California chaparral and woodlands
The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern and southern California and northwestern Baja California, located on the west coast of North America. It is an ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests and scrub Biome, part of the Nearctic ecozone; the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion is subdivided into three smaller ecoregions. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion: In southern coastal California and northwestern coastal Baja California, as well as all the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island. California montane chaparral and woodlands: In southern and central coast adjacent and inland California, covering some of the mountains of: the Coast Ranges. California interior chaparral and woodlands: In central interior California surrounding the California Central Valley cover the foothills and the Transverse Ranges and Sierra Nevada. Most of the population of California and Baja California lives in these ecoregions, which includes the San Francisco Bay Area, Ventura County, the Greater Los Angeles Area, San Diego County, Tijuana.
The California Central Valley grasslands ecoregion, as well as the coniferous Sierra Nevada forests, Northern California coastal forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northern California and southwestern Oregon, share many plant and animal affinities with the California chaparral and woodlands. Many botanists consider the California chaparral and woodlands, Sierra Nevada forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests, Northern California coastal forests as a single California Floristic Province, excluding the deserts of eastern California, which belong to other floristic provinces. Many Bioregionalists, including poet Gary Snyder, identify the central and northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Siskiyou, the Central Valley, Sierra Nevada as the Shasta Bioregion or the Alta California Bioregion; the ecoregion includes a great variety of plant communities, including grasslands, oak savannas and woodlands and coniferous forests, including southern stands of the tall coast redwood. The flora of this ecoregion includes tree species such as Gray or foothill pine, Scrub oak, California buckeye, the rare Gowen cypress, the rare Monterey cypress, a wealth of endemic plant species, including the rare San Gabriel Mountain liveforever, Catalina mahogany, the threatened most beautiful jewel-flower.
Hesperoyucca whipplei, colloquially known as Chaparral Yucca, is commonplace throughout the lower elevations of the climate zone. Species include the California gnatcatcher, Costa's hummingbird, coast horned lizard, rosy boa. Other animals found here are the Heermann kangaroo rat, Santa Cruz kangaroo rat, the endangered white-eared pocket mouse. Another notable insect resident of this ecoregion is the rain beetle It spends up to several years living underground in a larval stage and emerges only during wet-season rains to mate. Chaparral, like most Mediterranean shrublands, is fire resilient and burned with high-severity, stand replacing events every 30 to 100 years. Native Americans burned chaparral to promote grasslands for textiles and food. Though adapted to infrequent fires, chaparral plant communities can be exterminated by frequent fires with climate change induced drought. Today, frequent accidental ignitions can convert chaparral from a native shrubland to nonnative annual grassland and drastically reduce species diversity under global-change-type drought.
The region has been affected by grazing, logging and water diversions, intensive agriculture and urbanization, as well as competition by numerous introduced or exotic plant and animal species. Some unique plant communities, like southern California's Coastal Sage Scrub, have been nearly eradicated by agriculture and urbanization; as a result, the region now has many endangered species, including the California condor. World Wildlife Fund: California Chaparral and Woodlands ecoregion California Chaparral Institute website California Coastal Sage and Chaparral images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu California Interior Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu — California Montane Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu —
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the southern end of the California Coast Ranges and lie within Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties; the Peninsular Ranges lie to the south. The name Transverse Ranges is due to their east–west orientation, making them transverse to the general northwest–southeast orientation of most of California's coastal mountains; the ranges extend from west of Point Conception eastward 500 kilometers into the Mojave and Colorado Desert. The geology and topography of the ranges express three distinct segments that have contrasting elevations, rock types, vegetation; the western segment extends to the San Gabriel Mountains and San Gabriel fault. The central segment includes; the eastern segment extends from the San Andreas fault eastward to the Colorado Desert. The central and eastern segments have the highest elevations.
Most of the ranges lie in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Lower elevations are dominated by chaparral and scrubland, while higher elevations support large conifer forests. Most of the ranges in the system are fault blocks, were uplifted by tectonic movements late in the Cenozoic Era. West of Tejon Pass, the primary rock types are varied, with a mix of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, while regions east of the pass are dominated by plutonic granitic and metasedimentary rocks; the western and central segments of the Transverse Ranges are bounded to the north and east by the San Andreas Fault, which separates those segments from the Mojave Desert. The eastern segment bounds the southern Mojave Desert. Notable passes along the San Andreas fault include Tejon Pass, Cajon Pass, San Gorgonio Pass. Components of Transverse Ranges to the north and east of the fault include the San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains and Eagle Mountains; the western and southern boundaries are acknowledged to be the Pacific Ocean and the northern Channel Islands.
Onshore the Los Angeles Basin lies at the southern boundary of the western and central segments of the ranges. Major passes not along the San Andreas Fault include Gaviota Pass, San Marcos Pass, the Conejo Grade, Newhall Pass, Cahuenga Pass; the Transverse Ranges manifest themselves as a series of parallel ridges with an average height of 3,000–8,000 feet. The ranges are dissected by young, steep streams of low flow rate; the mountains are notable for being difficult to traverse. There are few passes that are sufficiently low or wide enough to accommodate significant volumes of traffic; this has resulted in situations where major cities are linked to the rest of the state by few roads. This results in significant traffic issues throughout Southern California when a pass has to be shut down due to heavy snow or construction. Major cities, such as Santa Barbara during the 2005 La Conchita landslide, may be cut off from timely road access to the rest of Southern California. Major peaks of the Transverse Ranges with at least 500 feet of prominence, listed by height: This segment begins at Point Conception in Santa Barbara County, include the Santa Ynez Mountains that run parallel to the coast behind Santa Barbara.
The western Transverse Ranges include the Topatopa Mountains and the Santa Susana Mountains of Ventura County and Los Angeles County, the Simi Hills, the Santa Monica Mountains that run along the Pacific coast behind Malibu, whose eastern portion are known as the Hollywood Hills, the Chalk Hills. The northern Channel Islands of California are part of the Transverse Ranges; the Ranges include the steep San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles, the Verdugo Mountains, the Liebre-Sawmill Mountains, the San Rafael Hills, Puente Hills, San Jose Hills, Chino Hills. The San Bernardino Mountains, Little San Bernardino Mountains, the Pinto and Orocopia Mountains are within the eastern segment; the Mojave Desert and California's low desert, including the Coachella Valley, are at the eastern end of the ranges. Ranges north of the western segment that are nearly transverse but are part of the California Coast Ranges include the San Rafael Mountains and the Sierra Madre Mountains; the Tehachapi Mountains north of the Mojave Desert, although nearly transverse, are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada.
The climate in most of the range is Csb under the Köppen climate classification. Snow falls above 6,000 feet most winters, above 3,000 feet every few years, it is rare for elevations above 8,000 feet to go multiple winters without snow during severe droughts. Due to low humidity, the regional snow line lies at about 14,000–16,000 feet, above the highest elevation of the range.
The Heliantheae are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family. With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger; the name is derived from the genus Helianthus, Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America and South America in Mexico. A few genera are pantropical. Most Heliantheae are herbs or shrubs. Leaves are hairy and arranged in opposite pairs; the anthers are blackened. The above statements about the size and distribution of the tribe apply to a broad definition of Heliantheae, followed throughout the 20th century; some recent authors break the tribe up into so smaller tribes. Commercially important plants in the Heliantheae include Jerusalem artichoke. Many garden flowers are in this group, such as Coreopsis, Echinacea and Zinnia; some authors place Cosmos in the Coreopsideae tribe. In addition to the benefits brought by the group, some are problematic weeds. Species of Ambrosia produce large quantities of pollen.
Each plant is reputed to be able to produce about a billion grains of pollen over a season, the plant is wind-pollinated. The traditional circumscription of the Heliantheae arises from Cassini's 19th-century classification of the Asteraceae; this broad group been divided by some authors into smaller tribes: Bahieae, Coreopsideae, Heliantheae sensu stricto, Millereae, Perityleae and Tageteae. Because the Eupatorieae originated from within the Heliantheae, to maintain monophyletic taxa it is necessary to either make Eupatorieae a subtribe within Heliantheae or to split the Heliantheae into smaller tribes; such classifications may define a supertribe Helianthodae including these smaller tribes, the Eupatorieae, a few other tribes such as Inuleae. In his 1981 revision of the Heliantheae, Harold Ernest Robinson divided the group into 35 subtribes: Bremer, Kåre.. Asteraceae: Cladistics & Classification. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-275-7. Robinson, Harold Ernest.. A Revision of the Tribal and Subtribal Limits of the Heliantheae.
Smithsonian Contributions to Botany: 51. Strother, John L.. Taxonomy of Complaya, Iogeton, Wamalchitamia, Wedelia and Zyzyxia. Systematic Botany Monographs: 33. ISBN 0-912861-33-9. Media related to Heliantheae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Heliantheae at Wikispecies The dictionary definition of heliantheae at Wiktionary Cassini, Alexandre de. "unknown". Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 88: 196. J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. Retrieved 2008-06-30
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
Natural landscaping called native gardening, is the use of native plants, including trees, shrubs and grasses which are indigenous to the geographic area of the garden. Natural landscaping is adapted to the climate and hydrology and should require no pesticides and watering to maintain, given that native plants have adapted and evolved to local conditions over thousands of years. However, these applications may be necessary for some preventive care of trees and other vegetation in areas of degraded or weedy landscapes. Native plants suit today's interest in "low-maintenance" gardening and landscaping, with many species vigorous and hardy and able to survive winter cold and summer heat. Once established, they can flourish without irrigation or fertilization, are resistant to most pests and diseases. Many municipalities have recognized the benefits of natural landscaping due to municipal budget constraints and reductions and the general public is now benefiting from the implementation of natural landscaping techniques to save water and create more personal time.
Native plants provide suitable habitat for native species of butterflies, birds and other wildlife. They provide more variety in gardens by offering myriad alternatives to the planted introduced species and invasive species; the indigenous plants have co-evolved with animals and microbes, to form a complex network of relationships. They are natural communities; such gardens benefit from the plants being evolved and habituated to the local climate and herbivores, soil conditions, so may require fewer to no soil amendments, irrigation and herbicides for a beautiful, lower maintenance, more sustainable landscape. However, while local provenance plants have adapted to local conditions, there will be instances in cities, where one or more of these will have been radically altered. Examples include: Building rubble used as landfill may raise soil pH, which can be problematic in regions of acidic soils. Buildings cast a substantial shade, this may give rise to conditions shadier than needed by local plants.
Soil, high in organic material and nutrients is introduced into gardens, or many gardeners will have used fertilizers. Plants from some areas may not thrive under these conditions. For example, many Australian plants are sensitive to phosphorus. Many native plants are adapted to, benefit from, periodic wildfires that occurred before and during pre-modern settlement; these fires can be simulated in the garden by either "high mowing" or a controlled burn every few years. Many weeds in an area are the result of imported plants; these plants become invasive because there are no natural controls such as disease, weather, or fauna in their new environment. They take over native habitats, reducing food for local fauna. Using local provenance plants increases the biodiversity of and is important for the health of a region's overall ecology. Much of the wild areas have been destroyed to make room for urban development. Housing developments have replaced native habitats with ornamental plants and lawns, pushing the wildland-urban interface further out.
While development won't be stopped, gardeners can keep wild areas and green spaces filled with native species on their lots and in their communities. Despite this, there are plenty of indigenous or native plants which will grow and thrive in the area one is trying to establish a native garden. Native gardens include the following kinds: Fully forested with leaf debris on the forest floor, including coarse woody debris if possible. "Wildflower" in some nations denominates the numerous showy flowers from some drier climates, most notably southwest Western Australia, southern Africa, North America. Some wildflower gardens attempt to recreate a prairie, including native grasses along with flowering plants, i. e. forbs. Such gardens benefit the local wildlife attracting birds and small mammals. By choosing the plants for the garden, some of these animals can be encouraged to visit the garden. One popular type of wildflower garden specializes in attracting butterflies and is thus denominated a "butterfly garden".
The native plants cultivated in wildflower gardens have deep roots, therefore are effective selections for absorbing surface runoff and allowing the water to infiltrate into the local water table. Wildflower gardens cultivated for capturing runoff in this mode are denominated "rain gardens". Rain gardens absorb rainwater from gutters & impervious surfaces and function much better when planted with native plants which tolerate the alternation of flooding and drying. No fertilization required no additional water more water available for other uses and other people zero to near zero work needed for maintenance no lawn mowing erosion reduced to a minimum natural landscaped plants take full advantage of rainfall when water restrictions are implemented, natural landscaped plants will survive, while more traditional plants may not increased habitat for native flora and fauna increased beneficial insect population reduces pests where forested, provides shade on homes and businesses saving energy native plants become invasive not good for outdoor games that require a manicured turf. in certain areas, wildfires or brush
An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are indehiscent. Achenes contain a single seed that does not adhere to it. In many species, what is called the "seed" is an achene, a fruit containing the seed; the seed-like appearance is owed to the hardening of the fruit wall, which encloses the solitary seed so as to seem like a seed coat. The fruits of buttercup, caraway, quinoa and cannabis are typical achenes; the achenes of the strawberry are sometimes mistaken for seeds. The strawberry is an aggregate fruit with an aggregate of achenes, what is eaten is accessory tissue. A rose produces an aggregate of achene fruits that are encompassed within an expanded hypanthium, a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, the stamens unite with the receptacle to form a cup-shaped tube. A winged achene, such as in maple, is called a samara; some achenes have accessory hair-like structures that cause them to tumble in the wind in a manner similar to a tumbleweed.
This type sometimes is called diaspore. An example is Anemone virginiana. A caryopsis or grain is a type of fruit that resembles an achene, but differs in that the pericarp is fused to the thin seed coat in the grain. An utricle is like an achene. Fruits of sedges are sometimes considered achenes although their one-locule ovary is a compound ovary; the fruit of the family Asteraceae is so similar to an achene that it is considered to be one, although it derives from a compound inferior ovary. A special term for the Asteraceae fruit is cypsela. For example, the white-gray husks of a sunflower "seed" are the walls of the cypsela fruit. Many cypselas have calyx tissue attached that functions in biological dispersal of the seed. Botanical Glossary
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service known as the Soil Conservation Service, is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission, it is a small agency comprising about 12,000 employees. Its mission is to improve and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies. While its primary focus has been agricultural lands, it has made many technical contributions to soil surveying and water quality improvement. One example is the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, set up to quantify the benefits of agricultural conservation efforts promoted and supported by programs in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. NRCS is the leading agency in this project; the agency was founded through the efforts of Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer who worked for the Department of Agriculture from 1903 to 1952.
Bennett's motivation was based on his knowledge of the detrimental effects of soil erosion and the impacts on U. S lands. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was formed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief; the service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Service was in charge of 500 Civilian Conservation Corps camps between 1933 and 1942; the primary purpose of these camps was erosion control. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed to the Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. NRCS offers financial assistance to farmers and ranchers; the financial assistance is authorized by the Farm Bill, a law, renewed every five years.
The 2014 Farm Bill consolidated 23 programs into 15. NRCS offers these services to private land owners, conservation districts and other types of organizations. NRCS collects and shares information on the nation's soil, water and plants; the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill provides the funding to agricultural producers, a conservation plan must be included. All of these programs are voluntary; the main programs include: The purpose of EQIP is to provide assistance to landowners to help them improve their soil and related natural resources, including grazing lands and wildlife habitat. Conservation Stewardship Program CSP is targeted to a producers who maintain a higher level of environmental stewardship. Regional Conservation Partnership Program RCPP consolidated four programs from the prior 2008 Farm Bill, it aims at more watershed scale projects, rather than individual farms and ranches. Agricultural Conservation Easement Program ACEP was another consolidation effort of the 2014 Farm Bill, which includes the former Grasslands Reserve Program and Ranch Lands Protection Program, Wetlands Reserve Program.
ACEP includes technical and financial help to maintain or improve land for agriculture or environmental benefits. Landowners volunteer to protect forests in 30 or 10 year contracts; this program hands assisting funds to participants. The objectives of HFRP are to: Promote the recovery of endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act Improve plant and animal biodiversity Enhance carbon sequestration Serves 10 states in the Midwest United States in helping to reduce Nitrate levels in soil due to runoff from fertilized farmland; the project began in 2010 and focused on the Mississippi Basin area. The main goal of the project is to implement better methods of managing water drainage from agricultural uses, in place of letting the water drain as it had done in the past. In October 2011, The National "Managing Water, Harvesting Results" Summit was held to promote the drainage techniques used in hopes of people adopting them nationwide. Includes water supply forecasts and the Surface Water Supply Index for Alaska and other Western states.
NRCS agents collect data from snowpack and mountain sites to predict spring runoff and summer streamflow amounts. These predictions are used in decision making for agriculture, wildlife management and development, several other areas; these predictions are available within the first 5 days of each month from January to June. Is a blanket program which involves conservation efforts on soil and water conservation, as well as management of agricultural wastes and general longterm sustainability. NRCS and related agencies work with landowners, communities, or developers to protect the environment. Serve to guide people to comply with acts such as the Highly Erodible Land and Conservation Compliance Provisions acts; the CTA can cover projects by state and federal governments. Is a program to assist gulf bordering states improve water quality and use sustainable methods of farming and other industry; the program will deliver up to 50 million dollars over 2011-2013 to apply these sustainable methods, as well as wildlife habitat management systems that do not hinder agricultural productivity, prevent future over use of water resources to protect native endangered spe