Wang Yun (Han dynasty)
Wang Yun, courtesy name Zishi, was an official who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. He served in the Han government through the reigns of three emperors – Emperor Ling, Emperor Shao and Emperor Xian; the highest offices he served in were Manager of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing and Minister over the Masses in the early reign of Emperor Xian. In 192, with help from the general Lü Bu and others, he plotted a successful coup in Chang'an against Dong Zhuo, a tyrannical warlord who controlled the Han central government, assassinated him; however that year, Dong Zhuo's followers staged a counter-coup and seized back control of the central government. Wang Yun, along with his family members, were executed. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms Wang Yun was the adoptive father of the fictional maiden Diaochan, whom he used to stir up conflict between Lü Bu and Dong Zhuo, causing the former to betray and assassinate the latter. According to Book of Later Han, Wang Yun was from Taiyuan.
His family had many members who had served as administrative officials in the regional government for generations. Wang Yun himself was an official at the age of 19, became the Inspector of Yu Province; however he failed in the power struggle with the eunuch Zhang Rang. He had to hide himself in the countryside. After the death of Zhang Rang, the general He Jin came into power, Wang Yun was promoted to the Gentleman of the Household and to the Intendant of Henan. In 190, the capital Luoyang fell into chaos following the death of He Jin and a bloody clash between the powerful eunuch faction and government officials. Dong Zhuo, a warlord from Liang Province managed to take control of the situation and placed in the throne a puppet emperor whom he held in his power. At the time, Wang Yun held the positions of the Minister over the Masses and the Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Dong Zhuo's subsequent tyrannical and cruel behaviour aroused the wrath of many. Wang Yun colluded with several other officials in a plot to assassinate Dong Zhuo.
The plan received a huge boost when the conspirators managed to recruit the help of Lü Bu, a formidable warrior serving as a general under Dong Zhuo. Bringing along a dozen men, Lü Bu cornered Dong Zhuo outside the palace gate and slew the tyrannical warlord. After the death of Dong Zhuo, rumours spread that Wang Yun, now the de facto head of the Han central government, wanted to purge and execute all of Dong Zhuo's former subordinates; when Wang Yun refused to grant amnesty to Dong Zhuo's former subordinates, they took up arms under the leadership of Li Jue and Guo Si, who led them to attack Chang'an. Li Jue and Guo Si defeated the Han imperial forces guarding Chang occupied the capital. While Lü Bu was planning to flee Chang'an before the city fell, he asked Wang Yun to escape together with him. However, Wang Yun remained behind. Li Jue and Guo Si's forces killed him along with his family; some of Wang Yun's relatives managed to survive. Wang Yun appears as a character in two chapters of the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China.
In the novel, Wang Yun devised an elaborate plot to eliminate Dong Zhuo. It involved two of the Thirty-Six Stratagems: Chain Stratagems. In Chapter 8, Wang Yun was thinking about how to get rid of Dong Zhuo when he encountered Diaochan, a singer in his household whom he had been treating like his daughter. An idea struck him: Make use of Diaochan to sow discord between Dong Zhuo and Lü Bu, instigate Lü Bu to assassinate Dong Zhuo, he invited Lü Bu and Dong Zhuo to his residence for a party on two separate occasions. On both occasions, he asked Diaochan to catch his attention, he promised to marry Diaochan to Lü Bu. When Lü Bu found out, he suspected that Dong Zhuo had seized Diaochan for himself and became angry. One day, while Dong Zhuo was out, Lü Bu sneaked into his room to meet Diaochan, she pleaded with him to save her from Dong Zhuo. In the meantime, Dong Zhuo had returned and he saw Lü Bu embracing Diaochan, he was so furious. After calming down, Dong Zhuo spoke to Diaochan and asked if she was willing to marry Lü Bu, but she said she would rather die and attempted suicide.
