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An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church. At that time, the word could be used for a letter sent out by any bishop; the word comes from Late Latin encyclios. The term has been used by Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox. Although the term "encyclical" simply meant a circulating letter, it acquired a more specific meaning within the context of the Catholic Church. In 1740, Pope Benedict XIV wrote a letter titled Ubi primum, regarded as the first encyclical in a modern sense; the term is now used exclusively for a kind of letter sent out by the Pope. For the modern Roman Catholic Church, a papal encyclical is a specific category of papal document, a kind of letter concerning Catholic doctrine, sent by the Pope and addressed to patriarchs, primates and bishops who are in communion with the Holy See; the form of the address can vary and may concern bishops in a particular area, or designate a wider audience. Papal encyclicals take the form of a papal brief due to their more personal nature as opposed to the formal papal bull.

They are written in Latin and, like all papal documents, the title of the encyclical is taken from its first few words. Within Catholicism in recent times, an encyclical is used for significant issues and is second in importance only to the highest ranking document now issued by popes, an Apostolic Constitution. However, the designation "encyclical" does not always denote such a degree of significance; the archives at the Vatican website classify certain early encyclicals as Apostolic Exhortations, a term applied to a type of document with a broader audience than the bishops alone. Pope Pius XII held that papal encyclicals when they are not of ordinary magisterium, can nonetheless be sufficiently authoritative to end theological debate on a particular question: It is not to be thought that what is set down in Encyclical letters does not demand assent in itself, because in this the popes do not exercise the supreme power of their magisterium. For these matters are taught by the ordinary magisterium, regarding which the following is pertinent: "He who heareth you, heareth Me.".

But if the Supreme Pontiffs in their acts, after due consideration, express an opinion on a hitherto controversial matter, it is clear to all that this matter, according to the mind and will of the same Pontiffs, cannot any longer be considered a question of free discussion among theologians. Encyclicals indicate high papal priority for an issue at a given time. Pontiffs define when, under which circumstances, encyclicals should be issued, they may choose to issue an apostolic constitution, encyclical, apostolic letter or give a papal speech. Popes have differed on the use of encyclicals: on the issue of birth control and contraception, Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Casti connubii, while Pope Pius XII gave a speech to midwives and the medical profession, clarifying the position of the church on the issue. Pope Paul VI published an encyclical Humanae vitae on the same topic. On matters of war and peace, Pope Pius XII issued ten encyclicals after 1945, three of them protesting the Soviet invasion of Hungary in order to crack down on the Hungarian Revolution in 1956: Datis nuperrime, Sertum laetitiae and Luctuosissimi eventus.

Pope Paul VI spoke about the war in Vietnam and Pope John Paul II, issued a protest against the war in Iraq using the medium of speeches. On social issues, Pope Leo XIII promulgated Rerum novarum, followed by Quadragesimo anno of Pius XI and Centesimus annus of John Paul II. Pius XII spoke on the same topic to a consistory of cardinals, in his Christmas messages and to numerous academic and professional associations. Amongst Anglicans the term encyclical was revived in the late 19th century, it is applied to circular letters issued by the English primates. Saepius officio in response to the Papal bull Apostolicae curae denying validity of Anglican orders Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs Patriarchal encyclical of 1895 Patriarchal encyclical of 1920 Patriarchal encyclical of 2012 Acta Apostolicae Sedis and Vatican City State, 1920–2007 The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 545. List of papal documents at the Theology Library Papal Encyclicals at GCatholic, a source for etexts of most of the encyclicals from recent centuries

Economy of Lexington, Kentucky

The economy of Lexington, Kentucky was shaped by its considerable distance from any major navigable rivers. As a landlocked city, it did not develop the heavy industry that developed in cities like Cincinnati or Pittsburgh. To counter this, Lexington put forth an effort to stay at the forefront of modern technology in an effort to attract a diverse light industrial and commercial base. For instance, the city was the first in Kentucky to have street lights, one of the first with a police force, strict regulations on agriculture within the city. Lexington was proud to boast its urban sewer system and its network of sidewalks, all of this by the early 1880s. Other infrastructure improvements were to come in the latter 1880s, including telephone lines, street railways, a new ice factory; these improvements helped solidify Lexington's position as the "agricultural and manufacturing keystone" for the region. Improvements in the marketing of tobacco, along with the deadly western Kentucky tobacco wars in the early 1900s, helped foster in the era of burley for Lexington.

Numerous auction companies and warehouses began to locate in south Lexington clustered along South Broadway. The first of these facilities was the Burley Loose Tobacco Warehouse Company in 1905; the city's first tobacco redrying plant opened in that year. By 1910, Lexington lay claim to being the "largest tobacco market in the world. In the 1930s, in an effort to counteract the Great Depression, several capital building projects were funded by the federal government and by wealthy members of the horse industry; the 1940s saw the creation of the Lexington Industrial Foundation and major growth at the University of Kentucky. Numerous new dormitories and classroom structures, some temporary, were constructed. In the early 1950s, a good deal of research money and effort was devoted to national defense projects relating to the Cold War; this expanded the university's influence on Lexington and on Kentucky as a whole, which in the long-run bolstered its employment numbers. During this time, supported by A.

B. "Happy" Chandler, the Kentucky Medical Foundation, the Kentucky Farm Bureau, the University of Kentucky Medical Center became a top priority. In 1956, $5 million was appropriated to start construction of the medical center, which cost $28 million. Initial construction included a 500-bed hospital; as a result of the Medical Center's construction, a new economic sector was born. Drawn by the Medical Center's growing influence, the Veterans Administration Hospital expanded while the Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children was constructed. St. Joseph's and Central Baptist oversaw major expansions during this time; the early 1950s was referred to as the "Industrial Revolution." Numerous companies, such as IBM, Square D, Dixie Cup opened operations within the city. This was soon followed by Trane. During this rapid growth between the years of 1954 and 1963, Lexington's employment rose 260 percent; the manufacturing output for the city rose fourfold. Between 1960 and 1970, the population of Lexington increased by 32% to just over 108,000.

All of this industrial investment, coupled with a high demand for housing, led Lexington to become the 14th fastest-developing metropolitan area in the United States

Bomoseen State Park

Bomoseen State Park is a 3,576-acre state park in the towns of Castleton, Fair Haven and Benson, Vermont. The park is located in the Taconic Mountains on the western shore of Lake Bomoseen; the park's boundaries cover more than 2,000 acres surrounding nearby Glen Lake and forested land comprising the camping area, Half Moon Pond State Park. Activities includes boating, camping, hiking, wildlife watching and winter sports; the Glen Lake Trail connects the Bomoseen campground with the Half Moon campground. Facilities include a swim beach, picnic area, snack bar, boat rentals, flush toilets, hot showers, a dump station. Park rangers offer interpretive programs including night hikes, campfire programs, amphibian explorations, nature crafts and games, it prohibits people from carrying firearms on this particular park but everywhere else in vermont you can carry. Official website

Weippe, Idaho

Weippe is a city in Clearwater County, United States. The population was 441 at the 2010 census, up from 411 in 2000. In September 1805, the starving Lewis and Clark Expedition first met the Nez Perce on the Weippe Prairie, south of the city. Weippe is located at 46°22′42″N 115°56′23″W, at an elevation of 3,015 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.42 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 441 people, 198 households, 121 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,050.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 230 housing units at an average density of 547.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.4% White, 0.7% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 198 households of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.9% were non-families.

31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age in the city was 48.4 years. 20.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 416 people, 161 households, 119 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,009.8 people per square mile. There were 198 housing units at an average density of 480.6 per square mile. The. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. There were 161 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were built up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,442, the total income for a family was $28,281. Males had a median income of $30,694 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,175. About 16.8% of families and 24.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 19.7% of those age 65 or over. Chamber of Commerce - Pierce & Weippe, Idaho Tour the Inland - Pierce & Weippe Weippe Discovery Center

Marian Bell (economist)

Marian Patricia Bell is a British consultant economist, was a member of the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee from June 2002 to June 2005. She was educated at Harrow. Bell was at the London Enterprise Agency from 1980-82, she joined the Royal Bank of Scotland as an economist from 1982 to 1989. In 1989 Bell joined Her Majesty's Treasury as an economic adviser and in 1991 rejoined the Royal Bank of Scotland where she set up and ran the research function of the treasury and capital markets. From 2000-02 Bell was director of Alpha Economic and from 2002-05 was an external member of the Monetary Policy Committee at the Bank of England appointed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to set monetary policy. Bell was appointed to the Fiscal Policy Panel States of Jersey from 2007-14 and the International Advisory Council of Zurich Financial Services from 2007, she was on the Fiscal Policy Panel States of Jersey, Channel Islands providing independent advice on fiscal policy from 2010-11, Governor of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research from 2014.

Bell has been the non-executive director of the Emerging Health Threats Forum from 2006-12 and vice-chair of the Contemporary Dance Trust. In 2005 Bell was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her services to macroeconomics and fiscal regulation. Bell is married with 2 children. Governing Board of The Place

Edmund D. Campbell

Edmund Douglas Campbell was a Virginia lawyer and progressive politician in Arlington County, Virginia who opposed the Byrd Organization its declared Massive Resistance to the U. S. Supreme Court decisions in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and 1955. Campbell and his wife Elizabeth Pfohl Campbell became known for their efforts to improve and desegregate Arlington's public schools, organized a coalition of parents and citizens from across Virginia to allow schools which desegregated pursuant to court order to remain open, contrary to the announced policies of Senator Harry F. Byrd and his allies. Campbell was born on March 12, 1899 in Lexington, Virginia to Henry Donald Campbell and his wife, the former Martha Miller. Both his grandfather and father had taught at Lee University, his father told young Edmund of his own childhood living next to Robert E. Lee, who served as the college's president after the American Civil War, how he rode behind the former General on his horse, Traveller. Family heirlooms included letters from Confederate Generals Stonewall Jackson.

Edmund Campbell was admitted to Washington and Lee when he was 15 years old and would graduate as valedictorian of his class in 1918. He served six weeks in the U. S. Army, but was discharged a World War. Campbell attended Harvard University and received a master's degree in economics, he returned to Virginia to study law, graduated first in his class from Washington and Lee Law School in 1922 moved to Washington, D. C. Campbell married Estelle Butterworth in 1926, moved across the Potomac River to Arlington. Before her death in 1934, they had a daughter. In June 1936, Campbell married Elizabeth Pfohl, North Carolina-born president of a women's college in Staunton, Virginia, they had twin sons and Benjamin, in 1941. The Campbells sent their children to the local public schools. Elizabeth Campbell remained active in education and would serve on Arlington's school board and help found WETA-TV during their marriage of nearly six decades. Edmund Campbell was active in the Rotary Club and Masons, he became a vestryman of St. Mary's Episcopal Church in north Arlington, would help found St. Peter's Episcopal Church in north Arlington.

After admission to the Virginia bar, Campbell moved to Washington, D. C. and rented a home in Arlington, a growing streetcar suburb of the national capitol. His legal practice, with Douglas, Obear & Campbell and Jackson & Campbell, included northern Virginia and Washington, D. C. Campbell was a member of the American Bar Association, the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States, in 1962 served as President of the Washington D. C. bar association. He lectured in law for National University in Washington. In the 1930s, Campbell served on the Arlington County Public Utilities Commission, which succeeded in reducing gas and electric rates. From 1940 until 1947, Campbell served including a term as chairman, he helped establish the county's first master zoning plan, in his last term helped establish Arlington's first elected School Board. Campbell organized Arlingtonians for a Better County, a nonpartisan coalition that became a major force in county politics. In 1952 Campbell narrowly lost his one run for higher office, in the newly created 10th congressional district.

The Byrd organization refused to support him because of his desegregation advocacy. Broyhill would go on to represent the district for a quarter-century; as an attorney, Campbell argued a case which overturned a Virginia law prohibiting racially integrated seating in public places. During Massive Resistance, Campbell represented Norfolk parents and schoolchildren in federal court, which led to the three-judge decision in James v. Almond on January 19, 1959, which with a Virginia Supreme Court decision on the same day, led Norfolk and Arlington to desegregate their schools in early February, 1959; this led to successful desegregation of local schools across Virginia. Campbell represented northern Virginia legislators who complained that reapportionment after the 1960 census continued to under-represent the growing northern Virginia suburbs; the United States Supreme Court in Davis v. Mann agreed, leading to the famous "one man, one vote" rationale. Campbell died at home of cardiopulmonary arrest in December, 1995, survived by his wife, three sons and several grandchildren and great grandchildren.

After a funeral service at St. Peter's Church in north Arlington, he was interred in the family plot in Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia. In 1999, Arlington named a street in the Shirlington commercial area after Campbell and his wife, erected signs celebrating their lives. In 2017, the Arlington Public School board named a new elementary school "Campbell Elementary School" to honor the contributions of Edmund and Elizabeth Campbell