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Enchantress (Marvel Comics)

Enchantress is the common primary alias of two fictional characters appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The first of these is a powerful sorceress with the real name of Amora; the second Enchantress is the young Sylvie Lushton, given great mystic powers by Loki when he created her as a tool for chaos. She models herself after Amora. Amora's first appearance in the Marvel Universe took place in Journey into Mystery #103, where she tried and failed to seduce Thor away from Jane Foster; the second Enchantress, first appeared in Dark Reign: Young Avengers #1, where she was confronted by the Young Avengers. The Enchantress' parentage is unknown, though it is known she was born in Asgard and has a sister by the name of Lorelei. Amora began learning magic as an apprentice of Karnilla, Queen of the Norns, but was banished, she continued learning magic on her own, notably by seducing others well versed in magic and learning their secrets. In time, Amora became one of the more powerful magic-wielders in Asgard, with her magical arsenal focused on charming and mind-controlling people.

Her by-then well-renowned beauty did not hinder in this. In her first appearance, she is sent by Odin to eliminate Thor's human love interest, whom Odin sees as a distraction, she hopes to have the thunder god for herself. She is assisted by a powerful minion -- the Executioner; the Executioner loved the Enchantress, she strings him along with her feminine wiles, using him as her muscle. She aids Loki by attempting to seduce Thor in his Don Blake identity and by sending the Executioner to kill Jane Foster, but though the Executioner traps Foster in another dimension Thor is able to bring her back by giving Skurge his hammer; when the Enchantress, angry at Skurge returning Jane, begins to turn Skurge into a tree, Skurge releases Thor from the pact in exchange for his help. Amora tries to change Thor's hammer into a hissing serpent, but it is immune to her magic. Thor transports the two back to Asgard; the Enchantress and the Executioner are exiled to Earth by Odin. They become members of Baron Heinrich Zemo's original Masters of Evil, the opposite number to the Avengers, a superhero team that Thor had joined.

The Enchantress hypnotizes Thor into attacking the other Avengers with her own spells and a special brew, making him believe they are enemies of humanity, but Iron Man wakes Thor from his trance by reflecting sunlight into his eyes. Thor sends the Masters to another dimension through a space warp, but two issues the Enchantress uses a spell to send them back to Earth, she recruits Wonder Man into the Masters of Evil after paying his bail. She meets Immortus, who helps Zemo attack the Avengers; when this attempt fails, she turns back time to prevent it from happening, though the Masters retain their memories of this event. When Immortus begins to contact the Masters, the Enchantress prevents this from happening, she joins in the Masters of Evil's final assault against the Avengers and breaks the Black Knight and Melter out of jail. She manages to escape in the end with the Executioner when the other two are transported to another dimension where their weapons rebound due to different scientific laws.

As a member of the Masters of Evil, the Enchantress face the Avengers. She is affronted by the attempts of the Scarlet Witch, a mortal, to subvert her divine spells, though she is genuinely challenged by the Scarlet Witch's mutant gifts. With the Executioner, she menaces Jane Foster again at Loki's behest; the Enchantress is notable in that she has given other superhumans their powers. For example, she used the deceased Zemo's equipment to make a henchman of his, Erik Josten, into the original Power Man, who aids her in battling the Avengers, her illusions and traps turn the city against the Avengers, forcing them to disband and making Power Man seem like a hero. Captain America, in disguise, corrects this by obtaining a taped confession from the Enchantress and Power Man. Power Man is able to defeat him. Realizing the tape is on its way to the police, the Enchantress used; the Enchantress is recruited by the Mandarin, along with the Executioner, Power Man, Living Laser for his plan for world domination.

With the Executioner, she attacked the Asian sub-continent with an army of trolls, but they were defeated by Hercules and the Scarlet Witch. Amora forms the Lady Liberators, which battle the male Avengers, she dupes Arkon into fighting the Avengers. Amora uses her magics to make Samantha Parrington and Barbara Norris into the Valkyrie. With the Executioner, she battles the Thing. With the Executioner, Amora attempts to conquer Asgard with a troll army, she served as Loki's lieutenant in his brief rule of Asgard. During the "Secret Wars," she is placed on the villains's side, but she spurns the idea of fighting a gladiatorial game for the amusement of a higher being, she instead proposes to Thor that the two of them join forces, leave both heroes and villains behind, go back home to Asgard. On the appearance of Amora's sister Lorelei, it is established that the two sisters have something of a strained relationship, rooted in rivalry. More than a little friction is seen between the pair, not the least due to competition over which one of them would manage to seduce Thor.

The Enchantress joined the Asgardian heroes in final battle against the world-ender Surtur. She establishes that she is motivated by enlightened self-interest: Surtur seeks to end the world, in which case Amora w

Action-angle coordinates

In classical mechanics, action-angle coordinates are a set of canonical coordinates useful in solving many integrable systems. The method of action-angles is useful for obtaining the frequencies of oscillatory or rotational motion without solving the equations of motion. Action-angle coordinates are chiefly used when the Hamilton–Jacobi equations are separable. Action-angle variables define an invariant torus, so called because holding the action constant defines the surface of a torus, while the angle variables parameterize the coordinates on the torus; the Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization conditions, used to develop quantum mechanics before the advent of wave mechanics, state that the action must be an integral multiple of Planck's constant. Action-angle coordinates are useful in perturbation theory of Hamiltonian mechanics in determining adiabatic invariants. One of the earliest results from chaos theory, for the non-linear perturbations of dynamical systems with a small number of degrees of freedom is the KAM theorem, which states that the invariant tori are stable under small perturbations.

The use of action-angle variables was central to the solution of the Toda lattice, to the definition of Lax pairs, or more the idea of the isospectral evolution of a system. Action angles result from a type-2 canonical transformation where the generating function is Hamilton's characteristic function W. Since the original Hamiltonian does not depend on time explicitly, the new Hamiltonian K is the old Hamiltonian H expressed in terms of the new canonical coordinates, which we denote as w and their new generalized momenta J. We will not need to solve here for the generating function W itself. Rather than defining the action angles w directly, we define instead their generalized momenta, which resemble the classical action for each original generalized coordinate J k ≡ ∮ ⁡ p k d q k where the integration path is implicitly given by the constant energy function E = E. Since the actual motion is not involved in this integration, these generalized momenta J k are constants of the motion, implying that the transformed Hamiltonian K does not depend on the conjugate generalized coordinates w k d d t J k = 0 = ∂ K ∂ w k where the w k are given by the typical equation for a type-2 canonical transformation w k ≡ ∂ W ∂ J k Hence, the new Hamiltonian K = K depends only on the new generalized momenta J.

The dynamics of the action angles is given by Hamilton's equations d d t w k = ∂ K ∂ J k ≡ ν k The right-hand side is a constant of the motion. Hence, the solution is given by w k = ν k t + β k. In particular, if the original generalized coordinate undergoes an oscillation or rotation of period T, the corresponding action angle w k changes by Δ w k = ν k T; these ν k are the frequencies of oscillation/rot

Chow's Gymnastics and Dance Institute

Chow's Gymnastics and Dance Institute referred to as Chow's, is an American women's artistic gymnastics academy based in West Des Moines, Iowa. The academy was founded by Chinese former artistic gymnast Liang Chow. One of the country's most prestigious gymnastics academies, the club has produced Olympic champions, Shawn Johnson and Gabrielle Douglas, several upcoming elites such as Norah Flatley and Rachel Gowey. Chow's was opened on August 23, 1998 by former Chinese national gymnast and Iowa Hawkeyes assistant coach, Liang Chow and his wife, Liwen Zhuang. In 2004, Level 10 protegee, Shawn Johnson, finished fourth at the 2004 J. O. Nationals; as a result, she is the first Chow gymnast to make the J. O. National Team. At the 2005 Level 9 Eastern Championships, Chow's was represented 3 times. Jessa Hansen won two individual medals also. Although Chow's didn't have any participants at the 2005 Level 10 J. O. Nationals, Shawn Johnson qualified to Junior International Elite status. In her first competition as an elite, the 2005 U.

S. Classic, she finished third in the all-around; as a result, she qualified to U. S. Nationals. At the competition, Johnson finished tenth in the all-around, her result at the competition was enough to be named to the Junior Natitonal Team – the first of any Chow gymnast. Now a National Team member, she was invited to represent the United States at the 2006 Pacific Alliance Championships, held in Honolulu, Hawaii, she won the individual all-around competition, storming to win of just under a whole mark difference


Mory's, known as Mory's Temple Bar, is a private club adjacent to the campus of Yale University in New Haven, United States, founded in 1849 and housed in a clubhouse, a private home built sometime before 1817. It was a restaurant hospitable to Yale undergraduates, located at the corner of Temple and Center Streets, but in 1912, when the building was to be demolished, the owner and proprietor, Louis Linder, sold it to a group of Yale alumni who moved the bar to 306 York Street and turned it into a membership club. After several years of operating losses and the 2008 financial crisis, the club closed indefinitely on December 19, 2008. Although the club had an endowment of $2 million, it was depleted by this poor performance and the market downturn in 2008-2009. After completion of a comprehensive business plan at the end of 2009 and progress on a fundraising effort, Mory's committed to a major renovation and a new business model in 2010; the fundraising effort and construction were completed in 2010 and Mory's reopened on August 25, 2010.

The building was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Membership in Mory's is now offered to all Yale students and alumni as well as members of the New Haven community with an affiliation to Yale. Membership was open to women in 1974 when the club was given the option by Governor Ella Grasso of remaining all male but without a liquor license. Yale undergraduates can join with a $15 membership fee. Alumni living within 30 miles of Mory's pay a $99 annual fee, while alumni living over 30 miles away pay a $49 annual fee. Several important traditions are maintained at Mory's that have deep resonance with certain Yale alumni and students; the Whiffenpoofs, the a cappella group made up of Yale seniors who are recruited from other Yale undergraduate singing groups, sings weekly on Monday evenings, in the dining areas of the club. They perform the famous "Whiffenpoof Song" which mentions Mory's as the "place where Louis dwells." It was through this song, sung and recorded by Rudy Vallee, Bing Crosby and Elvis Presley, that the Club became part of the national consciousness in the early part of the twentieth century.

In 1913, four young men met at Mory's to create a light-hearted alternative to the more serious Whiffenpoofs. They decided upon the "Spizzwinks," a reference to a mythical creature to which the Corn Blight of 1906 had been whimsically attributed. Another tradition is the ritualistic consumption of a "Cup," in which a party of members gather to share drinks of assorted colors and ingredients from large silver trophy cups that look like handled urns and are passed amongst the gathered company; the cups are ordered by color, some are based on sparkling wines, while others are based on beer. There is an elaborate ritual, including at the completion of a cup a drinking song, associated with the tradition. Cups come in many colors including red, purple, blue and velvet; when a member is about to finish a Cup, he or she faces the decades-old challenge of "cleaning the cup"—removing all moisture from the cup by using only his or her mouth and, to finish the job, hair. Friends to the left and right are at the ready with napkins to minimize drippage during this process.

While the member is finishing, to give that member extra time to "clean the cup," his or her friends are wont to chant the Mory's Song (an adaptation, for a diametrically opposite purpose, of the Salvation Army camp song "Put a Nickel on the Drum", with the finishing member's name as the hero of the song: It's, it's,It's that makes the world go'round,It's, that makes the world go'round,It's, it's,It's that makes the world go'round,It's that makes the world go'round! Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum. Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum and you'll be saved. I'm H-A-P-P-Y to be F-R-double-E,F-R-double-E to be S-A-V-E-D,S-A-V-E-D from the bonds of S-I-N. Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum. Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum and you'll be saved! I was lying in the gutter,I was covered up in beer, Pretzels in my moustache,I thought the end was near, Then along came And saved me from my curse! Glory, Hallelujah.

Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum. Sing Hallelujah! Sing Hallelujah! Put a nickel on the drum and you'll be saved! At the conclusion of the Mory's Song, the member places the trophy cup, upside down, on top of a cloth napkin, whereupon three friends place their respective hands atop the base of the cup and tap firmly; the cup is whisked away, the napkin is inspected for any signs of moisture. In decades past, to date for some more conservative organizations, if the napkin were wet the finishing member would be forced to pay for the cup. (Organizations still following these rules vary them as to the specifics: Some organizations requiring that the cost of the cup be divided among the two or three previous drinkers rather than only the previous one. Some organizations exempt wome

Fatmir Dalladaku

Fatmir Dalladaku is a German cardiac surgeon of Albanian origin. He is best known for performing the first open-heart surgery in Kosovo, as well as for his pro bono work for patients from Kosovo and Macedonia, he spent the biggest part of his professional career in Germany, beginning in 1989. Fatmir Dalladaku was born on December 5, 1953 in Yugoslavia. After graduating high school he enrolled in Medical Faculty of the University of Prishtina, where he completed his studies in 1979, he continued and finished his postgraduate studies at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zagreb in Croatia, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Ivo Despot. Between 1979 and 1982, Dalladaku worked in numerous primary health care centers throughout Kosovo, at the emergency center in Prishtina. Under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. V. Moracic and Prof. Dr. Gazmend Shaqiri, in 1985 he was resident at the Surgical Clinic at the Medical Faculty of the University of Prishtina. Between 1985 and 1986 he specialized in general surgery, at the ‘Ozren Novosel’ and “KBC Rebro” clinics in Zagreb, under the mentorship of Prof. Dr. Mladen Stulhoffer and Prof. J. Sokolic.

In 1989, Dalladaku received a scholarship to do a sub-specialization on cardiovascular surgery at the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin under the mentorship of Prof. Dr. Roland Hetzer, his initial plan was to go back to Kosovo after the 18-month period and together with his colleagues from the Department of Vascular Surgery to set up the much-needed cardiac surgery clinic at the Medical Faculty of the University of Prishtina. However, the original plan was never carried out as the abolition of Kosovo’s autonomy in 1989 set in motion a chain of events that made Kosovo’s political future uncertain; as the political situation in Kosovo was growing tense, by 1991, majority of Kosovo Albanian professors and doctors, were fired from the University of Prishtina. With the permission of the newly created Kosovo's parallel structures of the Medical Faculty of the University of Prishtina, Dalladaku accepted the offer extended by the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin to remain in Berlin as a specialist physician.

He performed his first open heart surgery in 1990 while in Berlin and has since performed over 4000 such surgeries. In 1994, together with a group of colleagues from Berlin and Heidelberg, Dalladaku cofounded the MediClin Herzzentrum clinic in Lahr-Schwarzwald, where he serves as Senior Cardiovascular Surgeon, he came back to Pristina in 2003 to perform the first open-heart surgery in Kosovo. From 2004 to 2008, he was engaged as lecturer at the Medical Faculty of the University of Prishtina, he has written and coauthored numerous papers, has participated in many national and international medical symposiums. At Dalladaku’s initiative, in May 2003 a team of medical professionals from Germany arrived in Kosovo with the mission to perform the first two bypass open-heart surgeries in Kosovo. In addition to the free of charge diagnostics of the two patients at the Cardiology Clinic of the Medical Faculty in Tirana, Albania few days before surgery, Dalladaku arranged the transportation of the necessary medical equipment from Germany to Kosovo, including heart lung machines and intra-aortic balloon pumps.

After four days of traveling and numerous bureaucratic complications on the way, the technical equipment, being accompanied by Dalladaku's colleague, Mr. Michael Rothe, arrived in Pristina on May 23; the next day, on May 24, two patients aged 67 and 51 underwent heart surgeries which were carried out at the newly renovated operation room of the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Surgeries were provided free of charge, as all costs were borne by the Herzzentrum Lahr/Schwarzwald clinic, FD Company, Dalladaku’s family business at that time. Although no complications occurred, the German KFOR troops stationed in Kosovo were ready to provide, if needed, transportation from Kosovo to Germany for the two patients; the medical team composed of Ass. Dr. Petra Gehle, Michael Rothe, Jens Kubsdella, as well as Dr. Armin Lehmann, Gabrielle Herrmann, Katja Vogel, Christoph Wehler, Michael Fellhauer of the intensive care unit, flew back to Germany a week after the successful completion of the surgeries.

