The Kumul Rebellion was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin Shuren, governor of Xinjiang; the Kumul Uyghurs were loyalists of the Kumul Khanate and wanted to restore the heir to the Khanate and overthrow Jin. The Kuomintang wanted Jin removed because of his ties to the Soviet Union, so it approved of the operation while pretending to acknowledge Jin as governor; the rebellion catapulted into large-scale fighting as Khotanlik Uyghur rebels in southern Xinjiang started a separate rebellion for independence in collusion with Kirghiz rebels. Various groups rebelled, were not united; the main part of the war was waged by Ma Zhongying against the Xinjiang government. He was supported by Chiang Kai-shek, the Premier of China, who secretly agreed to let Ma seize Xinjiang. Gov. Jin Shuren came to power shortly after the assassination of Xinjiang Gov. Yang Zengxin in 1928. Jin was notoriously intolerant of Turkic peoples and antagonized them.
Such acts of discrimination included restrictions on travel, increased taxation, seizure of property without due process and frequent executions for suspected espionage or disloyalty. Jin had Chinese Muslims in his provincial army like Ma Shaowu. In 1930 Jin annexed the Kumul Khanate, a small semi-autonomous state lying within the borders of Xinjiang; the newly subjected Kumulliks' land was expropriated by the government and given to Chinese settlers. As a result, rebellion broke out on February 20, 1931, many Chinese were massacred by the local population; the uprising threatened to spread throughout the entire province. Yulbars Khan, advisor at the Kumul court, appealed for help to Ma Zhongying, a Muslim warlord in Gansu Province, to overthrow Jin and restore the Khanate. Ma's troops laid siege to government forces there. Although he was victorious elsewhere in the area, Ma was unable to capture the city. After being wounded that October in a battle in which Jin's force included 250 White Russian troops whom he had recruited from the Ili valley, Ma withdrew his forces to Gansu.
This would temporarily leave the Xinjiang Muslims to fight Jin alone. Ma Zhongying had a secret agreement with the Kuomintang—if he won Xinjiang, he would be recognized by the Kuomintang. Ma's forces committed atrocities against both Han and Uyghur civilians in Xinjiang during the fighting, he conscripted Han and Uyghurs into his army to use as cannon fodder, while all the officers were Hui. The Soviet Union and Sheng Shicai claimed that Ma Zhongying was being supported by the Japanese and claimed to have captured Japanese officers serving with his army. Despite this, Ma proclaimed his allegiance to the Chinese government in Nanjing. Jin bought two biplanes from the Soviet Union in September 1931 at 40,000 Mexican silver dollars each, they were flown by Russian pilots. He signed a secret treaty with the Soviet Union in October 1931 that led to suppression of the Kumul Rebellion and the deblockading of Kumul by provincial troops on November 30, 1931. Jin Shuren received large gold credits from the Soviet government for acquiring arms and weapons from the Soviet army and opening Soviet trade agencies in eight provincial towns: Ghulja, Altai, Karashahr, Aksu, Yarkand, Khotan.
The Kuomintang found out about this the following year and decided to back Ma Zhongying in his war against Jin Shuren. Ma was appointed Commanding Officer of the 36th Division by the Kuomintang government in Nanjing. Asked to intervene against Jin on behalf of the Turkic population, Ma agreed. A separate Uyghur uprising at Khotan in southern Xinjiang broke out; these Uyghurs were not like the Kumul Uyghurs, who only wanted the Kumul Khanate restored and Jin Shuren to be overthrown. They were led by Muhammad Amin Bughra and his brothers Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra; these rebels wanted total independence and Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. Their leader, Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki, called for the expulsion of Chinese Muslims in a proclamation: The Tungans, more than Han, are the enemy of our people. Today our people are free from the oppression of the Han, but still continue live under Tungan subjugation. We can not not fear the Tungans also; the reason, we must be careful to guard against the Tungans, we must intensively oppose them, cannot afford to be polite, since the Tungans have compelled us to follow this way.
Yellow Han people have not the slightest thing. Black Tungans do not have this connection. Eastern Turkestan belongs to the people of Eastern Turkestan. There is no need for foreigners to come be our fathers and mothers... From now on we do not need to use foreigner's language or their names, their customs, attitudes, written languages and etc. We must overthrow and drive foreigners from our boundaries forever; the colours yellow and black are foul... They have dirtied our Land for too long. So now it's necessary to clean out this filth. Take down the yellow and black barbarians! Live long Eastern Turkestan! This rebellion became entangled with the Kumul rebellion, when a Chinese Muslim and Uyghur army under Ma Zhancang and Timur Beg marched on Kashgar against the Chinese Muslim Daotai Ma Shaowu and his garrison of Han Chinese troops. Ma Shaowu began to panic and started raising Kirghiz levies under Osman Ali to defend th
The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west; the best known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province; the Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which traversed over 9,000 kilometers over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west north, to Shaanxi; the Long March began Mao Zedong's ascent to power, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party.
The bitter struggles of the Long March, completed by only about one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi, would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, would seal the personal prestige of Mao Zedong and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades. 1931: Unofficial founding of the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet by Mao Zedong and Zhu De. 1931: December, Zhou Enlai arrived in Ruijin and replaced Mao as leader of the CCP. 1932: October, at the Ningdu Conference, the majority of CCP military leaders criticized Mao's tactics. 1933: Bo Gu and Otto Braun arrived from the USSR, reorganized the Red Army, took control of Party affairs. They defeated four encirclement campaigns. 1933: September 25, the Fifth Encirclement Campaign started. Bo and Braun were defeated. 1934: October 16, 130,000 soldiers and civilians, led by Bo Gu and Otto Braun, began the Long March. 1934: November 25 – December 3, Battle of Xiang River. 1935: January 15–17, Zunyi Conference.
The leadership of Bo and Braun was denounced. Zhou became the most powerful person in the Party. 1935: June–July, troops under Zhou and Mao met with Zhang Guotao's troops. The two forces disagreed on strategy, separated. 1935: April 29 – May 8, crossing of the Jinsha River, the upper stream of the Yangtze River. 1935: May 22, Yihai Alliance, the red army allied with the Yi people. 1935: May 29, CCP forces captured Luding Bridge. 1935: July, CCP forces crossed the Jade Dragon Snow Mountains. 1935: August, CCP forces crossed the Zoigê Marsh. 1935: September 16, CCP forces crossed the Lazikou Pass. 1935: October 22, three Red Army fronts met in Shaanxi. The Long March ended. 1935: November, Mao became the leader of the CCP. Zhou became Mao's assistant. Although the literal translation of the Chinese Cháng Zhēng is "Long March", official publications of the People's Republic of China refer to it as "The Long March of the Red Army"; the Long March most refers to the transfer of the main group of the First Red Army, which included the leaders of the Communist Party of China, from Yudu in the province of Jiangxi to Yan'an in Shaanxi.
In this sense, the Long March lasted from October 16, 1934 to October 19, 1935. In a broader view, the Long March included two other forces retreating under pressure from the Kuomintang: the Second Red Army and the Fourth Red Army; the retreat of all the Red Armies was not complete until October 22, 1935, when the three forces linked up in Shaanxi. The divisions of the "Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" were named according to historical circumstances, not by chronological order. Indeed, early Communist units would form by defection from existing Kuomintang forces, they kept their original designations. By the time of the Long March, numerous small units had been organized into three unified groups: the First Red Army, the Second Red Army, the Fourth Red Army; some translations refer to these same units as the "First Front Red Army", "Second Front Red Army", "Fourth Front Red Army" to distinguish them from earlier organizational divisions. The First Red Army formed from the First and Fifth Army Groups in southern Jiangxi under the command of Bo Gu and Otto Braun.
When several smaller units formed the Fourth Red Army under Zhang Guotao in the Sichuan–Shaanxi border area, no standard nomenclature of the armies of the Communist Party existed. After the organization of these first two main forces, the Second Red Army formed in eastern Guizhou by unifying the Second and Sixth Army Groups under He Long and Xiao Ke. In this case, a "Third Red Army" was led by He Long, who established his base area in the Hunan–Hubei border; the defeat of his forces in 1932 led to a merge in October 1934 with the 6th Army Corps, led by Xiao Ke, to form the Second Red Army. These three armies would maintain their historical designation as the First and Fourth Red Armies until Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945; the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 by Chen Duxiu with Soviet support. The CCP collaborated with the Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang, founded by the revolutionary republican Sun Yat-s
Second United Front
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party and Communist Party of China to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941. In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China. In 1931 the Japanese launched its invasion and subsequent occupation of Manchuria. Chiang Kai-shek, who led the central government of China, decided that China must avoid all-out war with Japan due to domestic turmoil and inadequate preparation. Therefore, he "pursued a strategy of appeasing Japan while struggling for real national unity and over time sufficient strength to confront the Imperial army; this appeasement policy lasted for another six years".
Though his campaigns against the Communists resulted in their retreat and a 90% reduction in their fighting strength, he was unable to eliminate their forces and his policy of "internal pacification before external resistance" was unpopular with the Chinese populace, which caused widespread resentment against the ruling KMT leadership and its regional warlord allies. In 1936, Chiang Kai-shek assigned the "young marshal" Zhang Xueliang the duty of suppressing the Red Army of the CCP. Battles with the Red Army resulted in great casualties for Zhang's forces, but Chiang Kai-shek did not provide any support to his troops. On 12 December 1936, a disgruntled Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek in Xi'an to force an end to the conflict between KMT and CCP. To secure the release of Chiang, the KMT was forced to agree to a temporary end to the Chinese Civil War and the forming of a united front between the CCP and KMT against Japan on 24 December 1936; the China Democratic League, an umbrella organization for three political parties and three political pressure groups agreed to take part in the united front formed by KMT and CCP.
As a result of the truce between KMT and CCP, the Red Army was reorganized into the New Fourth Army and the 8th Route Army, which were placed under the command of the National Revolutionary Army. The CCP agreed to accept the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, began to receive some financial support from the central government run by KMT. After the commencement of full-scale war between China and Japan, the Communists forces fought in alliance with the KMT forces during the Battle of Taiyuan, the high point of their cooperation came in 1938 during the Battle of Wuhan. However, the Communists submission to the chain of command of the National Revolutionary Army was in name only; the Communists acted independently and hardly engaged the Japanese in conventional battles but proved efficient in guerrilla warfare. The level of actual coordination between the CCP and KMT during the Second Sino-Japanese War was minimal. In the midst of the Second United Front, the Communists and the Kuomintang were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China".
The uneasy alliance began to break down by late 1938 as a result of the Communists' efforts to aggressively expand their military strength through absorbing Chinese guerrilla forces behind enemy lines. For Chinese militia who refused to switch their allegiance, the CPC would call them "collaborators" and attack to eliminate their forces. For example, the Red Army led by He Long attacked and wiped out a brigade of Chinese militia led by Zhang Yin-wu in Hebei in June, 1939; the situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces. In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CPC's New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces. Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied, but they were ambushed and defeated by Nationalist troops in January 1941; this clash, which would be known as the New Fourth Army Incident, weakened the CPC position in Central China and ended any substantive co-operation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable Civil War.
It ended the Second United Front formed earlier to fight the Japanese. Afterwards, within the Japanese occupied provinces and behind enemy lines the KMT and CPC forces carried on warfare with each other, with the Communists destroying or absorbing the KMT partisan forces or driving them into the puppet forces of the Japanese; the communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong began to focus most of their energy on building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented through rural mass organizations, administrative and tax reform measures favoring poor peasants. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chiang Kai Shek and Mao Zedong attempted to engage in peace talks; this effort failed and by 1946 the KMT and the Chinese Communist Party were engaged in all-out civil war. The Communists were able to obtain seized Japanese weapons and took the opportunity to engage the weakened KMT. In October 1949, Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China, while Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to the island of Taiwan.
Communists Party of China's Central Committee Declaration of Cooperation between KMT and CPC First United Front United Front (People's Repu
Soviet invasion of Xinjiang
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934. White Russian forces assisted the Soviet Red Army. In 1934, Ma Zhongying's troops, supported by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China were on the verge of defeating the Soviet client Sheng Shicai during the Battle of Ürümqi in the Kumul Rebellion. Ma Zhongying, a Hui, had earlier attended the Whampoa Military Academy in Nanjing in 1929, when it was run by Chiang Kai-shek, the head of the Kuomintang and leader of China. Ma Zhongying was sent back to Gansu after graduating from the academy and fought in the Kumul Rebellion where, with the tacit support of the Kuomintang government of China, he tried to overthrow the pro-Soviet provincial government first led by Governor Jin Shuren Sheng Shicai. Ma invaded Xinjiang in support of Kumul Khanate loyalists and received official approval and designation from the Kuomintang as the 36th Division. In late 1933, the Han Chinese provincial commander General Zhang Peiyuan and his army defected from the provincial government side to Ma Zhongying's side and joined him in waging war against Jin Shuren's provincial government.
In 1934, two brigades of about 7,000 Soviet GPU troops, backed by tanks and artillery with mustard gas, crossed the border to assist Sheng Shicai in gaining control of Xinjiang. The brigades were named "Altayiiskii" and "Tarbakhataiskii". Sheng's Manchurian army was being beaten by an alliance of the Han Chinese army led by general Zhang Peiyuan, the 36th Division led by Ma Zhongying. Ma fought under the banner of the Kuomintang Republic of China government; the joint Soviet-White Russian force was called "The Altai Volunteers". Soviet soldiers disguised themselves in uniforms lacking markings, were dispersed among the White Russians. Despite his early successes, Zhang's forces were overrun at Kulja and Chuguchak, he committed suicide after the battle at Muzart Pass to avoid capture. Though the Soviets were superior to the 36th Division in both manpower and technology, they were held off for weeks and took severe casualties; the 36th Division managed to halt the Soviet forces from supplying Sheng with military equipment.
Chinese Muslim troops led by Ma Shih-ming managed to hold off the superior Red Army forces armed with machine guns and planes for about 30 days. When reports that the Chinese forces had defeated and killed the Soviets reached Chinese prisoners in Ürümqi, they were so jubilant that they jumped around in their cells. Ma Hushan, Deputy Divisional Commander of the 36th division, became well known for victories over Russian forces during the invasion. At this point, Chiang Kai-shek was ready to send Huang Shaohong and his expeditionary force which he assembled to assist Ma Zhongying against Sheng, but when Chiang heard about the Soviet invasion, he decided to withdraw to avoid an international incident if his troops directly engaged the Soviets; the Russ bombed and gassed us - said by Ma Hsi Jung on the war. In 1934, two Soviet GPU brigades, consisting of about 7,000 troops backed by tanks and artillery, attacked the 36th division near Tutung; the battle raged for several weeks on the frozen Tutung River.
36th Division troops dressed in sheepskins in the snow, stormed Soviet machine gun posts with swords to defeat a Soviet pincer attack. Soviet planes bombed the 36th Division with mustard gas. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. Ma Zhongying was chased by a mixture of White Russian and collaborationist Chinese forces; as he pulled back his forces, Ma Zhongying encountered a Soviet armored car column of a few hundred soldiers near Dawan Cheng. The 36th Division wiped out nearly the entire column, after engaging the Soviets in fierce melee combat and toppled the wrecked Russian armored cars down the mountain; when a White Russian force showed up, Ma Zhongying withdrew. During the Battle of Dawan Cheng, Ma Zhongying for the last time tried to retake initiative from invading Soviet troops, his men blocked the advance of Soviet troops for weeks. However, mustard gas air bombings of his positions, affecting about 20% of his troops, forced him to withdraw his forces at the end of February 1934 from Dawan Cheng to Turpan.
During Ma Zhongying's retreat, he and 40 of his Chinese Muslim troops armed, hijacked lorries at gunpoint from Sven Hedin, on an expedition from the Nanjing KMT government. When Hedin showed him his passports from Nanjing, Ma Zhongying's men, who were technically under Nanjing's command, responded by saying: "This has nothing to do with Nanking. There's a war on here, no passports are valid in wartime." The Chinese Muslim forces reminded Hedin that since they were serving Nanjing too, the lorries should be put under their command. Chang, in the service of General Ma Chung-ping, one of Ma Zhongying's subordinate generals, explained: "Military matters come before everything else! Nothing can be allowed to interfere with them. Nanking counts for nothing in a war in Sinkiang. For that matter, we are under Nanking too, it ought to be in both your interest and Nanking's to help us."Hedin and his party were detained in Korla by Soviet and White Russian forces. Hedin met General Volgin. Torgut Mongols and White Russians served under the Soviet forces and joined them in occupying numerous cities.
The White Russians first advanced from Davan-ch'eng and to Korla via Toqsun and Qara-Shahr. The Torgut and Russian army marched into Korla on March 16. Russian Cossacks were seen serving in the Soviet forces. Ma Zhongying had warned Sven Hedin to avoid Dawan Cheng due to the battle g
First Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet
The First Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government, intended to destroy the communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. It was responded by the Communists' first counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Soviet called by the communists as the first counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Revolutionary Base, in which the local Chinese Red Army defended their soviet republic in the southern Hubei and northern Hunan provinces against the Nationalist attacks from early December 1930 to the end of January 1931. List of battles of the Chinese Civil War National Revolutionary Army People's Liberation Army History of the People's Liberation Army Chinese Civil War Military History Research Department, Complete History of the People's Liberation Army, Military Science Publishing House in Beijing, 2000, ISBN 7-80137-315-4
Southern Jiangsu Campaign
Southern Jiangsu Campaign was a 1945 series battle fought at the Southern Jiangsu and adjacent regions in Anhui and northern Zhejiang, it was a clash between the communists and the former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime force who rejoined the nationalists after World War II with their Japanese ally. The battle was one of the Chinese Civil War in the immediate post World War II era, resulted in communist victory. Like other similar clashes after the end of World War II between the communists and the nationalists in China, this conflict rooted from the fact that Chiang Kai-shek had realized that his nationalist regime had neither the sufficient troops nor enough transportation assets to deploy his troops into the Japanese-occupied regions of China. Unwilling to let the communists who had dominated most of the rural regions in China to further expand their territories by accepting the Japanese surrender and thus would control the Japanese occupied regions, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Japanese and their turncoat Chinese puppet regime not to surrender to the communists and kept their fighting capabilities to "maintain order" in the Japanese occupied regions, fighting off the communists as necessary, until the final arrivals and completion of the deployment of the nationalist troops.
As a result, most members of the Japanese puppet regimes and their military forces rejoined the nationalists. However, most of these former nationalists turned Japanese puppet regime forces were not from Chiang Kai-shek's own clique, but instead, they were consisted of troops of warlords who were only nominally under the Chiang Kai-shek's before World War II, since they were nationalists in name only and maintained their independent and semi-independent status; these warlords were only interested in keeping their own power and defected to the Japanese side when Japanese invaders offered to let them keep their power in exchange for their collaborations. After World War II, these forces of former Japanese puppet regimes once again returned to the nationalist camp for the same reason they defected to the Japanese invaders, it was difficult for Chiang to get rid of these warlords for good as soon as they surrendered to Chiang and rejoined nationalists, because such move would alienate other factions within the nationalist ranks, these former Japanese puppet regime's warlords could still help the nationalists to gain more territories by holding on to what was under their control until Chiang completed the deployment of his own troops to take over.
Chiang Kai-shek's objective was to solve the warlord problem that had plagued China for so long and the problem of the extermination of communism together, which proved to be an fatal mistake for him and his nationalist regime on, as shown in this conflict. In accordance with his strategy to solve the warlord problem that had plagued China for so long and the problem of the extermination of communism together, Chiang Kai-shek and his followers had hoped that these former Japanese puppet regime's warlords who rejoined the nationalists would be able to hold on to the regions long enough for Chiang to deploy his own troops by holding off communists. If the communists were victorious in such conflicts, the result would still benefit to Chiang and China because the power of these warlords would be reduced as their military forces were smashed by the communists, the warlord problem plagued China for so long could thus be reduced, while at the same time, communists would be weakened by the fights and Chiang's own troops would have easier time to take control.
For the former nationalist turned Japanese puppet regime forces, these warlords and their troops had no problem of following Chiang Kai-shek's orders, they were eager to prove themselves. These warlords and their troops were well aware that due to the collaboration with the Japanese invaders during the Second Sino-Japanese War, they were well hated by the general population in China, including those nationalists who refused to surrender to the enemy and fought the enemy until the eventual victory. Therefore, in the impending demilitarization after World War II, they were be disarmed and discharged, which would be the best outcome and the power of these warlord would be reduced or completely eliminated as a result. Chiang Kai-shek's ordering them not surrendering to the communists and fighting off the communists was a savior for them because by carrying out such orders, these warlords and their troops could legitimize themselves and thus retain their power by fighting the communists who were targeted as rebels by Chiang Kai-shek and his nationalist regime.
The communist strategy was much simpler than that of the nationalists because there was not any huge division within the communist rank like that of the nationalist. The communists earned considerable popular support by being the only Chinese force left in the region fighting the Japanese invaders and their puppet regime after the nationalist withdrew, after establishing communist bases in the rural regions where better life was provided to the general populace in comparison to that of Japanese occupied regions, the general Chinese populace agreed that the communists were well deserved to represent the China to accept the invaders' surrender in the region and takeover the regions occupied by the invaders. Nationalist 3rd Division Other units Japanese troopsCommunist 1st Column of the communist Jiangsu – Zhejiang Military Region On September 8, 1945, the 1st Column of the communist Jiangsu – Zhejiang Military Region decided to take controls of regions in central Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang and adjacent regions in Anhui by force aft
The Shangdang Campaign was a series of battles fought between the Communist force under the leadership of Liu Bocheng and the nationalist Yan Xishan's Kuomintang force. The Campaign lasted from September 10, 1945, through October 12, 1945. Like all other communist victories in the clashes after Japanese's surrender in World War II, the outcome of this campaign altered the course of the peace negotiation held in Chongqing from August 28, 1945, through October 11, 1945, resulting in a more favourable outcome for Mao Zedong. After the end of World War II, the conflict between the Communists and the Kuomintang resumed the intensity that it had had before the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Under the direction of Chiang Kai-shek, the commander-in-chief of the second war zone, Yan Xishan, ordered the commander of the 19th Army, Shi Zebo, to lead the 19th Army, part of the 61st Army, other units, totaling more than 17,000 to invade the Communist base in the Shangdang region of southeastern Shanxi in the mid August, 1945.
Three Nationalist divisions were stationed in the largest city of the region, while the rest were stationed in the following cities/towns: Xiangyuan, Tunliu, Lucheng and other counties. The Communists anticipated the Nationalist attack and mobilized 31,000 troops from the Taihang and Southern Hebei military districts to prepare for the upcoming battles; the Communist commander, Liu Bocheng, was assisted by his political commissar Deng Xiaoping, excellent at motivating his soldiers. Many communist troops worried about the safety of Mao Zedong, in Chongqing negotiating a peace treaty with Chiang Kai-shek. Deng Xiaoping told his soldiers that the greater the victory for the upcoming battle, the safer Mao Zedong would be, the stronger the position the Communists would have at the negotiations; this position was observed to be effective in raising the morale of the Communist troops in Shanxi. The Communists mobilized an additional 50,000 militia to ease logistical concerns associated with the campaign, to fill vacancies left behind by the regular troops who were on the front lines.
The campaign started on September 10, 1945, when the first shot of the first battle was fired. The Communist Taihang column first attacked Tunliu, while Taiyue and Southern Hebei columns prepared for an ambush. One day the Taihang column entered a skirmish with the 6,000 Nationalist troops from Changzhi, but the Nationalist commander was careful. Although the Communist ambush failed, they did take the town of Tunliu on September 12, 1945. On September 13, 1945, the communist used the same tactics again, with the Taihang column attacking Changzi, while the Taiyue and Southern Hebei columns prepared for another ambush. However, the Nationalist commander Shi Zebo anticipated the Communists' ambush, did not sent out any reinforcements from Changzhi. Realizing that their original plan would not be successful, Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping promptly changed their strategy from decimating the nationalist force to retaking lost territory, taking Xiangyuan, Tunliu, Lucheng and other counties by September 19, 1945, annihilating over 7,000 Nationalist troops in the process.
The next day, Communist forces attacked garrisons outside of Changzhi from the south and west. The Communists planned to let the Nationalists escape to the north and ambush them while they were fleeing. Again, the Communist plan failed to materialize when Nationalist commander Shi Zebo, still at Changzhi, again anticipated the ambush and decided to hold out; when the attack on Changzhi began on September 24, 1945, but the Communists failed to take the city. A stalemate was reached following the successful defence of Changzhi. After Yan Xishan learned of the emergency facing Shi Zebo at Changzhi, he sent out reinforcements led by the deputy commander-in-chief of the 2nd Army Group, Peng Yubin. Peng's units consisted of the 23rd Army, the 83rd Army, other divisions totalling more than 20,000 men. Learning these troop movements on September 28, 1945, the Communists planned an ambush in the area between Tunliu and Xianghuan, leaving the Southern Hebei Column and local militia to maintain the siege of Changzhi, while redeploying Taihang and Taiyue columns to the north.
On October 2, 1945, the Nationalist reinforcements clashed with the ambushing Communist forces at a region northwest of Tunliu known as "Wangjiaqu". After the initial battle, the Nationalist reinforcements were engaged at regions along Laoyeling and Yulin line; the Nationalists maintained a tight formation, making communication more efficient due to the shorter distance between units. The Nationalists benefitted from superior equipment, concentrated their superior firepower to inflict heavy casualties on the attacking Communist force; the Communists were forced to redeploy the Southern Hebei Column for reinforcement, leaving only the local militia to besiege Changzhi. The Communists changed tactics, attacking from 3 sides while leaving the north side open so that the enemy would escape to the north and be ambushed on the way; this tactic proved successful when, on October 5, 1945, Peng Yubin escaped to the north as the Communists had hoped. His force w