A screenshot is an image of what is visible on a visual output device such as a computer monitor or television. The first screenshots were created with the first interactive computers around 1960, through the 1980s, computer operating systems did not universally have built-in functionality for capturing screenshots. Sometimes text-only screens could be dumped to a file, but the result would only capture the content of the screen, not the appearance. Some systems had a BSAVE command that could be used to capture the area of memory where data was stored. Systems with composite video output could be connected to a VCR, modern operating systems provide functions for creating screenshots. For example, on Windows devices, pressing PrtScr puts a screenshot of the desktop in the clipboard. In OS X, the command ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3 serves the same purpose, screenshot kits were available for standard cameras that included a long antireflective hood to attach between the screen and camera lens, as well as a closeup lens for the camera.
Polaroid film was popular for capturing screenshots, because of the instant results, in 1988, Polaroid introduced Spectra film with a 9.2 x 7.3 image size more suited to the 4x3 aspect ratio of CRT screens. These rooms were unlit to avoid glare, and the photographs had to be shot at slow speeds of 1/25th of a second or less. But this meant that scenes with fast-moving elements couldnt be captured unless the software had a pause function. Software creators have on occasion claimed copyright on screenshots of their software, as a work of the widgets. Nonetheless, screenshots may still be used to a certain extent under the principle of fair use in the U. S. or fair dealing. Comparison of screencasting software Screencast Thumbshot Video capture
Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase, Wikidata is a document-oriented database, focused on items. Each item represents a topic and is identified by a number, prefixed with the letter Q—for example. This enables the basic information required to identify the topic the item covers to be translated without favouring any language, information is added to items by creating statements. Statements take the form of pairs, with each statement consisting of a property. The creation of the project was funded by donations from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, at this time, only the first phase was available. Historically, a Wikipedia article would include a list of links, being links to articles on the same topic in other editions of Wikipedia.
Initially, Wikidata was a repository of interlanguage links. No Wikipedia language editions were able to access Wikidata, so they needed to continue to maintain their own lists of interlanguage links, on 14 January 2013, the Hungarian Wikipedia became the first to enable the provision of interlanguage links via Wikidata. This functionality was extended to the Hebrew and Italian Wikipedias on 30 January, to the English Wikipedia on 13 February, on 23 September 2013, phase 1 went live on Wikimedia Commons. The first aspects of the second phase were deployed on 4 February 2013, the values were initially limited to two data types, with more data types to follow later. The first new type, was deployed on 6 March, the ability of the various language editions of Wikipedia to access data added to Wikidata as part of phase two was rolled out progressively between 27 March and 25 April 2013. On 16 September 2015, Wikidata began allowing so-called arbitrary access, for example, in the past the article about Berlin you could not access data about Germany, but with arbitrary access it could.
On 27 April 2016 arbitrary access was activated on Wikimedia Commons, phase 3 will involve database querying and the creation of lists based on data stored on Wikidata. As of October 2016 two tools for querying Wikidata were available, AutoList and PetScan, additionally to a public SPARQL endpoint, there is concern that the project is being influenced by lobbying companies, PR professionals and search engine optimizers. As of December 2015, according to Wikimedia statistics, half of the information in Wikidata is unsourced, another 30% is labeled as having come from Wikipedia, but with no indication as to which article
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Alexa Internet, Inc. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is an owned subsidiary of Amazon. com. Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by Amazon in 1999 and its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, as of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle, Alexa initially offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community. The company offered context for each site visited, to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how other sites pointed to it. Alexas operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are crawled and this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine.
In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its vision of providing an intelligent search engine. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, and with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003, in May 2006, replaced Google with Bing as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search, built in-house, it was the first major application built on the companys Web platform. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a set of Web services. These could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexas own servers or elsewhere. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, and add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v.
Hornbaker, in the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, and that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexas servers. Hornbaker removed the term Alexa from his name on March 19,2007. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company, on March 31,2009, Alexa launched a major website redesign
PC Pro is one of several computer magazines published monthly in the United Kingdom by Dennis Publishing. PC Pro licenses individual articles for republication in various countries around the world -, as of 2006, it claimed to be the biggest selling PC monthly in the UK. PC Pro is promoted as a magazine for IT professionals, IT managers and it is a fairly rounded magazine as it contains information on many different aspects of IT rather than just one of these areas like many UK PC magazines. While it is primarily Windows-focused, it contain some open source. The magazine was launched in November 1994, the website was launched in December 1996. On 3 June 2015 Dennis relaunched the PC Pro website as Alphr, the magazine continued to operate under the PC Pro brand, with the two publications occasionally sharing content but otherwise serving different audiences with bespoke content. Each issue comes with a cover disc – either a CD in the £4.49 version or a DVD in the £5.99 edition, the CD contains complete commercial software products and commercial software trials.
The DVD contains these and a selection of applications which feature in every issue and these regular applications are usually freeware or open source. The PC Pro team publish a weekly podcast available on the Magazine website, in February 2001 they reissued, with new artwork, a free copy of the controversial Area 51, The Alien Interview DVD
A wiki is a website that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a markup language. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine, there are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary, some permit control over different functions, for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control, other rules may be imposed to organize content. Wikipedia is not a wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis. There are at least tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites. The English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles, as of September 2016, ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as the simplest online database that could possibly work.
Wiki is a Hawaiian word meaning quick, Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not. A wiki is not a carefully crafted site created by experts and professional writers, instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of editors and contributors to write documents collaboratively, all that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser and a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a website is referred to as a wiki page, while the entire collection of pages. A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, a wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated, there is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online, this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them, maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. Unfit sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered fit, while such openness may invite vandalism and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a quality wiki page
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the worlds largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013, the departments annual budget is in excess of £350 million, it has 3,500 staff,2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, all nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
As with all media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum. The British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922, on Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report. The BBC gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, however, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II. Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, a weekly Childrens Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers. The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London. The publics interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953 and it is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radios audience of 12 million for the first time.
Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission and that year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a commentary by John Snagge. It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherds Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs and he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole