The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing and distribution. Modern society consumes large amounts of fuel, the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in all countries. In particular, the energy industry comprises: the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations the gas industry, including natural gas extraction, coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales the coal industry the nuclear power industry the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power generation, the manufacture and sale of alternative fuels traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is common in poorer countries The use of energy has been a key in the development of the human society by helping it to control and adapt to the environment.
Managing the use of energy is inevitable in any functional society. In the industrialized world the development of energy resources has become essential for agriculture, waste collection, information technology, communications that have become prerequisites of a developed society; the increasing use of energy since the Industrial Revolution has brought with it a number of serious problems, some of which, such as global warming, present grave risks to the world. In some industries, the word energy is used as a synonym of energy resources, which refer to substances like fuels, petroleum products and electricity in general, because a significant portion of the energy contained in these resources can be extracted to serve a useful purpose. After a useful process has taken place, the total energy is conserved, but the resource itself is not conserved, since a process transforms the energy into unusable forms. Since humanity discovered various energy resources available in nature, it has been inventing devices, known as machines, that make life more comfortable by using energy resources.
Thus, although the primitive man knew the utility of fire to cook food, the invention of devices like gas burners and microwave ovens has increased the usage of energy for this purpose alone manyfold. The trend is the same in any other field of social activity, be it construction of social infrastructure, manufacturing of fabrics for covering. Production and consumption of energy resources is important to the global economy. All economic activity requires energy resources, whether to manufacture goods, provide transportation, run computers and other machines. Widespread demand for energy may encourage competing energy utilities and the formation of retail energy markets. Note the presence of the "Energy Marketing and Customer Service" sub-sector; the energy sector accounts for 4.6% of outstanding leveraged loans, compared with 3.1% a decade ago, while energy bonds make up 15.7% of the $1.3 trillion junk bond market, up from 4.3% over the same period. Since the cost of energy has become a significant factor in the performance of economy of societies, management of energy resources has become crucial.
Energy management involves utilizing the available energy resources more, with minimum incremental costs. Many times it is possible to save expenditure on energy without incorporating fresh technology by simple management techniques. Most energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by eliminating energy wastage or to balance justifiable energy demand with appropriate energy supply; the process couples energy awareness with energy conservation. The United Nations developed the International Standard Industrial Classification, a list of economic and social classifications. There is no distinct classification for an energy industry, because the classification system is based on activities and expenditures according to purpose. Countries in North America use the North American Industry Classification System; the NAICS sectors #21 and #22 might define the energy industry in North America. This classification is used by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission; the Global Industry Classification Standard used by Morgan Stanley define the energy industry as comprising companies working with oil, gas and consumable fuels, excluding companies working with certain industrial gases.
Add to expand this section: Dow Jones Industrial Average Government encouragement in the form of subsidies and tax incentives for energy-conservation efforts has fostered the view of conservation as a major function of the energy industry: saving an amount of energy provides economic benefits identical to generating that same amount of energy. This is compounded by the fact that the economics of delivering energy tend to be priced for capacity as opposed to average usage. One of the purposes of a smart grid infrastructure is to smooth out demand so that capacity and demand curves align more closely; some parts of the energy industry generate considerable pollution, including toxic and greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, nuclear waste from the generation of nuclear power, oil spillages as a result of petroleum extraction. Government regulations to internaliz
S. A. or Société anonyme designates a type of corporation in countries that employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions, it is different from private limited companies. Shareholders could be anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to. Share certificates could be transferred and therefore the management of the company would not know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, illegal unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice. Nowadays, shareholders of S. A.s are not anonymous, though shares can still be held by holding companies in order to obscure the beneficiary. S. A. can be an abbreviation of: Sociedade Anónima in Galician and European Portuguese Sociedá Anónima in Asturian and Leonese Sociedade Anônima in Brazilian Portuguese Societat Anònima in Catalan Société anonyme in French Società Anonima in Italian Sociedad Anónima or Sociedad por Acciones in Spanish Mexican law takes into account the variability of the corporate stock, resulting in most S.
A. turning into Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable, or Sociedad Anónima Bursátil de Capital Variable for publicly traded companies. Mexico has Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada de Capital Variable, analogous to the limited liability company. Spółka Akcyjna in Polish Societate pe Acțiuni in RomanianIt is equivalent in literal meaning and function to: Naamloze vennootschap in Dutch Ανώνυμη Εταιρεία, Anonymi Etaireia in Greek Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka in Indonesia Berhad in Malaysia Anonim Şirket in Turkish Corporación anónima in VenezuelaIt is equivalent in function to: Shoqëri Aksionare in Albanian شركة مساهة عامة ذات مسؤولية محدودة ش.ذ.م.م, Sharikah musāhamah ʿāmmah dhāt mas'ūliyyah maḥdūdah in Arabic Dioničko društvo in Croatian and Bosnian Акционерно дружество, Aktsionerno druzhestvo in Bulgarian Акционерско друштво, Aktsionersko drushtvo in Macedonian Akciová společnost in Czech Aktieselskab in Danish Société anonyme égyptienne or (شركة مساهمة مصرية (ش.م.م in Egypt Osakeyhtiö in Finnish Aktsiaselts in Estonian Aktiengesellschaft in German Részvénytársaság in Hungarian Hlutafélag in Icelandic Public Limited in India Public limited company in the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries Kabushiki Gaisha or 株式会社 in Japan Jusighoesa or 주식회사 in Korea Société anonyme laotienne in Laos Akcinė bendrovė in Lithuanian Akciju Sabiedrība in Latvian Aksjeselskap in Norwegian Акционерное общество, Aktsionernoye obshchestvo in Russian Деоничарско друштво, Deoničarsko društvo, or Акционарско друштво, Akcionarsko društvo in Serbian Akciová spoločnosť in Slovak Delniška družba in Slovene Aktiebolag in Swedish Акціонерне товариство, Aktsionerne tovarystvo in Ukrainian Publicly traded company or Incorporated in the United States, though the former term does not appear in the names of business entities Compañía Anónima in Andorra ក.អ or Société anonyme cambodgienne in Cambodia Président-directeur général Global Witness on Anonymous Companies
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Sociedad Química y Minera
Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile is a Chilean chemical company and a supplier of plant nutrients, iodine and industrial chemicals. It is the world’s biggest lithium producer. SQM's natural resources and its main production facilities are located in the Atacama Desert between Chile's I and II regions. SQM, the latest guise of an Anglo-Chilean Nitrate and Railway Company, formed by London businessmen in 1882, was founded in 1968 to reorganize the Chilean nitrate industry, its ownership was shared between the Chilean state and the Compañía Nitratera Anglo Lautaro S. A. During a second phase of reorganisation, the industry was nationalised, was thus owned by the Chilean state. In response to the 1970s wave of neoliberalism, a process of privatisation started in 1983 and was completed in 1988. To transport nitrates from its mines to the port, SQM operated a 3 ft 6 in gauge railway from María Elena to Tocopilla; the railway consisted of two sections. All trains changed locomotives at Barriles. Per year, the railway transported 1.1 million tons of finished product to the port of Tocopilla and 12 million tons of caliche ore from various mining sites to the Pedro de Valdivia plant.
In August 2015 unprecedented flash flooding caused numerous washouts on the electric section of the railroad, most notably the area around the switchback on the escarpment leading down to the port at Tocopilla. As a result of this, along with the closure of the Pedro Valdivia mine/plant, the railroad ceased all operations, both electric and diesel, in late November 2015. All railroad staff were laid off and all railroad equipment stored at Tocopilla and Maria Elena awaiting possible sale or scrapping; the end of a historic railway. Trucks are now hauling product from Maria Elena/Coya Sur plants to the port. In 2018, China's Tianqi Lithium Corp. made a bid to acquire a large stake in SQM from Canadian mining company Nurien Ltd. for $4.1 billion. People associated with former senior managers in the company were in 2016 and 2017 investigated by the Chilean national police in relation to allegations of tax evasion and bribery; this investigation was referred to by La Nación, a major Chilean newspaper, as "the SQM Affair".
On 13 January 2017, as part of an investigation by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission into violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, SQM agreed to pay a $30 million penalty to resolve parallel civil and criminal cases. According to the investigation, the company made $15 million in improper payments to Chilean political figures and others connected to them in a seven-year period. Official website Spanish blog run by Mario Beroiza, a SQM employee
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Índice de Precio Selectivo de Acciones
The Indice de Precio Selectivo de Acciones is a Chilean stock market index composed of the 40 stocks with the highest average annual trading volume in the Santiago Stock Exchange. On the last trading day of the year, the index is re-based back to 1000; the index is revised on a quarterly basis. Bloomberg page for IPSA IPSA at Santiago Stock Exchange site
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari