking bureaucrat in the Ministry of Education, in the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. He was appointed as the first chief of the Bureau of Patents, a department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, helped organized the patent system in Japan.
At one point, he resigned his government positions and went to Peru to start a silver mining enterprise, but failed. Takahashi became an employee of the Bank of Japan in 1892, his talents were soon recognized, as he rose to become vice-president in 1898. During and after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Takahashi raised foreign loans that were critical to Japan's war effort, he met with American financier Jacob Schiff, who floated half of Japan's loans in the U. S, he raised loans from the Rothschild family in Britain. For this success, he was appointed to the House of Peers of the Diet of Japan in 1905. Takahashi was named president of the Yokohama Specie Bank in 1906, he was made a baron under the kazoku peerage system in 1907. Takahashi was Governor of the Bank of Japan from June 1, 1911, through February 20, 1913. In 1913, Takahashi was appointed Minister of Finance by Prime Minister Yamamoto Gonnohyōe and joined the Rikken Seiyūkai political party, he was re-appointed by Prime Minister Hara Takashi in 1918.
In 1920, Takahashi's title was elevated to viscount. After Hara was assassinated in 1921, Takahashi was appointed both Prime Minister and the Rikken Seiyūkai party president. Takahashi was the second Christian Prime Minister in Japanese history, his term lasted less than seven months due to his inability as an outsider to control the factions in his party, his lack of a power base in the party. After resigning as Prime Minister, Takahashi still retained the position of president of the Rikken Seiyūkai, he resigned his seat in the House of Peers in 1924, was elected to a seat in the Lower House of the Diet of Japan in the 1924 General Election. When Katō Takaaki became the prime minister and set up a coalition cabinet in 1924, Takahashi accepted the post of Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, he divided the department into the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Takahashi resigned from the Rikken Seiyūkai in 1925. Takahashi served as Finance Minister under the administrations of Tanaka Giichi, Inukai Tsuyoshi, Saitō Makoto and Okada Keisuke.
To bring Japan out of the Great Depression of 1929, he instituted expansionary monetary and fiscal policy, abandoning the gold standard in December 1931, running deficits. Despite considerable success, his fiscal policies involving reduction of military expenditures created many enemies within the military, he was among those assassinated by rebelling military officers in the February 26 Incident of 1936, his grave is at the Tama Reien Cemetery in Tokyo. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Baron Viscount Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Takahashi appeared on a 50 Yen banknote issued by the Bank of Japan in 1951, it is the only time that a former president of the Bank of Japan has appeared on one of Japan's banknotes. Takahashi's Tokyo residence is now the "Takahashi Korekiyo Memorial Park" in Tokyo's Minato Ward, Akasaka.
However, a portion of the building survives in the Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum in Koganei city, Tokyo. Takahashi's fiscal and monetary policies during the Great Depression were in many wa
Hara Takashi was a Japanese politician and the 10th Prime Minister of Japan from 29 September 1918 until his assassination on 4 November 1921. He was called Hara Kei informally, he was the first commoner appointed to the office of prime minister of Japan, giving him the informal title of "commoner prime minister". He was the first Japanese Christian prime minister. Hara was born in a village of the feudal Morioka domain in Mutsu Province, he was the son of a samurai-class family which had resisted the Meiji Restoration and the establishment of the government which Hara himself would one day lead. Due to his association with a former enemy clan of the new Imperial Government, dominated by the feudal clans of Chōshū and Satsuma, Hara for long remained an outsider in the world of politics, he went to Tokyo by boat. He failed the entrance examination of the prestigious Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, instead joined the Marin Seminary, a French-established, free parochial school, it was here. Soon after that he joined the law school of the Ministry of Justice, but left without graduating to take responsibility for a student protest against the school’s room and board policy.
At the age of 17 he was baptized as a Roman Catholic, taking the name of "David", though it was speculated that he became Christian for personal gain at the time, he remained a Christian in public life until the day he died. At the age of 19, Hara broke away from his family's samurai class and chose instead the classification of commoner. At various times in his political career, offers were made to raise his rank, but Hara refused them every time on the basis that it would alienate himself from the common men and limit his ability to gain entrance to the House of Representatives. Beginning in 1879, Hara worked as a newspaper reporter for three years, he quit his job in protest over efforts of his editors to make the newspaper a mouthpiece for the Rikken Kaishintō political party of Ōkuma Shigenobu. In 1882, Hara took a position in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the request of Foreign Minister Inoue Kaoru. Based on discussions Hara had with him on his views for the future of Japanese politics during a trip both men took to Korea in 1884, Inoue appointed Hara to become consul-general in Tianjin, the first secretary to the embassy of Japan in Paris.
Under Mutsu Munemitsu, Hara served as ambassador to Korea. He left the Foreign Ministry to work as a journalist for several years, became the manager of a newspaper company, the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun. In 1900, Hara joined Itō Hirobumi's new-founded party Rikken Seiyūkai. Hara became the first secretary-general of the party, he ran for the lower house as a representative from Iwate Prefecture and was appointed Minister of Communications in the Fourth Ito Administration. He served as Home Minister in several cabinets between 1906 and 1913. Hara was able to effect many reforms from the powerful position of Home Minister. Hara realized that a fundamental political issue in Japan was the tension between the elected government and the appointed bureaucracy, his career was dedicated to weakening the power of the non-elected bureaucrats; as Home Minister, he systematically dismissed local bureaucrats in local governments in every capacity from governor down to high school principal. Any public employee who fell under his power would be replaced by someone in whom he saw real ability instead of a mere useful recipient of a favor.
Thus, he created a system in which people with talent could rise to the top of the bureaucracy, regardless of their background or rank. Hara understood that maintenance of the supremacy of the elected leaders depended on the government’s ability to develop the Japanese national infrastructure and on a long-term economic plan that would address regional as well as national interests. In 1914, after heated debate, he was appointed the president of the Rikken Seiyūkai to replace the outgoing leader, Saionji Kinmochi. Under Hara's leadership, Seiyukai first lost its majority control of the Diet in the 1915 general elections, but regained its majority in the 1917 general elections. In 1918, Terauchi Masatake fell from office due to the Rice Riots of 1918. Hara was appointed as his successor on 28 September 1918, it was the first cabinet headed by a commoner. Hara was the first civilian in Japanese history to become the administrative chief of any of the armed services, when he temporarily took charge of the Navy Ministry, in absence of the Navy Minister, Admiral Katō Tomosaburō, serving as the Japanese representative at the Washington Naval Conference.
As prime minister, Hara suffered in terms of popularity, because he refused to use his majority in the lower house to force through universal suffrage legislation. Hara's cautious approach disappointed liberals and socialists, who accused him of delaying universal suffrage as it would endanger his position in power; as a party politician, Hara had never been the favorite of the conservatives and military, he was despised by the ultranationalists. During his term of office, Japan participated in the Paris Peace Conference, joined the League of Nations as a founding member. In Korea, Japan used military force to suppress the Samil Rebellion, but began more lenient policies aimed at reducing opposition to Japanese rule. Following the Samil Uprising, Hara pursued a conciliatory policy towards colonies Korea, he arranged for his political ally, Saitō M
Lytton Report are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria. The five-member commission headed by Victor Bulwer-Lytton of Great Britain announced its conclusions on to October 1932, it stated that Japan was the aggressor, had wrongfully invaded Manchuria and that it should be returned to the Chinese. It argued that the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo should not be recognized, recommended Manchurian autonomy under Chinese sovereignty; the League of Nations General Assembly adopted the report, Japan quit the League. The recommendations went into effect after Japan surrendered in 1945; the Lytton Commission was headed by V. A. G. R. Bulwer-Lytton, the second Earl of Lytton of Great Britain, included four other members, one each from the US, Germany and France; the group spent six weeks in Manchuria in spring 1932 on a fact-finding mission, after meeting with government leaders in the Republic of China and in Japan.
It was hoped that the report would defuse the hostilities between Japan and China and would thus help maintain peace and stability in the Far East. The Lytton Report contained an account of the situation in Manchuria before September 1931, when the Mukden Incident took place as the Japanese army seized the large Chinese province of Manchuria; the Report described the unsatisfactory features of the Chinese administration and giving weight to the various claims and complaints of Japan. It proceeded with a narrative of the events in Manchuria subsequent to September 18, 1931, based on the evidence of many participants and on that of eyewitnesses, it devoted particular attention to the origins and development of the State of Manchukuo, proclaimed by the time the Commission reached Manchuria. It covered the question of the economic interests of Japan both in Manchuria and China as a whole, the nature and effects of the Chinese anti-Japanese boycott. Soviet Union interests in the region were mentioned.
The Commission submitted a study of the conditions to which, in its judgment, any satisfactory solution should conform, made various proposals and suggestions as to how an agreement embodying these principles might be brought about. However, the report did not directly address one of its chief goals: the cause of the Mukden Incident. Instead, it stated the Japanese position, with no comment as to the truth or falsity of the Japanese claims. Although there was no doubt as to Japan's guilt among the five commission members, Claudel insisted that Japan not be portrayed as the aggressor. In spite of care to preserve impartiality between the conflicting views of China and Japan, the effect of the Report was regarded as a substantial vindication of the Chinese case on most fundamental issues. In particular, the Commission stated that the operations of the Imperial Japanese Army following on the Mukden incident could not be regarded as legitimate self-defence. Regarding Manchukuo, the Report concluded that the new State could not have been formed without the presence of Japanese troops.
Still, the report held that both Japan had legitimate grievances. Japan, it states, took advantage of questionable rights, China obstructed by the exercise of her undoubted rights; the Geneva correspondent of the "Daily Telegraph" says: "The report, approved unanimously, proposes that China and Japan shall be given three months in which to accept or reject the recommendations. It is hoped that the parties will agree to direct negotiations." The "Daily Telegraph" French correspondent says: "The report insists on the withdrawal of Japanese troops within the South Manchuria railway zone, recommends the establishment of an organisation under the sovereignty of China to deal with conditions in Manchuria, taking due account of the rights and interests of Japan, the formation of a committee of negotiation for the application of these and other recommendations." In September 1932 before the official announcement of the findings of the Lytton Report on October 2, 1932, was made public, the Japanese government extended official diplomatic recognition to the puppet government of Manchukuo.
When the findings of the Report were announced before the General Assembly of the League of Nations, a motion was raised to condemn Japan as an aggressor in February 1933, the Japanese delegation led by ambassador Yosuke Matsuoka walked out. Japan gave formal notice of its withdrawal from the League of Nations on March 27, 1933; the United States announced the Stimson Doctrine, which warned Japan that areas gained by conquest would not be recognized. In the end, the Lytton Report served to show the weaknesses of the League of Nations and its inability to enforce its decisions; the situation was complicated by the length of time it took for the Lytton Commission to prepare its report, during which time, Japan was able to secure its control over Manchuria and was thus able to reject the condemnation of the League with impunity. The Lytton Commission was set up through the initiative of Japanese, making the whole commission questionable as Japan spearheaded to their eventual withdrawal from the League of Nations in 1933.
* Chang, David Wen-wei. "The Western Powers and Japan's Aggression in China: The League of Nations and'The Lytton Report.'" Amer