Dong Zhuo believed her. In Chapter 9, as Lü Bu became resentful of Dong Zhuo, Wang Yun used the opportunity to instigate and incite Lü Bu to turn against Dong Zhuo. Wang Yun managed to convince Lü Bu to kill Dong Zhuo, set up an ambush near the palace gates, he lied to Dong Zhuo, saying that Emperor Xian wanted to abdicate his throne to him, lured Dong Zhuo into the ambush, where he met his end at Lü Bu's hands. In Chapter 9, when Chang'an was surrounded by Li Jue and Guo Si's forces, Wang Yun made them promise to not harm Emperor Xian and committed suicide in front of them by jumping off the viewing platform above the city gates. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050. Fan, Ye. Book of the Later Han. Luo, Guanzhong. Romance of t
Dong Zhuo, courtesy name Zhongying, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He seized control of the capital Luoyang in 189 when it entered a state of turmoil following the death of Emperor Ling of Han and a massacre of the eunuch faction by the court officials led by General-in-Chief He Jin. Dong Zhuo subsequently replaced him with the puppet Emperor Xian of Han. Dong Zhuo's rule was brief and characterized by tyranny. In the following year, a coalition of regional officials and warlords launched a Campaign against Dong Zhuo. Failing to stop the coalition forces, Dong Zhuo sacked Luoyang and relocated further west to Chang'an, he was assassinated soon after in 192 by his subordinate Lü Bu in a plot orchestrated by Interior Minister Wang Yun. Dong Zhuo was born in Longxi Commandery, he was said to be a chivalrous youth, physically strong and excelled in horseback archery in his early days. He befriended many men of valor; when he became an adult, he returned and started farming in the countryside, where he incidentally discovered a blade which had obscure inscription fading from it, reading "slash the kings like logging."
When he took the sabre to the scholar Cai Yong for appraisal, the latter claimed that it was the blade of the Hegemon-King of Western Chu, Xiang Yu. Dong Zhuo became an imperial guard and joined Zhang Huan's campaign against Qiang rebels in Bing Province as a Major, he was rewarded with 9,000 rolls of fine silk for his performance, all of which he distributed to his colleagues and subordinates. Dong Zhuo was sent to quell the Yellow Turban Rebellion in the early 180s after a few subsequent promotions but he was defeated by the rebels and demoted; when the Liang Province Rebellion occurred and the barbarians rebelled with local gentries Han Sui and Bian Zhang, Dong was reinstated and sent to suppress the rebels. During a battle with the Qiang tribes, Dong Zhuo's outnumbered army was driven to a river which sealed his escape. To prevent his army from being routed by the enemy, Dong ordered his troops to dam the river and pretend to fish in the artificial reservoir; when they escaped enemy notice, he sent his men to cross the drained lower stream and break the dam in order to thwart any subsequent pursuits by the enemy.
Despite failing to defeat the rebels, Dong's unit was the only one. Dong Zhuo was henceforth promoted to General of the Inspector of Bing Province. However, he refused to take up his new post as he was unwilling to leave his troops and subordinates back in Liang Province. Realizing that the power of the Han dynasty was waning, Dong chose to settle in Liang Province and build up his power. At the time, a Han military officer, Sun Jian, suggested to his superior that Dong's arrogance and insubordination to the court warranted a death sentence, but his advice went unheeded. Following the death of Emperor Ling of Han in 189, General-in-Chief He Jin ordered Dong Zhuo to lead troops into Luoyang to aid him in eliminating the eunuch faction known as the Ten Attendants. Before Dong could arrive, He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs and the capital city fell into a state of turmoil; the eunuchs took Liu Bian fled from Luoyang. Dong Zhuo's army brought the emperor back to the palace. At the same time, He Jin's half-brother, General of Chariots and Cavalry He Miao, was killed by his subordinates after they accused him of colluding with the eunuchs.
Before arriving in Luoyang, Dong Zhuo realized that he was an unpopular candidate for regent among the city gentry, so to make himself seem more powerful than he was, Dong ordered his army to march out at night and re-enter the city at noon. Thus making it seem as though he had doubled his army. Dong took command of the leaderless forces of He Jin and He Miao. Dong Zhuo proposed to replace Liu Bian with his younger brother, Liu Xie, but the Imperial Commandant of Capital Guards, Ding Yuan, disagreed with him. In retaliation, Dong convinced Lü Bu, to kill his foster father. Henceforth, Lü Bu became Dong's adopted son and trusted aide, assisting him in taking total control of the imperial capital of Luoyang. In 190, Dong replaced him with the Emperor Xian of Han. Dong became the head of court in Luoyang, he was given special permission to carry his sword to the Imperial Court while others were forbidden to do so, a privilege not granted to anyone since Xiao He in the time of Emperor Gaozu of Han.
The Chancellor was allowed to enter the court without removing his footwear. His control over the city was so total that he was able to order the army to massacre all the male inhabitants under the pretext of eliminating a rebel army, it was said that Dong Zhuo slept on the emperor's bed and with the palace maids. In the same year, regional officials and warlords around the country formed a coalition force and launched a punitive campaign against Dong Zhuo. In response, he sent a detachment to intercept the coalition vanguard led by Sun Jian, ordered his son-in-law, Niu Fu, to supply the fortress of Mei with 30 years' worth of rations. After his subordinates Hua Xiong, Hu Zhen, Lu Bu were defeated by Sun Jian at Yangren, Dong Zhuo sent Li Jue to propose a marriage between Sun's son and Dong's daughter, split the empire between the two families. Sun Jian prepared to attack Luoyang. Dong moved them to Chang ` an in the west. Before the relocation, Dong ordered his troops to ransack the tombs of the late Han emperors for treasures, seize valuables from
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Chen Shou, courtesy name Chengzuo, was an official and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China. He started his career as an official in the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era but was demoted and sent out of the capital for his refusal to fawn on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch in Shu in its twilight years. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation before Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the Jin government, he held scribal and secretarial positions under the Jin government before dying from illness in 297. He had over 200 writings -- -- attributed to him. Chen Shou's most celebrated work, the Records of the Three Kingdoms, which records the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in the form of biographies of notable persons of those eras, is part of the Twenty-Four Histories canon of Chinese history. Despite his achievements, Chen Shou's life was marred by disgraceful incidents, including his making of false accusations against another official and the controversies surrounding his writing of the Sanguozhi.
There are two biographies of Chen Shou. The first one is in the Book of Jin, written by Fang Xuanling and others in the seventh century during the Tang dynasty; the second one is in the Chronicles of Huayang, written by Chang Qu in the fourth century during the Eastern Jin dynasty. Chen Shou was from Anhan County, Baxi Commandery, in present-day Nanchong, Sichuan, he was known for being studious since he was young and was described as intelligent and knowledgeable. He was mentored by the Shu official Qiao Zhou, from Baxi Commandery. Under Qiao Zhou's tutelage, he read the Classic of History and Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals, he was well versed in the Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han. According to the Jin Shu, Chen Shou served as a guange lingshi in Shu. However, the Huayang Guozhi mentioned that he held the following appointments consecutively: Registrar of the General of the Guards. In the final years of Shu, many officials fawned on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch, in their bid to win his favour.
Chen Shou's refusal to engage in such flattering and obsequious behaviour took a toll on his career: He was demoted on several occasions and sent out of the Shu capital, Chengdu. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation until Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the government of the Jin dynasty. Zhang Hua appreciated Chen Shou's talent and felt that though Chen did not have an untarnished reputation, he did not deserve to be demoted and dismissed while he was in Shu. Chen Shou was recommended as a xiaolian, appointed as a zuo zhuzuo lang and the acting Prefect of Yangping County. In 274, he collected and compiled the writings of Zhuge Liang, the first chancellor of Shu, submitted them to the Jin imperial court, he was appointed as the zhongzheng of Baxi Commandery. The Huayang Guozhi mentioned that he served as the Chancellor to the Marquis of Pingyang; when Zhang Hua recommended Chen Shou to serve as a Gentleman Palace Writer, the Ministry of Personnel appointed Chen Shou as the Administrator of Changguang Commandery instead on the recommendation of Xun Xu.
The Jin Shu mentioned that Xun Xu detested Zhang Hua and disliked Chen Shou for his association with Zhang Hua, so he urged the Ministry of Personnel to reassign Chen Shou to another position. Chen Shou declined the appointment on the grounds; the Huayang Guozhi gave a different account of Chen Shou's relationship with Xun Xu. It stated that Xun Xu and Zhang Hua were pleased with Chen Shou's Sanguozhi and they remarked that Chen Shou surpassed Ban Gu and Sima Qian; however Xun Xu was displeased by the Wei Shu – one of the three sections in the Sanguozhi – and did not want Chen Shou to work in the same office as him, so he had Chen Shou reassigned to be the Administrator of Changguang. In 278, before the general Du Yu assumed his appointment as the commander of the Jin military forces in Jing Province, he recommended Chen Shou to Emperor Wu and stated that Chen Shou was capable of serving as a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate or Gentleman of Scattered Cavalry. Emperor Wu appointed Chen Shou as a yushi zhishu.
The Jin Shu mentioned that Chen Shou took a leave of absence when his mother died, he fulfilled her dying wish to be buried in Luoyang. However, he ended up being castigated and demoted because his act of burying his mother in Luoyang – instead of in his hometown in Anhan County – was a violation of the proprieties of his time; the Huayang Guozhi gave a varying account of the events: It was Chen Shou's stepmother who died. She did not want to be buried together with his father, so Chen Shou buried her in Luoyang. According to the Jin Shu, many years after his demotion, Chen Shou was appointed as a zhongshuzi to the crown prince Sima Yu, but he did not assume his role, he died of illness at the age of 65 in 297 during the reign of Emperor Hui. The Huayang Guozhi gave a different account of the events before Chen Shou's death, it stated that Chen Shou was appointed as a zhongshuzi to Sima Yu, but was reassigned to be a Regu
Wei known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period. With its capital located at Xuchang, thereafter Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty; the name "Wei" first became associated with Cao Cao when he was named the Duke of Wei by the Eastern Han government in 213, became the name of the state when Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor in 220. Historians add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Southern and Northern Dynasties; the authority of the ruling Cao family weakened in the aftermath of the deposal and execution of Cao Shuang and his siblings, the former being one of the regents for the third Wei emperor, Cao Fang, with state authority falling into the hands of Sima Yi, another Wei regent, his family, from 249 onwards.
The last Wei emperors would remain as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan, forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty. Towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, northern China came under the control of Cao Cao, the chancellor to the last Han ruler, Emperor Xian. In 213, Emperor Xian granted Cao Cao the title of "Duke of Wei" and gave him ten cities as his dukedom; the area was named "Wei". At that time, the southern part of China was divided into two areas controlled by two other warlords, Liu Bei and Sun Quan. In 216, Emperor Xian promoted Cao Cao to the status of a vassal king — "King of Wei" — and granted him more territories. Cao Cao died on 15 March 220 and his vassal king title was inherited by his son Cao Pi; that year, on 11 December, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and took over the throne, establishing the state of Wei. However, Liu Bei contested Cao Pi's claim to the Han throne and declared himself "Emperor of Shu Han" a year later.
Sun Quan was nominally a vassal king under Wei, but he declared independence in 222 and proclaimed himself "Emperor of Wu" in 229. Cao Pi ruled for six years until his death in 226 and was succeeded by his son, Cao Rui, who ruled until his death in 239. Throughout the reigns of Cao Pi and Cao Rui, Wei had been fighting numerous wars with its two rival states — Shu and Wu. Between 228 and 234, Zhuge Liang, the Shu chancellor and regent, led a series of five military campaigns to attack Wei's western borders, with the aim of conquering Chang'an, a strategic city which lay on the road to the Wei capital, Luoyang; the Shu invasions were repelled by the Wei armies led by the generals Cao Zhen, Sima Yi, Zhang He and others. On its southern and eastern borders, Wei engaged Wu in a series of armed conflicts throughout the 220s and 230s, including the battles of Dongkou and Shiting. However, most of the battles resulted in stalemate and neither side managed to expand its territory. After Guanqiu Jian failed to subjugate the Gongsun clan of the Liaodong commandery, it was Sima Yi who, in June 238, as the Grand Commandant, launched an invasion with 40,000 troops at the behest of Emperor Cao Rui against Liaodong, which at this point had been rooted under Gongsun control for 4 decades.
After a three-month long siege, involving some assistance from the Goguryeo Kingdom, Sima Yi managed to capture the capital city of Xiangping, resulting in the conquest of the commandery by late September of the same year. Around that time, as the Korean kingdom Goguryeo consolidated its power, it proceeded to conquer the territories on the Korean peninsula which were under Chinese rule. Goguryeo initiated the Goguryeo–Wei Wars in 242, trying to cut off Chinese access to its territories in Korea by attempting to take a Chinese fort. However, Wei defeated Goguryeo. Hwando was destroyed in revenge by Wei forces in 244. In 249, during the reign of Cao Rui's successor, Cao Fang, the regent Sima Yi seized state power from his co-regent, Cao Shuang, in a coup; this event marked the collapse of imperial authority in Wei, as Cao Fang's role had been reduced to a puppet ruler while Sima Yi wielded state power in his hands. Wang Ling, a Wei general, tried to rebel against Sima Yi, but was swiftly dealt with, took his own life.
Sima Yi died on 7 September 251, passing on his authority to his eldest son, Sima Shi, who continued ruling as regent. Sima Shi deposed Cao Fang in 254, on grounds of planning to stage a rebellion, replaced him with Cao Mao. In response, Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin staged a rebellion, but were crushed by Sima Shi in an event that took a heavy toll on Sima Shi's health, having undergone eye surgery prior to the insurrection, causing him to die on 23 March 255, but not before handing his power and regency over to his younger brother, Sima Zhao. In 258, Sima Zhao quelled Zhuge Dan's rebellion, marking an end to what are known as the Three Rebellions in Shouchun. In 260, Cao Mao attempted to seize back state power from Sima Zhao in a coup, but was killed by Cheng Ji, a military officer, serving under Jia Chong, a subordinate to the Simas. After Cao Mao's death, Cao Huan was enthroned as the fifth ruler of Wei. However, Cao Huan was a mere figurehead under Sima Zhao's control, much like his predecessor.
In 263, Wei armies led by Deng Ai conquered Shu. Afterwards, Zhong Hui and former Shu general Jiang Wei grouped and plotted together in order to oust Sima Zhao from power, various Wei officials t
Records of the Three Kingdoms
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The primary body of the text was written by Chen Shou in the third century and combines the smaller histories of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu into a single text; the Records of the Grand Historian, Book of Han and Book of the Later Han, the Records of the Three Kingdoms make up the four early historical texts of the Twenty-Four Histories canon. The Records of the Three Kingdoms known as Sanguo zhi, contains 65 volumes and about 360,000 Chinese characters broken into three books; the Book of Wei contains 30 volumes, the Book of Shu 15 volumes, while the Book of Wu contains 20 volumes. Each volume is organised in the form of one or more biographies; the author Chen Shou, was born in Sichuan, in the state of Shu Han. After the Conquest of Shu by Wei in 263, he became an official historian under the government of the Jin dynasty, was assigned the task of creating a history of the Three Kingdoms period.
After the Conquest of Wu by Jin in 280, his work received the acclaim of senior minister Zhang Hua. Prior to the Jin dynasty, both the states of Cao Wei and Wu has composed their own official histories, such as the Book of Wei by Wang Chen, the Weilüe by Yu Huan, the Book of Wu by Wei Zhao. Chen Shou used these texts as the foundation of the Records of the Three Kingdoms. However, since the state of Shu lacked documents about its history, the Book of Shu in the Records was composed by Chen Shou himself based on his personal memories of his early life in Shu and other primary sources he collected, such as the writings of Zhuge Liang; the Records of the Three Kingdoms used the year 220 CE—which marks the end of the Han dynasty—as the year in which the state of Wei was established. The Records refer to the rulers of Wei as'Emperors' and those of Shu and Wu as'Lords' or by their personal names; this was to uphold the legitimacy of the Jin dynasty as the inheritor of the Mandate of Heaven from Wei—because Wei must first be "designated" as the true successor to the Han dynasty in order to solidify Jin's claim to legitimacy.
During the fifth century, the Liu Song dynasty historian Pei Songzhi extensively edited and annotated Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms using a variety of other sources, augmenting the text to twice the length of the original. This work, completed in 429, became the official history of the Three Kingdoms period, under the title Sanguozhi zhu, he went about providing detailed explanations to some of the geography and other elements mentioned in the original. More Pei Songzhi made the effort to include multiple accounts of the same events, some of which contradict each other, since he could not decide which version was the correct one. In regard to historical events and figures, as well as Chen Shou's opinions, he added his own commentary. From his broad research, he was able to create a history, complete, without many of the loose ends of the original. If there is something that Chen Shou failed to mention, if it is something that should be remembered I have collected other records to fill in the gap.
Sometimes there are two accounts of the same incident, though there may be errors or irrelevancies in the text. Sometimes an event is described in two quite different ways and I do not feel that I can decide between them. In all such cases I have put in the variant versions to show the different traditions. If one account is wrong, what it says is not logically sound I note, right in order to correct the mistake. On occasion, I argue on minor points of fact; the Records are important to the research of early Japanese history. It provides, among other things, the first detailed account of Korean and Japanese societies such as Goguryeo, Yemaek and Wa, as well as the Yamatai-koku and its ruler Queen Himiko; the Japanese started writing their own records in the early 7th century and the earliest extant native record is the Kojiki of 712. The text forms the foundation on which the 14th-century novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms is based on. In addition, Chen Shou's literary style and vivid portrayal of characters have been a source of influence for the novel.
The text is the last of the "Four Histories", which together influenced and served as a model for Korean and Japanese official histories. Due to the biographical rather than annalistic arrangement of the work, assigning dates to the historical content is both imprecise and non-trivial. Certain volumes contain background information about their subjects' forebears which date back centuries before the main record. For example, the biography of Liu Yan begins with discussing his ancestor Liu Yu's enfeoffment at Jingling in around 85 CE; the first event to receive detailed description throughout the work is the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. Many biographies make passing mention of the event, but more concrete information such as correspondence and troop movements during the uprising can be found in fragmentary form in at least four volumes: the biographies of Cheng Yu, Yu Jin, Liu Bei, Sun Jian; the three books in the Records of the Three Kingdoms end at different dates, with the main section of the Book of Wei ending with the abdication of Cao Huan in 265, the Book of Shu ending with the death of Liu Shan in 271, the Book of Wu ending with the death of Sun Hao in 284.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms has not been translated into English. William Gordon Crowell alludes to a project to translate Chen Shou's work with Pei Songzhi's commentary in full, but