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Empirical research

Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence can be analyzed qualitatively. Quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be defined and answerable with the evidence collected. Research design varies by the question being investigated. Many researchers told combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings in the social sciences and in education. In some fields, quantitative research may begin with a research question, tested through experimentation. Researcher has a certain theory regarding the topic under investigation. Based on this theory, statements or hypotheses will be proposed. From these hypotheses, predictions about specific events are derived; these predictions can be tested with a suitable experiment.

Depending on the outcomes of the experiment, the theory on which the hypotheses and predictions were based will be supported or not, or may need to be modified and subjected to further testing. The term empirical was used to refer to certain ancient Greek practitioners of medicine who rejected adherence to the dogmatic doctrines of the day, preferring instead to rely on the observation of phenomena as perceived in experience. Empiricism referred to a theory of knowledge in philosophy which adheres to the principle that knowledge arises from experience and evidence gathered using the senses. In scientific use, the term empirical refers to the gathering of data using only evidence, observable by the senses or in some cases using calibrated scientific instruments. What early philosophers described as empiricist and empirical research have in common is the dependence on observable data to formulate and test theories and come to conclusions; the researcher attempts to describe the interaction between the instrument and the entity being observed.

If instrumentation is involved, the researcher is expected to calibrate his/her instrument by applying it to known standard objects and documenting the results before applying it to unknown objects. In other words, it describes the research that has not taken their results. In practice, the accumulation of evidence for or against any particular theory involves planned research designs for the collection of empirical data, academic rigor plays a large part of judging the merits of research design. Several typologies for such designs have been suggested, one of the most popular of which comes from Campbell and Stanley, they are responsible for popularizing the cited distinction among pre-experimental and quasi-experimental designs and are staunch advocates of the central role of randomized experiments in educational research. Accurate analysis of data using standardized statistical methods in scientific studies is critical to determining the validity of empirical research. Statistical formulas such as regression, uncertainty coefficient, t-test, chi square, various types of ANOVA are fundamental to forming logical, valid conclusions.

If empirical data reach significance under the appropriate statistical formula, the research hypothesis is supported. If not, the null hypothesis is supported, meaning no effect of the independent variable was observed on the dependent variable; the outcome of empirical research using statistical hypothesis testing is never proof. It can only reject it, or do neither; these methods yield only probabilities. Among scientific researchers, empirical evidence refers to objective evidence that appears the same regardless of the observer. For example, a thermometer will not display different temperatures for each individual who observes it. Temperature, as measured by an accurate, well calibrated thermometer, is empirical evidence. By contrast, non-empirical evidence is subjective, depending on the observer. Following the previous example, observer A might truthfully report that a room is warm, while observer B might truthfully report that the same room is cool, though both observe the same reading on the thermometer.

The use of empirical evidence negates this effect of personal time. The varying perception of empiricism and rationalism shows concern with the limit to which there is dependency on experience of sense as an effort of gaining knowledge. According to rationalism, there are a number of different ways in which sense experience is gained independently for the knowledge and concepts. According to empiricism, sense experience is considered as the main source of every piece of knowledge and the concepts. In general, rationalists are known for the development of their own views following two different way. First, the key argument can be placed that there are cases in which the content of knowledge or concepts end up outstripping the information; this outstripped. Second, there is construction of accounts as to how reasonin

Speaker of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly

The Speaker of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly is the presiding officer of the Legislative Assembly, New South Wales's lower chamber of Parliament. The current Speaker is Jonathan O'Dea, elected on 7 May 2019. Traditionally a partisan office, filled by the governing party of the time, O'Dea replaced the previous Liberal Speaker Shelley Hancock, following the 2019 state election; the Speaker presides over the House's debates. The Speaker is responsible for maintaining order during debate, may punish members who break the rules of the House. Conventionally, the Speaker remains non-partisan, renounces all affiliation with his former political party when taking office; the Speaker does not take part in vote, although the Speaker is still able to speak. Aside from duties relating to presiding over the House, the Speaker performs administrative and procedural functions, remains a constituency Member of Parliament; the office of the Speaker is recognised in section 31 of the Constitution Act 1902 as the Legislative Assembly's "independent and impartial representative".

The first act of the new Parliament, after the swearing in of Members, is the election of a Speaker. Section 31B of the Constitution Act outlines the method of election. Under section 70 of the Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Act 1912, the Speaker issues writs to fill vacancies caused otherwise than by a General Election, which would be issued by the Governor; the Speaker's role in the House is to maintain order, put questions after debate and conduct divisions. In maintaining order the Speaker interprets and applies the Standing Orders and practice of the House by making rulings and decisions; the Speaker has extensive administrative functions, being responsible, with the President, for the overall direction of the Parliament. In this, the Presiding Officers are advised by the Clerks of both Houses; the Speaker is responsible for the operation of the Department of the Legislative Assembly. If only one candidate is nominated for election no ballot is held, the Assembly proceeds directly to the motion to appoint the candidate to the Speakership.

A similar procedure is used if a Speaker seeks a further term after a general election: no ballot is held, the Assembly votes on a motion to re-elect the Speaker. If the motion to re-elect the Speaker fails, candidates are nominated, the Assembly proceeds with voting. Upon the passage of the motion, the Speaker-elect is expected to show reluctance at being chosen; this custom has its roots in the Speaker's original function of communicating the House of Commons' opinions to the monarch. The Speaker, representing the House to the Monarch faced the Monarch's anger and therefore required some persuasion to accept the post. After election, the Speaker ceases to be associated with her former party. In 2007, Richard Torbay was the first independent Speaker since 1917, breaking a pattern of alternation between Labor and Conservative members which had occurred from the 1917 through to the 2003 elections of Speakers. Many Speakers held higher or other offices while in Parliament: The first Speaker, Sir Daniel Cooper was made a Baronet, of Woollahra in New South Wales, in 1863.

Following the Westminster tradition inherited from the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, the traditional dress of the speaker includes components of Court dress such as the black silk lay-type gown, a lace collar or jabot, bar jacket, white gloves and a full-bottomed wig. The dress variated according to the party in power, with most Labor party speakers eschewing the wig while retaining the court dress, while conservative and independent speakers tended to wear the full dress; the Speaker no longer wears the traditional court dress outfit. Kevin Rozzoli was the last speaker to do so. From 1995 to 2007, Speakers Murray and Aquilina opted not to wear any dress at all, preferring a business suit. Torbay chose not to wear the full court dress of the speaker upon his election in 2007 he returned to tradition by wearing the gown during question time and significant occasions such as the Budget. Speaker Hancock has continued this practice. However, there is nothing stopping any given Speaker, if they choose to do so, from assuming traditional court dress or anything they deem appropriate.

The NSW Legislative Assembly Parliament of NSW – Presiding officers

Women in Sikhism

The role of women in Sikhism is outlined in the Sikh scriptures, which state that women are equal to men. The principles of Sikhism state that women have the same souls as men and thus possess an equal right to cultivate their spirituality with equal chances of achieving salvation. Woman can participate in all religious, cultural and secular activities including lead religious congregations, take part in the Akhand Path, perform Kirtan, work as a Granthis; as a result, Sikhism was among the first major world religions to suggest that women are equal to men. "Guru Nanak proclaimed the equality of men and women, both he and the gurus that succeeded him encouraged men and women to take a full part in all the activities of Sikh worship and practice."Sikh history has recorded the role of women, portraying them as equals to men in service, devotion and bravery. Examples of women's moral dignity and self-sacrifice can be found throughout the Sikh tradition. Sikh history records the names of several of these women, such as Mata Sahib Kaur, Mata Gujri, Mai Bhago, Mata Sundari, Rani Sahib Kaur, Rani Sada Kaur and Maharani Jind Kaur.

"Hindu women had equal status with men in many ways in the Vedic period, when Upanayana, the rite of initiation was open to them." Women who were used to having the same privileges as men in Vedic India were reduced to a position of subordination during the time of the Lawgivers. The Sikh Gurus and various Sikh saints did much to progress women's rights which were downtrodden in the 15th century. To ensure a new equal status for women, the Gurus made no distinction between the sexes in matters of initiation, instruction or participation in sangat and pangat. According to Sarup Das Bhalla, Mahima Prakash, Guru Amar Das disfavoured the use of the veil by women, he assigned women to supervise some communities of disciples and preached against the custom of sati. Guru Amar Das raised his voice against female infanticide. Guru Gobind Singh instructed the Khalsa to not associate with kanyapapi, those who sin towards woman, the Guru was strongly against the objectification of woman; the Guru gave those women who were baptized into the Khalsa, the surname of Kaur, the status of princess.

Women's displays of steadfastness during the eighteenth century when Sikhs were fiercely persecuted have had a strong impact on modern-day Sikhs, who recount these stories in their ardas: "Our mothers and sisters they repeat every time in their prayer, who plied handmills in the jails of Mannu, grinding daily a maund-and-a-quarter of corn each, who saw their children being hacked to pieces in front of their eyes, but who uttered not a moan from their lips and remained steadfast in their Sikh faith—recall their spirit of fortitude and sacrifice, say, Glory be to God!" Baba Ram Singh did much for woman's rights including opposing infanticide, selling of young girls into servitude, the dowry system, the pardah system, endeavored to achieve higher standards of literacy, the remarriage of widows. During the Sikh revival movement of Singh Sabha beginning in the 1870s, the Singh Sabha raised its voice against the purdah system, female infanticide, child marriage, bad conditions of widows, practice of dowry and extravagant expenditure during marriage.

In the Asa ki Var, Guru Nanak Dev rejects the prevalent superstition of sutak, the belief that a woman giving birth to a child is unclean for a given number of days depending upon the caste to which she belongs: "The impurity of the mind is greed, the impurity of the tongue is falsehood. The impurity of the eyes is to gaze upon the beauty of his wealth; the impurity of the ears is to listen to the slander of others. O Nanak, the mortal's soul goes and gagged, to the city of Death. All impurity comes from attachment to duality. Birth and death are subject to the command of the Lord's Will. Instead of celibacy and renunciation, Guru Nanak recommends grhastha—the life of a householder. Husband and wife were equal. In sacred verse, domestic happiness was presented as a cherished ideal and marriage provided a running metaphor for the expression of love for the Divine. Bhai Gurdas, poet of early Sikhism and authoritative interpreter of Sikh doctrine, paid high tribute to women saying: "A woman, is the favourite in her parental home, loved dearly by her father and mother.

In the home of her in-laws, she is the pillar of the family, the guarantee of its good fortune... Sharing in spiritual wisdom and enlightenment and with noble qualities endowed, a woman, the other half of man, escorts him to the door of liberation." Guru Nānak, the founder of Sikhism, condemned the practice of treating women as impure while menstruating. The Guru makes it clear that the menstrual cycle is a God-given process; the blood of a woman is required for the creation of any human being. The requirement of the mother's blood is fundamental for life. Thus, the menstrual cycle is an essential and God-given biological process; those who are impure from within are the impure ones. Whether a person's clothes are blood stained or not is not of spiritual importance. Thus, there are no restrictions placed on a woman during her menstruation, she is free to take part in prayers and do Seva. In The Feminine Principle in the Sikh vision of the transcendent, Nikky Guninder Kaur-Singh writes:'The denigration of the female body "expressed in many cultural and religious taboos surrou