A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals and trusts. Tax evasion entails taxpayers deliberately misrepresenting the true state of their affairs to the tax authorities to reduce their tax liability and includes dishonest tax reporting, such as declaring less income, profits or gains than the amounts earned, or overstating deductions. Tax evasion is an activity associated with the informal economy. One measure of the extent of tax evasion is the amount of unreported income, the difference between the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authorities and the actual amount reported. In contrast, tax avoidance is the legal use of tax laws to reduce one's tax burden. Both tax evasion and avoidance can be viewed as forms of tax noncompliance, as they describe a range of activities that intend to subvert a state's tax system, although such classification of tax avoidance is not indisputable, given that avoidance is lawful, within self-creating systems. In 1968, Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker first theorized the economics of crime, on the basis of which authors M.
G. Allingham and A. Sandmo produced, in 1972, an economic model of tax evasion; this model deals with the evasion of income tax, the main source of tax revenue in developed countries. According to the authors, the level of evasion of income tax depends on the detection probability and the level of punishment provided by law; the literature's theoretical models are elegant in their effort to identify the variables to affect non-compliance. Alternative specifications, yield conflicting results concerning both the signs and magnitudes of variables believed to affect tax evasion. Empirical work is required to resolve the theoretical ambiguities. Income tax evasion appears to be positively influenced by the tax rate, the unemployment rate, the level of income and dissatisfaction with government; the U. S. Tax Reform Act of 1986 appears to have reduced tax evasion in the United States. In a 2017 study Alstadsæter et al. concluded based on random stratified audits and leaked data that occurrence of tax evasion rises as amount of wealth rises and that the richest are about 10 times more than average people to engage in tax avoidance.
Customs duties are an important source of revenue in developing countries. Importers purport to evade customs duty by under-invoicing and misdeclaration of quantity and product-description; when there is ad valorem import duty, the tax base can be reduced through underinvoicing. Misdeclaration of quantity is more relevant for products with specific duty. Production description is changed to match a H. S. Code commensurate with a lower rate of duty. Smuggling is exportation of foreign products by illegal means. Smuggling is resorted to for total evasion of customs duties, as well as for the importation of contraband. A smuggler does not have to pay any customs duty since smuggled products are not routed through customs-tax compliant customs ports, are therefore not subjected to declaration and, by extension, to the payment of duties and taxes. During the second half of the 20th century, value-added tax emerged as a modern form of consumption tax throughout the world, with the notable exception of the United States.
Producers who collect VAT from consumers may evade tax by under-reporting the amount of sales. The US has no broad-based consumption tax at the federal level, no state collects VAT. Canada uses both a VAT at sales taxes at the provincial level. In addition, most jurisdictions which levy a VAT or sales tax legally require their residents to report and pay the tax on items purchased in another jurisdiction; this means that consumers who purchase something in a lower-taxed or untaxed jurisdiction with the intention of avoiding VAT or sales tax in their home jurisdiction are technically breaking the law in most cases. This is prevalent in federal countries like the US and Canada where sub-national jurisdictions charge varying rates of VAT or sales tax. In liberal democracies, a fundamental problem with inhibiting evasion of local sales taxes is that liberal democracies, by their nature, have few border controls between their internal jurisdictions. Therefore, it is not cost-effective to enforce tax collection on low-value goods carried in private vehicles from one jurisdiction to another with a different tax rate.
However, sub-national governments will seek to collect sales tax on high-value items such as cars. Dennis Kozlowski is a notable figure for his alleged evasion of sales tax. What started as an investigation into Kozlowski's failure to declare art purchases for the purpose of evading New York state sales taxes led to Kozlowski's conviction and incarceration on more serious charges related to the misappropriation of funds during his tenure as CEO of Tyco International; the level of evasion depends on a number of factors, including the amount of money a person or a corporation possesses. Efforts to evade income tax decline when the amounts involved are lower; the level of evasion depends on the efficiency of the tax administration. Corruption by tax officials make it difficult to control evasion. Tax administrations use various means to reduce evasion and increase the level of enforcement: for example, privatization of tax enforcement or tax farming. In 2011 HMRC, the UK tax collection agency, stated that it would continue to crack down on tax evasion, with the goal of collecting £18 billion in revenue before 2015.
In 2010, HMRC began a voluntary amnesty program that targeted middle-
False billing is a fraudulent act of invoicing or otherwise requesting funds from an individual or firm without showing obligation to pay. Such notices are for example sent to owners of domain names, purporting to be legitimate renewal notices, although not originating from the owner's own registrar
Employment is a relationship between two parties based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does or which sector she or he is working in. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is governed by employment laws, regulations or legal contracts. An employee contributes labor and expertise to an endeavor of an employer or of a person conducting a business or undertaking and is hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job. In a corporate context, an employee is a person, hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business.
Employer and managerial control within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between desired outcomes and actual processes. Employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship; the main ways for employers to find workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online called job boards. Employers and job seekers often find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find and select suitable candidates. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees. A more traditional approach is with a "Help Wanted" sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments.
Employer and potential employee take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview. Training and development refers to the employer's effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job, to help the employee grow within the organization. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve employee's job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, or by gratuities. In sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus; some executives and employees may be paid in stocks or stock options, a compensation approach that has the added benefit, from the company's point of view, of helping to align the interests of the compensated individual with the performance of the company.
Employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. The benefits can include: housing, group insurance, disability income protection, retirement benefits, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, social security, profit sharing, funding of education, other specialized benefits. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, the benefits may include meals. Employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is an employee's perception and judgement of employer's treatment in the context of fairness or justice; the resulting actions to influence the employee-employer relationship is a part of organizational justice. Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the work force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working, contractual conditions and services. Either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time subject to a certain notice period.
This is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include requirements such as notice periods, severance pay, security measures. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, some orchestra jobs, some employees may have tenure, which means that they cannot be dismissed at will. Another type of termination is a layoff. Wage labor is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells their labor under a formal or informal employment contract; these transactions occur in a labor market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are vested in the original personal inventor. A wage laborer is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labor in this way.
In modern mixed economies such as that
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve
A wage is monetary compensation paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done. Payment may be calculated as a fixed amount for each task completed, or at an hourly or daily rate, or based on an measured quantity of work done. Wages are part of the expenses. Payment by wage contrasts with salaried work, in which the employer pays an arranged amount at steady intervals regardless of hours worked, with commission which conditions pay on individual performance, with compensation based on the performance of the company as a whole. Waged employees may receive tips or gratuity paid directly by clients and employee benefits which are non-monetary forms of compensation. Since wage labour is the predominant form of work, the term "wage" sometimes refers to all forms of employee compensation. Wage labour involves the exchange of money for time spent at work; as Moses I. Finley lays out the issue in The Ancient Economy: The idea of wage-labour requires two difficult conceptual steps. First it requires the abstraction of a man's labour from both his person and the product of his work.
When one purchases an object from an independent craftsman... one has not bought his labour but the object, which he had produced in his own time and under his own conditions of work. But when one hires labour, one purchases an abstraction, labour-power, which the purchaser uses at a time and under conditions which he, the purchaser, not the "owner" of the labour-power, determines. Second, the wage labour system requires the establishment of a method of measuring the labour one has purchased, for purposes of payment by introducing a second abstraction, namely labour-time; the wage is the monetary measure corresponding to the standard units of working time. The earliest such unit of time, still used, is the day of work; the invention of clocks coincided with the elaborating of subdivisions of time for work, of which the hour became the most common, underlying the concept of an hourly wage. Wages were paid in the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. Depending on the structure and traditions of different economies around the world, wage rates will be influenced by market forces and tradition.
Market forces are more dominant in the United States, while tradition, social structure and seniority play a greater role in Japan. In countries where market forces set wage rates, studies show that there are still differences in remuneration for work based on sex and race. For example, according to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2007 women of all races made 80% of the median wage of their male counterparts; this is due to the supply and demand for women in the market because of family obligations. White men made about 84% the wage of Asian men, black men 64%; these are overall averages and are not adjusted for the type and quality of work done. Seventy-five million workers earned hourly wages in the United States in 2012, making up 59% of employees. In the United States, wages for most workers are set by market forces, or else by collective bargaining, where a labor union negotiates on the workers' behalf; the Fair Labor Standards Act establishes a minimum wage at the federal level that all states must abide by, among other provisions.
Fourteen states and a number of cities have set their own minimum wage rates that are higher than the federal level. For certain federal or state government contacts, employers must pay the so-called prevailing wage as determined according to the Davis-Bacon Act or its state equivalent. Activists have undertaken to promote the idea of a living wage rate which account for living expenses and other basic necessities, setting the living wage rate much higher than current minimum wage laws require; the minimum wage rate is there to protect the well being of the working class. For purposes of federal income tax withholding, 26 U. S. C. § 3401 defines the term "wages" for chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code: "For purposes of this chapter, the term “wages” means all remuneration for services performed by an employee for his employer, including the cash value of all remuneration paid in any medium other than cash. Political science: Labour power Proletarian Working class Wage slavery Galbraith, James Kenneth.
Created Unequal: the Crisis in American Pay, in series, Twentieth Century Fund Book. New York: Free Press, 1998. ISBN 0-684-84988-7 Lebergott, Stanley. "Wages and Working Conditions". In David R. Henderson. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270, 163149563 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Wealth of Nations – click Chapter 8 Understanding Capitalism Part III: Wages and Labor Markets – Critical of capitalism U. S. Department of Labor: Minimum Wage Laws – Different laws by State Average U. S. farm and non-farm wage LaborFair Resources – Link to Fair Labor Practices The Truth Behind Wages in Mining – How Wages are measured and Current Standards for Mining Professionals Database Central Europe – Data on average wages in Central Europe and in Emerging Markets Salary and wages data collecti