Empress Joséphine or Joséphine de Beauharnais was the first wife of Napoleon and the first Empress of the French after he proclaimed himself Emperor. Her marriage to Napoleon was her second, her two children by Beauharnais became significant to royal lineage. Through her daughter Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoleon III. Through her son Eugène, she was the great-grandmother of Danish kings and queens; the reigning houses of Belgium and Luxembourg descend from her. Because she did not bear Napoleon any children, he divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie Louise of Austria. Joséphine was the recipient of numerous love letters written by Napoleon, her Château de Malmaison was noted for its magnificent rose garden, which she supervised owing to her passionate interest in roses, collected from all over the world. Although she is referred to as "Joséphine de Beauharnais", it is not a name she used in her lifetime, as "Beauharnais" is the name of her first husband, which she ceased to use upon her marriage to Napoleon, taking the last name "Bonaparte" while she did not use the name "Joséphine" before meeting Napoleon, the first to begin calling her such from a middle name of "Josephe".
In her life before Napoleon, the woman now known as Joséphine went by the name of Rose, or Marie-Rose, Tascher de la Pagerie de Beauharnais, she sometimes reverted to using her maiden-name of Tascher de la Pagerie in life. After her marriage to the General Bonaparte, she adopted the name Joséphine Bonaparte and the name of "Rose" faded into her past; the misnomer "Joséphine de Beauharnais" first emerged during the restoration of the Bourbons, who were hesitant to refer to her by either Napoleon's surname or her Imperial title and settled instead on the surname of her late first husband. Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie was born in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique, to a wealthy French family that owned a sugarcane plantation, now a museum, she was the eldest daughter of Joseph-Gaspard Tascher, Seigneur de la Pagerie, lieutenant of Troupes de Marine, his wife, the former Rose-Claire des Vergers de Sannois, whose maternal grandfather, Anthony Brown, may have been Irish. The family struggled financially after hurricanes destroyed their estate in 1766.
Edmée, Joséphine's paternal aunt, had been the mistress of François, Marquis de Beauharnais, a French aristocrat. When François's health began to fail, Edmée arranged the advantageous marriage of her niece, Catherine-Désirée, to François's son Alexandre; this marriage would be beneficial for the Tascher family, because it kept the Beauharnais money in their hands. In service to their aunt Edmée's goals, Catherine was replaced by Joséphine. In October 1779, Joséphine went to France with her father, she married Alexandre on 13 December 1779, in Noisy-le-Grand. They had two children: a son, Eugène de Beauharnais, a daughter, Hortense de Beauharnais. Joséphine and Alexandre's marriage was not a happy one. Alexandre abandoned his family for over a year in a brief tryst and frequented whorehouses, leading to a court-ordered separation during which Josephine and the children lived at Alexandre's expense in the Pentemont Abbey, run by a group of Bernardian nuns. On 2 March 1794, during the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public Safety ordered the arrest of her husband.
He was jailed in the Carmes prison in Paris. Considering Joséphine as too close to the counter-revolutionary financial circles, the Committee ordered her arrest on 18 April 1794. A warrant of arrest was issued against her on 2 Floréal, year II, she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until 10 Thermidor, year II. During this time, Joséphine was only allowed to communicate with her children by their scrawls on the laundry list, which the jailers soon prohibited, her husband was accused of having poorly defended Mainz in July 1793, being considered an aristocratic "suspect", was sentenced to death and guillotined, with his cousin Augustin, on 23 July 1794, on the Place de la Révolution in Paris. Joséphine was freed five days thanks to the fall and execution of Robespierre, which ended the Reign of Terror. On 27 July 1794, Tallien arranged the liberation of Thérèse Cabarrus, soon after that of Joséphine. In June 1795, a new law allowed her to recover the possessions of Alexandre. Madame de Beauharnais had affairs with several leading political figures, including Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras.
In 1795, she met Napoleon Bonaparte, six years her junior, became his mistress. In a letter to her in December, he wrote, "I awake full of you. Your image and the memory of last night’s intoxicating pleasures has left no rest to my senses." In January 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed to her and they were married on 9 March. Until meeting Bonaparte, she was known as Rose, but Bonaparte preferred to call her Joséphine, the name she adopted from on; the marriage was not well received by Napoleon's family, who were shocked that he had married an older widow with two children. His mother and sisters were resentful of Joséphine, as they felt clumsy and unsophisticated in her presence. Two days after the wedding, Bonapar
Director's Kut Productions is a television production company based in Mumbai. Established in 2007, it is known for producing Sapna Babul Ka... Bidaii, Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai and Yeh Rishtey Hain Pyaar Ke. Rajan Shahi did his schooling from St Columbus, got graduated from Hindu College and came to Mumbai. In 1993, Shahi started his career as an assistant director. In 1999, Shahi made his directorial debut with the series Dil Hai Ki Manta Nahi, he went on to direct series like Jassi Jaissi Koi Nahi, Hamare Tumhare, Kareena Kareena, Mamtaa, Millee and Saathi Re. Thereafter he worked as a series director for Ghar Ki Laxmi Betiyaan and Maayaka, he became a television producer and started his own production company in 2007. His first series as producer was Sapna Babul Ka... Bidaai on Star Plus, followed by Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai. In 2019 they started producing Yeh Rishtey Hain Pyaar Ke, a spin-off of Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai on the latter show's success, they made a short film named Yolk for International film festival.
They have a YouTube channel named First Kut Productions. Official website Director's Kut Productions on IMDb
Laval, Quebec-based Groupe Galland, together with its affiliated companies Autobus Galland ltée, Galland Laurentides ltée, Centre du Camion Galland ltée, Les Autobus Duplessis inc. and Galland Mont-Tremblant ltée, operates charter and scheduled intercity coaches, school buses and paratransit vehicles, as well as providing maintenance service for heavy vehicles. Groupe Galland offers courier services via bus parcel express. In 1941 Paul Galland founded the company in Quebec, he retired and turned the business over to his sons. In 2004 or 2005, the company acquired the Montreal to Laurentians bus routes operated by Limocar. Montreal to Mont-Tremblant, Quebec route Montreal to Mont-Laurier, Quebec route Mont-Tremblant public transit Official site