While the medical equipment was shipped back to Germany, Dalladaku remained in Kosovo for a few weeks longer to oversee the post-surgery treatment of patients by his Kosovo colleagues. He was responsible for overseeing the process of donating all unused medications brought from Germany to different clinics of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Dalladaku is married to the painter and art professor Bukurije Oseku-Dalladaku, has two children, he lives in Lahr and works at the MediClin Herzzentrum Lahr/Baden

Giant hummingbird

The giant hummingbird is the only member of the genus Patagona and the largest member of the hummingbird family, weighing 18–24 g and having a wingspan of 21.5 cm and length of 23 cm. This is the same length as a European starling or a northern cardinal, though the giant hummingbird is lighter because it has a slender build and long bill, making the body a smaller proportion of the total length; this weight is twice that of the next heaviest hummingbird species and ten times that of the smallest, the bee hummingbird. In Bolivia, the giant hummingbird is known in Quechua as burro q'enti, the Spanish word burro referring to its dull plumage. Members of P. gigas can be identified by their large size and characteristics such as the presence of an eye-ring, straight bill longer than the head, dull colouration long wings and moderately forked tail, tarsi feathered to the toes and large, sturdy feet. There is no difference between the sexes. Juveniles have small corrugations on the lateral beak culmen.

The subspecies are visually distinguishable. P. g. peruviana is yellowish brown overall and has white on the chin and throat, where P. g. gigas is more olive green to brown and lacks white on the chin and throat. The giant hummingbird glides in flight, a behavior rare among hummingbirds, its elongated wings allow more efficient glides. The giant hummingbird's voice is a distinctive loud and whistling "chip". Belonging to the family Trochilidae, P. gigas is one of 331 described species in this family, making it the second largest group of new world birds. Trochilids are further divided into about 104 genera, it is thought that the species is comparatively old and, for the most part, a failed evolutionary experiment in enlarging hummingbird size given it has not diverged and proliferated. Traditional morphologic taxonomic inquiries show P. gigas to be different from the other taxa of hummingbirds. A 2008 phylogenetic review found a 97.5% likelihood that P. gigas has diverged enough from the proposed the closest phylogenetic clades to be considered belonging to a single-species clade named Patagonini.

This is in accord with International Ornithological Union’s taxonomic classification of P. gigas in a genus of its own. Two subspecies, P. gigas gigas and P. gigas peruviana, are recognised. These subspecies are thought to have emerged as a result of partial geographical separation of populations by volcanic activity in the Andes predating the Miocene; the proposed phylogenetic system for hummingbirds suggested by McGuire et al. accommodates the possible elevation of these subspecies to species rank. The giant hummingbird is distributed throughout the length of the Andes on both the east and west sides. P. gigas inhabit the higher altitude scrubland and forests that line the slopes of the Andes during the summer and retreat to similar, lower altitude habitats in winter months. The species persists through a large altitude range, with specimens retrieved from sea level up to 4600 m, they have shown to be resilient to urbanisation and agricultural activities. P. G. peruviana occurs from Ecuador to the southeastern mountains of Peru and P. g. gigas from northern Bolivia and Chile to Argentina.

Contact between subspecies is most to occur around the eastern slopes of the north Peruvian Andes. The range of Patagona gigas is sizable, its global extent of occurrence is estimated at 1,200,000 km2, its global population is believed to be not less than 10,000 adults. Hummingbirds are agile and acrobatic flyers partaking in sustained hovering flight used not only to feed on the wing but to protect their territory and court mates. P. gigas is typical in that it will brazenly defend its precious energy-rich flower territory from other species and other giant hummingbirds. These birds are seen alone, in pairs or small family groups. P. gigas hovers at an average of 15 wing beats per second slow for a hummingbird. Its resting heart rate is 300 per minute, with a peak rate of 1020 per minute. Energy requirements for hummingbirds do not scale evenly with size increases, meaning a larger bird such as P. gigas requires more energy per gram to hover than a smaller bird. P. gigas requires an estimated 4300 calories per hour to sustain its flight.

This huge requirement, along with the low oxygen availability and thin air at the high altitudes at which the giant hummingbird lives, suggests that P. gigas is to be close to the viable maximum size for a hummingbird. P. gigas is feeds on nectar, visiting a range of flowers. The female giant hummingbird has been observed ingesting sources of calcium after the reproductive season to replenish the calcium used in egg production. A nectar-based diet is low in proteins and various minerals, this is countered by consuming insects on occasion. P. Gigas feeds from the flowers of the genus Puya in Chile, with which it enjoys a symbiotic relationship, trading pollination for food; as a large hovering bird at high altitudes, P. gigas has high metabolic requirements. It is known to feed from columnar cacti, including Oreocereus celsianus and Echinopsis atacamensis ssp. pasacana, Salvia haenkei. We do not know the exact scope of its diet, but