Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with supplements, revised editions, translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes, it was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment. According to Denis Diderot in the article "Encyclopédie", the Encyclopédie's aim was "to change the way people think" and for people to be able to inform themselves and to know things, he and the other contributors advocated for the secularization of learning away from the Jesuits. Diderot wanted to incorporate all of the world's knowledge into the Encyclopédie and hoped that the text could disseminate all this information to the public and future generations, it was the first encyclopedia to include contributions from many named contributors, it was the first general encyclopedia to describe the mechanical arts.
In the first publication, seventeen folio volumes were accompanied by detailed engravings. Volumes were published without the engravings, in order to better reach a wide audience within Europe; the Encyclopédie was conceived as a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia. Ephraim Chambers had first published his Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences in two volumes in London in 1728, following several dictionaries of arts and sciences that had emerged in Europe since the late 17th century; this work became quite renowned, four editions were published between 1738 and 1742. An Italian translation appeared between 1747 and 1754. In France a member of the banking family Lambert had started translating Chambers into French, but in 1745 the expatriate Englishman John Mills and German Gottfried Sellius were the first to prepare a French edition of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia for publication, which they entitled Encyclopédie. Early in 1745 a prospectus for the Encyclopédie was published to attract subscribers to the project.
This four page prospectus was illustrated by Jean-Michel Papillon, accompanied by a plan, stating that the work would be published in five volumes from June 1746 until the end of 1748. The text was translated by Mills and Sellius, it was corrected by an unnamed person, who appears to have been Denis Diderot; the prospectus was cited at some length in several journals. The Mémoires pour l'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts journal was lavish in its praise: "voici deux des plus fortes entreprises de Littérature qu'on ait faites depuis long-temps"; the Mercure Journal in June 1745, printed a 25-page article that praised Mill's role as translator. The Journal reported that Mills had discussed the work with several academics, was zealous about the project, had devoted his fortune to support this enterprise, was the sole owner of the publishing privilege. However, the cooperation fell apart on in 1745. André Le Breton, the publisher commissioned to manage the physical production and sales of the volumes, cheated Mills out of the subscription money, claiming for example that Mills's knowledge of French was inadequate.
In a confrontation Le Breton physically assaulted Mills. Mills took Le Breton to court. Mills returned to England soon after the court's ruling. For his new editor, Le Breton settled on the mathematician Jean Paul de Gua de Malves. Among those hired by Malves were the young Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Denis Diderot. Within thirteen months, in August 1747, Gua de Malves was fired for being an ineffective leader. Le Breton hired Diderot and d'Alembert to be the new editors. Diderot would remain as editor for the next twenty-five years, seeing the Encyclopédie through to its completion; as d'Alembert worked on the Encyclopédie, its title expanded. As of 1750, the full title was Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, mis en ordre par M. Diderot de l'Académie des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Prusse, et quant à la partie mathématique, par M. d'Alembert de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Paris, de celle de Prusse et de la Société royale de Londres.
The title page was amended. The work consisted with 71,818 articles and 3,129 illustrations; the first seventeen volumes were published between 1751 and 1765. Engraver Robert Bénard provided at least 1,800 plates for the work; because of its occasional radical contents, the Encyclopédie caused much controversy in conservative circles, on the initiative of the Parlement of Paris, the French government suspended the encyclopedia's privilège in 1759. Despite the suspension, work continued "in secret," because the project had placed supporters, such as Malesherbes and Madame de Pompadour; the authorities deliberately ignored the continued
Guillaume Le Blond
Guillaume Le Blond was a French mathematician. He was born in Paris, he was a professor of mathematics at the grand stable of the King and the Enfants de France. Leblond kept this job until 1778. Le Blond wrote the following works. Essai sur la castramétation, 1748, in-8°), he produced editions of Mémoires d’artillerie by Pierre Surirey de Saint-Remy and the Géométrie by Joseph Sauveur and collaborated on the Encyclopédie. Géométrie élémentaire et pratique Pierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle, vol. 10, Administration du grand Dictionnaire universel
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in every literary form, including plays, novels and historical and scientific works, he wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time; as a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet, a lawyer, a minor treasury official, his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard, whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility; some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.
Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin and rhetoric. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry; when his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Normandy. But the young man continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.
At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government; as a result, he was twice sentenced once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille; the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation, he argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people's rights.
The author adopted the name Voltaire following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear, it is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname and the initial letters of le jeune. According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire as a child, he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life; the name reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's home town in the Poitou region. Richard Holmes supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to convey connotations of speed and daring; these come from associations with words such as voltige, volte-face, volatile. "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation given that name's resonance with à rouer and roué. In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire.
A postscript explains: "J'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète Roi", This refers to Adenes le Roi, the'oi' diphthong was pronounced like modern'ouai', so the similarity to'Arouet' is clear, thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Voltaire is known to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720, it was a flop and only fragments of the text survive. He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was acco
Pierre Tarin was a French doctor and translator, born in Courtenay. He is best known for his contributions to Encyclopédie by D'Alembert. Problemata anatomica, utrum inter arterias mesentericas, venasqne lacteas, immediatum datur commercium, Parisiis, 1748. In-8°. Anthropotomie, ou l’art de disséquer, Paris, 1750, deux vol. in-12. Adversaria anatomica, Parisiis, 1750, in-8°, avec figures. Démosgraphie, ou description des ligaments du corps humain, Paris, 1752, in-8°. Éléments de physiologie traduits du Latin de Haller, Paris, 1752,in-8°. Dictionnaire anatomique, suivi d’une Bibliothèque anatomique et physiologique, Paris, 1753, in-4°. Ostéographie, ou description des os de l’adulte, du fœtus, etc. Paris, 1753, in-4°. Myographie ou description des muscles, Paris, 1753, in-4°. Observations de médecine et de chirurgie, Paris, 1755, 3 vol. in-12. « Bile », t. II, p. 249b, 218 l. « Dents », t. IV, 320 l. Antoine Laurent Jessé Bayle, Biographie médicale, t. 2, Paris: Adolphe Delahaye, 1855, p. 738
Antoine Louis was an 18th-century French surgeon and physiologist. He was trained in medicine by his father, a surgeon-major at a local military hospital; as a young man he moved to Paris. In 1750 he was appointed professor of a position he held for 40 years. In 1764 he was appointed lifetime secretary to the Académie Royale de Chirurgie. Louis published numerous articles on surgery, including several biographies of surgeons who died in his lifetime, he published the surgical aphorisms of Dutch physician Herman Boerhaave. Louis is credited with designing a prototype of the guillotine. For a period of time after its invention, the guillotine was called a louisette. However, it was named after French physician Joseph Ignace Guillotin, whose advocacy of a more humane method of capital punishment prompted the guillotine's design; the "angle of Louis" is another name for the sternal angle, the point of junction between the manubrium and the body of the sternum. Réfutation de l'écrit des médecins, intitulé la subordination des chirurgiens aux médecins, démontrée par la nature des deux professions, & par le bien public, 1748, 32 p. Texte intégral.
Addition à l'examen des plaintes des médecins de province, présentées au roy par la Faculté de Médecine de Paris, 1749, 11 p. Texte intégral. Éloge de M. Petit. Prononcé à la séance publique de l'Académie royale de chirurgie. Le mardi 26 mai 1750, 1750, 2 p. Lettres sur la certitude des signes de la mort: où l'on rassure les citoyens de la crainte d'être enterrés vivans: avec des observations des expériences sur les noyés, Michel Lambert, 1752, 376 p. Texte intégral. Lettre sur les maladies vénériennes, dans laquelle on publié la manière de préparer le mercure dont la plus forte dose n'excite point de salivation, Michel Lambert, 1754, 12 p. Texte intégral. Mémoire sur une question anatomique relative à la jurisprudence. Parallèle des différentes méthodes de traiter la maladie vénérienne,François Changuion, 1764, 290 p. Texte intégral. Recueil d'observations d'anatomie et de chirurgie, pour servir de base a la théorie des lésions de la tête, par contre-coup, P. G. Cavelier, 1766, 270 p. Texte intégral.
Éloge de M. Bertrandi, associé étranger de l'académie royale de chirurgie, chirurgien de Sa Majesté le roi de Sardaigne, professeur d'Anatomie & de chirurgie en l'Université de Turin, P. Guillaume Cavelier, 1767, 63 p. Texte intégral. Dictionnaire de chirurgie, communiqué à l'Encyclopédie, Saillant & Nyon, 1789, 2 vol.:tome premier Texte intégral. Tome second Texte intégral. Mémoire sur l'opération du bec-de-lièvre, où l'on établit le premier principe de l'art de réunir les plaie, in-12, 69 p. available at Gallica. Éloges lus dans les séances publiques de l'Académie royale de chirurgie de 1750 à 1792, par Antoine Louis, recueillis & publiés par E. Frédéric Dubois, Paris: Baillière & fils, 1859 Pierre Sue: « Discours historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du citoyen Louis », Croullebois, 32, 1793, p. 10-73 Texte intégral. Georges Sauvé: « Un cours de médecine d'Antoine Petit en 1768 », in: Histoire des Sciences médicales, 1988, 22, pp. 237–248 iubbcvb Texte intégral. Antoine Jacques Louis Jourdan: « Louis », in: Dictionaire Des Sciences Médicales - Biographie Médicale, Panckoucke, t.6, 1824, p. 113-120 Texte intégral.
Metz, documents généalogiques, 1561-1792, Poirier. Henri Tribout de Morembert: Documents généalogiques du Pays Messin et de la Lorraine de Langue Allemande, 1630-1830, Saffroy, 1935, 159 p. Biographies médicales et scientifiques, éditions Roger Dacosta, 1972. Michel Porret: « Calas innocent: les preuves par la science, in: L'Histoire,323, septembre 2007, 69-73. Antoine Louis notice bio-bibliographique dans le site de la Biu Santé. Antoine Louis dans la Banque d'images et de portraits de la Biu Santé. Antoine Louis dans la site La médecine à Nancy depuis 1872. Œuvres numérisées. Antoine Louis @ Who Named It
Étienne Noël Damilaville
Étienne Noël Damilaville 21 November 1723 – 13 December 1768) was an 18th-century French man of letters, friend of Voltaire, Diderot and d'Alembert. He served in various administrative functions of the Ancien Régime, he was a member of the bodyguard of King Louis XV, a senior civil servant in the tax office responsible for supervising the Vingtième. His official roles meant that his correspondence was unexamined by censors, enabling him to circulate letters between leading thinkers of the day, most during the Sirven affair. Damilaville authored three articles in the Encyclopédie - Population and The Vingtième. Damilaville is believed to have coauthored Vingtieme with his trusted associate, his treatise is a discussion on the nature of government, of civil society and of the economy. Like Montesquie, Damilaville makes a clear distinction between the state, as an aggregate of people in society, government; the treatise uses this dichotomy between the state and government to rationalize the necessity of taxes.
What is important in his contention for tax simplification is the purpose of having or raising taxes on participants in society. According to Damilaville, tax burdens should not be understood through the vice of ratios of an individuals' income, rather in through the ratio of taxes that concern an individual's sustenance after their monies have been deducted. Voltaire regarded him as a close friend, wrote him at least 539 letters over eight years, they only met, for the first time, after they had been corresponding for five years, on 20 August 1765, when Damilaville visited Ferney. Opinion of Damilaville was not universally positive: Melchior Grimm said of him: He had neither grace, nor mental wit, he lacked the worldly savoir-faire which makes up for it, he was sad and heavy, his lack of basic education always showed through. Emmanuel Boussuge et Françoise Launay, « L'ami D'Amilaville », Recherches sur Diderot et sur l'Encyclopédie, 2014, n° 49. Emmanuel Boussuge et Françoise Launay, "Étienne Noël D'Amilaville", Les collaborateurs de l'Encyclopédie, projet d'Edition Numérique Collaborative et Critique de l'Encyclopédie' SUDOC 028972244 Damilaville on Wikisource Généalogie des Damilaville.
Autre publication: article "Paix" de l'Encyclopédie
Claude Bourgelat was a French veterinary surgeon. Bourgelat was born at Lyon, he was the founder of veterinary colleges at Lyon in 1761, as well as an authority on horse management, consulted on the matter. Other dates claimed for the establishment of the Lyon College, the first veterinary school in the world, are 1762 and 1764. "Bourgelat, a French barrister, observing that certain maladies were devastating the French herds, forsook the bar and devoted his time in seeking out a remedy for the pest, which resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he despatched students, with weapons in their hands all-necessary for combating disease by science with practice. The plague to which Lupton referred was cattle plague commonly known by its German name, Rinderpest, he saw the importance of natural history, clinical medicine, comparative anatomy to the field of veterinary medicine. He was a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Bourgelat contributed to Diderot and d'Alambert's Encyclopédie.
Élémens d'hippiatrique, ou, Nouveaux principes sur la connoissance et sur la médecine des chevaux / par M. Bourgelat ecuïer du roi, chef de don académie établie à Lyon. A Lyon: Chez Henri Declaustre, libraire-imprimeur ruë Neuve. L'art vétérinaire. Matiere médicale raisonnée. Lyon, Jean-Marie Bruyset, 1765. Lehrbegriff der medicinischen Materie. Zum Gebrauche der Lehrlinge in der königl. Vieharzeneyschule zu Lyon. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt. Leipzig, M. G. Wiedmanns Erben und Reich, 1766. Élémens de l'art vétérinaire: de la conformation extérieure des animaux. &c. A Paris: Chez Vallat-La-Chapelle, libraire, au Palais, sur le Perron de la Sainte-Chapelle. Elémens de l'art vétérinaire: précis anatomique du corps du cheval, à l'usage des éleves des écoles royales vétérinaires. A Paris: Chez Vallat-la-Chapelle, libraire, au Palais, sur le Perron de la Sainte-Chapelle. Elémens de l'art vétérinaire. Essai sur les appareils et sur les bandages propres aux quadrupèdes. A l'usage des élèves des écoles royales vétérinaires...
Paris, l'Imprimerie royale, 1770. Matiere médicale raisonnée, ou, Précis des médicamens considérés dans leurs effets: a l'usage des éleves de l'École royale vétérinaire, avec les formules médicinales de la même École. A Lyon: Chez Jean-Marie Bruyset... 1771. Règlemens pour les Écoles Royales Vétérinaires, de France: divises en deux parties, la première, contenant la police & la discipline générale. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. Elémens de l'art vétérinaire. Précis anatomique du corps du cheval, à l'usage des éleves des écoles vétérinaires... Paris, Vallat-la-Chapelle, 1791. Elémens de l'art vétérinaire. Matiere médicale raisonnée, ou précis des médicamens considérés dans leurs effets. Paris, J. B. Huzard, An IV. Marc Mammerickx: Claude Bourgelat: avocat des vétérinaires, Bruxelles 1971 Hugues Plaideux, « L'inventaire après décès de Claude Bourgelat », in Bulletin de la Société française d'histoire de la médecine et des sciences vétérinaires, 10, 2010, p. 125-158.on line Hugues Plaideux, « La descendance de Claude Bourgelat », in Bulletin de la Société française d'histoire de la médecine et des sciences vétérinaires, 12, 2012, p. 161-176.
On line Bourgelat, Claude, in: Frank Arthur Kafker, The encyclopedists as individuals: a biographical dictionary of the authors of the Encyclopédie, Oxford 1988, ISBN 0-7294-0368-8, p. 67–71. Richard Tagand: Claude Bourgelat, écuyer lyonnais, 1712–1779, in: Revue de médecine vétérinaire 1959, p. 888–897. Alcide Railliet, Léon Moulé: Histoire de l'École d'Alfort, Paris 1908, online Louis Furcy Grognier: Notice historique et raisonnée sur C. Bourgelat, Fondateur des écoles vétérinaires. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne