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In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption does not itself prevent interference but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm–a cipher–generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm, it is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users. In symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Communicating parties must have the same key.

An example of a symmetric key is the German military's Enigma Machine. There were key settings for each day; when the Allies figured out how the machine worked, they were able to decipher the information encoded within the messages as soon as they could discover the encryption key for a given day's transmissions. In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages. However, only the receiving party has access to the decryption key. Public-key encryption was first described in a secret document in 1973. Although published subsequently, the work of Diffie and Hellman was published in a journal with a large readership, the value of the methodology was explicitly described and the method became known as the Diffie Hellman key exchange. A publicly available public key encryption application called Pretty Good Privacy was written in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann, distributed free of charge with source code. PGP was purchased by Symantec in 2010 and is updated.

Encryption has long been used by governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage. Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of confidential data, such as customers' personal records, being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering, is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. Encryption is used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks, mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.

There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. Data should be encrypted when transmitted across networks in order to protect against eavesdropping of network traffic by unauthorized users. Conventional methods for permanently deleting data from a storage device involve overwriting the device's whole content with zeros, ones or other patterns – a process which can take a significant amount of time, depending on the capacity and the type of storage medium. Cryptography offers a way of making the erasure instantaneous; this method is called crypto-shredding. An example implementation of this method can be found on iOS devices, where the cryptographic key is kept in a dedicated'effaceable storage'; because the key is stored on the same device, this setup on its own does not offer full privacy or security protection if an unauthorized person gains physical access to the device. Encryption is an important tool but is not sufficient alone to ensure the security or privacy of sensitive information throughout its lifetime.

Most applications of encryption protect information only at rest or in transit, leaving sensitive data in cleartext and vulnerable to improper disclosure during processing, such as by a cloud service for example. Homomorphic encryption and secure multi-party computation are emerging techniques to compute on encrypted data. In response to encryption of data at rest, cyber-adversaries have developed new types of attacks; these more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, stolen ciphertext attacks, attacks on encryption keys, insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks, data destruction attacks, ransomware attacks. Data fragmentation and active defense data protection technologies attempt to counter some of these attacks, by distributing, moving, or mutating ciphertext so it is more difficult to identify, corrupt, or destroy. Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message.

Authenticated encryption algorithms are designed to provide both encryption and integrity protection together

Interactive Mathematics Program

The Interactive Mathematics Program is a four-year, problem-based mathematics curriculum for high schools. It was one of several curricula funded by the National Science Foundation and designed around the 1989 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards; the IMP books were authored by Dan Fendel and Diane Resek, professors of mathematics at San Francisco State University, by Lynne Alper and Sherry Fraser. IMP was sold in 2012 to It's About Time. Designed in response to national reports pointing to the need for a major overhaul in mathematics education, the IMP curriculum is markedly different in structure and pedagogy from courses more found in the high school sequence; each book of the curriculum is divided into five- to eight-week units, each having a central problem or theme. This larger problem is intended to serve as motivation for students to develop the underlying skills and concepts needed to solve it, through solving a variety of smaller related problems. There is an emphasis on asking students to work together in collaborative groups.

It is hoped. The IMP curriculum expects students to make nearly daily use of a scientific graphing calculator. Nearly every one of these distinctive characteristics has generated controversy and placed the IMP curriculum right in the middle of the “math wars,” the conflict between those that favor more traditional curricula in mathematics education and the supporters of the reform curricula that were an outgrowth of the 1989 NCTM standards. IMP is among the reform curricula that have been criticized by organizations such as Mathematically Correct; that organization's Internet site begins with a statement that “advocates of the new, fuzzy math” “on things like calculators, blocks and group activities and they shun things like algorithms and repeated practice. The new programs are shy on fundamentals and they lack the mathematical depth and rigor that promotes greater achievement.” Former NCTM president Frank Allen states, “Trying to organize school mathematics around problem solving instead of using its own internal structure for that purpose … essential connections….”Criticism includes anecdotal evidence including stories of school districts that have decided to discontinue or supplement use of the IMP curriculum and of students who did not feel they had been prepared adequately for college.

"Regular math is much better, it makes much more sense," says Aimee Lynn Stearns, a student at Taos High School in Taos, New Mexico. On the other hand, some IMP students describe the program in positive terms. "It's fun, but it makes you think," according to Ziouck Gonzalez, a student at Wells High School in Chicago, Illinois. Looking beyond student response, IMP was one of five mathematics education programs designated "exemplary" by the US Education Department in 1999, for "outstanding quality and demonstrated effectiveness." It's About Time, the publisher of IMP, points out “the IMP first edition was published after more than 10 years of research, pilot testing, field testing and detailed reviewing.”Supporters point to statistical studies that compare the performance of students enrolled in IMP courses with their peers enrolled in traditional high school mathematics courses. Merlino and Wolff, two such researchers, report that in their several studies IMP students outperformed traditionally taught students on both the math and verbal sections of the PSAT, as well as on the SAT-9.

Kramer reported that grade 12 IMP students in his study performed better on all areas of mathematics tested by the NAEP test, Webb and Dowling reported IMP students performed better on statistics questions from the Second International Mathematics Study, on mathematical reasoning and problem solving tasks designed by the State of Wisconsin, on a quantitative reasoning test developed by a university to administer to entering students. Taos High School began using the Interactive Math Program in the 2006-07 school year. After three years of IMP classes, the initial cohort of 134 Taos High School juniors took the state mandated 11th grade Standards Based Assessment in April, 2009; the SBA places students in one of four groups: Beginning Steps, Nearing Proficiency and Advanced. The test results were compared with the SBA test scores of the previous two cohorts of juniors who had taken the SBA test after three years of traditional math instruction; the state test placed 53% of the 2009 IMP cohort in the proficient or advanced categories while the 2008 traditional math cohort’s proficiency rating was 43% and the 2007 cohort’s was 38%.

The performance of the 2009 juniors was analyzed over time. In 2006, the 2009 juniors were in 8th grade and 40% tested proficient or above in the 8th grade SBA. After three years of IMP, the percentage of these same students who now tested proficient or better had risen to 52%. Students from the IMP cohort subsequently attended colleges and universities such as Stanford, Carnegie Mellon, University of New Mexico and New Mexico State, among many others; the other four NSF funded high school curricula projects: Core-Plus Mathematics Project MATH Connections Mathematics: Modeling Our World SIMMS Integrated Mathematics Official website Mathematically Correct website

Kate Garvey

Kate Garvey is an English public relations executive and a former aide to British prime minister Tony Blair. She is married to Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales. Garvey's career began as a personal assistant for the Labour party under leader Neil Kinnock. From there, she moved to become diary secretary for Tony Blair. In 1994 during Blair's leadership bid, Garvey suggested that Peter Mandelson, at the time being derided by the trade unions and other Labour factions, should adopt a "nom de guerre" to conceal his considerable role within the campaign team. Mandelson agreed to be called "Bobby" for the duration. In his victory speech, Blair referred to Mandelson by the false name. From 1997 until 2005, except for campaign seasons, Garvey worked in the Prime Minister's Private Office, she visits. By 2005, Garvey's role had progressed to scheduling. Aide Katie Kay, who had worked for Blair's advisor John Birt, had taken over the diary secretary job. On the campaign circuit, Garvey worked on Blair's behalf in the general election of 1997 and of 2001.

A 2001 Telegraph story, "Babes on the Bus who keep the campaign journalists at bay", described Garvey as one of a band of women led by Anji Hunter who kept discipline on the political tour with their superior-to-male attention to detail. In Blair's 2005 election, Garvey ran his election tour. In his memoir A Journey, Blair reflected on Garvey's importance: " was the gatekeeper, the custodian of the diary. There is a whole PhD thesis to be written by some smart political student about the importance of scheduling to a modern prime minister or president... She ran the diary with a grip of iron and was quite prepared to squeeze the balls hard indeed of anyone who interfered, but with a winning smile of course." After leaving government in 2005, Garvey worked on Bob Geldof's charity campaign, Make Poverty History, which produced the Live 8 concerts. That same year, she was hired by PR firm Freud Communications as the head of public and social affairs. Garvey was selected by the World Economic Forum in 2007 as a "Young Global Leader", a designation awarded to persons under 40 who have shown leadership qualities.

Garvey is mentioned in a 2008 Telegraph profile on Matthew Freud as'reportedly managing the Freud-Blair relationship'. The article describes an ongoing connection of Blair and Freud in terms of socialising as well as Freud advising Tony and Cherie Blair on how to best exploit events such as the World Economic Forum's Davos retreat. A 2010 article by PRWeek mentioned Garvey's clients as including the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, both held in London. Other clients included the Tony Blair Faith Foundation, Live Earth, the Maternal Mortality campaign and Jordan's Queen Rania. An earlier biography mentioned Garvey as having served the musician Bono. Garvey is the co-founder of Project Everyone, a campaign group dedicated to promoting the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Garvey is married to the co-founder of Wikipedia, it is Garvey's first. The couple met in Monaco in 2009 and began dating in 2010 after meeting again at Davos, they had both been Young Global Leaders in 2007. In 2011, Wales moved to Britain.

They got married in October 2012 at Wesley's Chapel in London. The guests included Neil Kinnock, Tony Blair, David Miliband, Lily Cole, musician Mick Hucknall. Garvey and Wales live in London with their two daughters. Kavanagh, Dennis; the Powers Behind the Prime Minister: The Hidden Influence of Number Ten. HarperCollins UK. pp. 12, 287. ISBN 9780007292066. Esler, Gavin. Lessons from the Top: How successful leaders tell stories to get ahead – and stay there. ISBN 1847658474. Powell, Jonathan; the New Machiavelli: How to Wield Power in the Modern World. P. 98. ISBN 9780099546092

Jay Oliver

Jay Russell Oliver is an American jazz musician, record producer, programmer & engineer. He began his professional music career at the age of 19 as the youngest member of Maynard Ferguson’s band, his credits include: Sheryl Crow, The Eagles, Jimmy Buffett, Wynona Judd, Glenn Frey, Peabo Bryson, Chick Corea, Dave Weckl, Russ Kunkel, Jay Graydon, AO Music, Celine Dion and many others. Jay resides in Los Angeles, where he has worked extensively in music composition and production, ranging from jazz fusion and World music to soundtracks to session work of all kinds. At the beginning of 2011, after many years of research and field test studies involving the use of sound from a clinical perspective, Jay founded a company called SmartWav, LLC; the company specializes in the use of proprietary tonal and rhythm mapping technologies that aid infants in areas of brain development and issues of post womb insomnia. Dave Weckl Oliver and Dave Weckl grew up together in St. Louis, Missouri where they explored a prolific jazz fusion style.

A few years in Los Angeles, after partnering on Weckl's first three solo releases, they formed The Dave Weckl Band, co-producing two albums. Sheryl Crow Oliver was a top local producer in his St. Louis studio when first introduced to a young Sheryl Crow, who at the time was a school teacher and aspiring singer. Jay began using Crow in recording sessions and featured her in several jingles, she and Oliver moved to Los Angeles within a few years of each other and began co-writing songs that landed Crow a publishing contract and recording deal with A&M Records. Some of those songs were recorded by Wynonna Judd and others. Glenn Frey In the nineties Oliver was hired as Glenn Frey's co-producer and co-writer. Jay has production credit with Elliot Scheiner for the Eagles album Hell Freezes Over as well as their live album New Millennium. Jimmy Buffett In the late 1980s, Oliver was asked by producer Elliot Scheiner to begin co-writing songs with Jimmy Buffett, he co-wrote the Buffett albums "Off to See the Lizard" and "Barometer Soup" briefly toured as member of his Coral Reefer Band.

In 1996 Oliver began co-producing with Richard Gannaway, the pan-cultural project AO Music, resulting in journeys to Indonesia, the People's Republic of Georgia, South Africa, Nepal and a special invitation to China, where they were asked by the Beijing Olympic Committee to compose theme music for the 2008 Summer Olympics. AO Music album releases have won prestigious international awards and held strong chart position since 2000. Steve Smith, Fiafiaga 1988 Jimmy Buffett, Off to See the Lizard 1989 Original Soundtrack, Arachnophobia" 1990 Chick Corea, "Inside Out" 1990 Dave Weckl, "Master Plan" 1990 Jimmy Buffett, "Feeding Frenzy" 1990 Dave Weckl, "Heads Up" 1992 Glenn Frey, "Strange Weather" 1992 Jay Graydon, "Airplay for the Planet" 1993 Glenn Frey, "Glenn Frey Live" 1993 Dave Weckl, "Hardwired" 1994 Eagles, "Hell Freezes Over" 1994 Peabo Bryson, "Through the Fire" 1994 Tiger & the Helix, "Peace Face" 1994 Glenn Frey, "Solo Collection" 1995 Jimmy Buffett, "Barometer Soup" 1995 Phyllis Hyman, "I Refuse to be Lonely" 1995 Peter Mayer, "Green Eyed Radio" 1996 Dave Weckl, "Rhythm of the Soul" 1998 Dave Weckl, "Synergy" 1999 Eagles, "Selected Works: 1972-1999" 2000 Aomusic - "Grow Wild" 2000 Glenn Frey, "20th Century Masters - The Millennium" 2000 Glenn Frey, "Classic Glenn Frey" 2001 Dave Weckl, "Zone" 2001 Eagles, "The Very Best Of" 2003 Jimmy Buffett, "Meet Me in Margaritaville: The Ultimate Collection" 2003 Chick Corea, "Rediscovery On Grp: Chick Corea Family" 2004 Eagles, "Farewell Tour: Live from Melbourne" 2005 Wynonna Judd, "Wynonna Collector's Edition Tin" 2008 Russ Kunkel, "Zone" 2008 Aomusic - "Twirl" 2009 Aomusic - "...and Love Rages on!"

2011 Aomusic - "Hokulea" Aomusic - "Asha" Dave Weckl - Master Plan 1990 Dave Weckl - Heads Up 1992 Dave Weckl - Hardwired 1994 Dave Weckl - Rhythm of the Soul 1998 Aomusic - Grow Wild 2000 Aomusic - Twirl 2009 Aomusic -...and Love Rages on! 2011 Aomusic - Hokulea 2013 Official website SmartWav website Aomusic website

Gobichettipalayam Municipality

The Gobichettipalayam Municipality is the civic body that governs the town of Gobichettipalayam in Tamil Nadu, India. This municipality was constituted on 1 October 1949 as III grade as per G. O. Ms. No. 1948 dated 12 August 1949 with effect from 1 October 1949 and was elevated to Grade II as per G. O. Ms. No. 194 dated 10 February 1970 and to first Grade with effect from 1 October 1977 as per G. O. Ms. No. 1532, 21 September 1977, to Selection Grade as per G. O. Ms. No. 238, 2 December 2008. This municipality consists of 30 wards and is headed by a Chairman who presides over a Deputy Chairman and 29 other Councillors who represent the wards; the Chairman is elected directly through a first past the post voting system and the deputy mayor is elected by the Councillors from among their numbers. The Chairman post is reserved for women in accordance with the 33% reservation for women in local civil bodies. M. Palanisamy Mudaliyar P. K. Nalla Gounder G. S. Lakshman Iyer P. K. Muthuvelappa Gounder P. N. Nanjappan G. S. Lakshman Iyer P. N. Nallasamy Gounder K. K. Kandavel Murugan M. Revathi Devi Official Website

Archaeological record

The archaeological record is the body of physical evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology, the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record. Archaeological theory is used to interpret the archaeological record for a better understanding of human cultures; the archaeological record can consist of the earliest ancient findings as well as contemporary artifacts. Human activity has had a large impact on the archaeological record. Destructive human processes, such as agriculture and land development, may damage or destroy potential archaeological sites. Other threats to the archaeological record include scavenging. Archaeology can be a destructive science for the finite resources of the archaeological record are lost to excavation. Therefore, archaeologists limit the amount of excavation that they do at each site and keep meticulous records of what is found; the archaeological record is the physical record of human prehistory and history, of why ancient civilizations prospered or failed and why those cultures changed and grew.

It is the story of the human world. Scholars have used in textual analogies such as'record','source' and'archive' to refer to material evidence of the past since at least the 19th century; the term'archaeological record' originated this way via parallel concepts in geology or palaeontology. The term was used by V. Gordon Childe in the 1950s, seems to have entered common parlance thereafter. In the first critical review of the concept, philosopher Linda Patrik found that by the 1980s archaeologists conceptualised the term in at least five different ways: As a "receptacle" for material deposits As material deposits As artefacts and objects As a collection of samples As reports written by archaeologistsPatrik argued that the first three definitions reflected a "physical model" of archaeological evidence, where it is seen as the direct result of physical processes that operated in the past, she highlighted the extent to which archaeologists' understanding of what constituted'the archaeological record' was dependent on broader currents in archaeological theory, that processual archaeologists were to subscribe to a physical model and postprocessual archaeologists a textual model.

Lucas condenses Patrik's list into three distinct definitions of the archaeological record: The archaeological record is material culture The archaeological record is the material remains of the past The archaeological record is the sources used by archaeologists In its broadest sense, the archaeological record can be conceived as the total body of objects made by, used by, or associated with, humanity. This definition encompasses both artefacts and'ecofacts'. In this sense, it is equivalent to material culture, includes not just'ancient' remains but the physical things associated with contemporary societies; this definition, which emphasizes the materiality of the archaeological record and aligns archaeology with material culture studies and the'material turn' in cultural anthropology, has become common with the rise of post-processual archaeology. More conservative definitions specify that the archaeological record consists of the "remains", "traces" or "residues" of past human activity, although the dividing line between'the past' and'the present' may not be well-defined.

This view is associated with processual archaeology, which saw the archaeological record as the "fossilised" product of physical and taphonomic processes that happened in the past, focused on understanding those processes. The archaeological record can consist of the written documentation, presented in scientific journals, it is. This spans the entire world; this data can be retrieved by archaeologists for research. The mission of an archaeologist is preservation of the archaeological record. There are different databases which are used to archive and preserve the documentation in addition to the artifacts which serve as archaeological records. One of these databases is The Digital Archaeological Record; the Digital Archaeological Record is an international digital repository for the digital records of archaeological investigations. TDAR's use and maintenance are governed by Digital Antiquity, an organization dedicated to ensuring the long-term preservation of irreplaceable archaeological data and to broadening the access to these data.

The archaeological record serves as a database for everything has become. The material culture associated with archaeological excavations and the scholarly records in academic journals are the physical embodiment of the archaeological record; the ambiguity, associated with the archaeological record is due to the lack of examples, but the archaeological record is everything the science of archaeology has found and created. Components of the archaeological record include: artifacts, built structures, human impact on the environment, stratigraphy, mortuary practices, plant remains, or animal remains. Artifacts from the archaeological record are found in the ground, once dug up, archaeologists put data such as photographs and exact location of the artifact into the archaeological record