Akademio de Esperanto
The Akademio de Esperanto is an independent body of language scholars who steward the evolution of the language Esperanto by keeping it consistent with Fundamento de Esperanto in accordance with the Declaration of Boulogne. Modeled somewhat after the Académie française and the Real Academia Española, the Akademio was proposed by L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, at the first World Esperanto Congress, was founded soon thereafter under the name Lingva Komitato; this Committee had a "superior commission" called the Akademio. In 1948, within the framework of a general reorganization, the Language Committee and the Academy combined to form the Akademio de Esperanto; the Akademio consists of 45 members and has a president, vice presidents, a secretary. The corresponding address including e-mail is at the secretary, it is funded by donations. Members are elected by their peers for a period of nine years, with elections being held every three years for a third of the members. Following the last elections in February 2016, the Akademio de Esperanto consists of the following members: Marc Bavant Vilmos Benczik Gerrit Berveling Marek Blahuš Marjorie Boulton Cyril Robert Brosch Renato Corsetti Marcos Cramer Probal Dasgupta Edmund Grimley-Evans Paul Gubbins Nikolao Gudskov Boris Kolker Katalin Kováts Erich-Dieter Krause Harri Laine Jouko Lindstedt Haitao Liu François Lo Jacomo Anna Löwenstein Ma Young-tae Carmel Mallia Stano Marček Alexander Melnikov Carlo Minnaja Paŭlo Moĵajev Brian Moon Nguyễn Xuân Thu Barbara Pietrzak Sergej Pokrovskij Otto Prytz Baldur Ragnarsson Giridhar Rao Orlando Raola Tsvi Sadan Saka Tadasi Alexander Shlafer Humphrey R. Tonkin Usui Hiroyuki Amri Wandel John C.
Wells Bertilo Wennergren Yamasaki SeikôFormer members have included Gaston Waringhien, Rüdiger Eichholz, Jorge Camacho, Victor Sadler, Michel Duc-Goninaz, William Auld. List of language regulators Official website
Esperanto vocabulary was defined in Unua Libro, published by L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, it contained around 900 root words. The rules of the language allow speakers to borrow words as needed, recommending only that they look for the most international words, that they borrow one basic word and derive others from it, rather than borrowing many words with related meanings. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala vortaro, written in five languages and supplied a larger set of root words. Since many words have been borrowed from other languages those of Western Europe. In recent decades, most of the new borrowings or coinages have been scientific terms. There are frequent debates among Esperanto speakers about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether the need can be met by derivation or extending the meaning of existing words. Esperanto occupies a middle ground between "naturalistic" constructed languages such as Interlingua, which take words en masse from their source languages with little internal derivation, a priori conlangs such as Solresol, in which the words have no historical connection to other languages.
In Esperanto, root words are borrowed and retain much of the form of their source language, whether the phonetic form or orthographic form. However, each root can form dozens of derivations that may bear little resemblance to equivalent words in the source languages, such as registaro, derived from the Latinate root reg. One of the ways Zamenhof made Esperanto easier to learn than ethnic languages was by creating a regular and productive derivational morphology. Through the judicious use of lexical affixes, the core vocabulary needed for communication was reduced, making Esperanto a more agglutinative language than most European languages, it has been estimated that on average one root in Esperanto is the communicative equivalent of ten words in English. However, a contrary tendency is apparent in cultured and Greco-Latin technical vocabulary, which most Europeans see as "international" and therefore take into Esperanto en masse, despite the fact they are not universal. Many Asians consider this to be an onerous and unnecessary burden on the memory, when it is so easy to derive equivalent words internally.
This sparks frequent debates as to whether a particular root is justified, sometimes results in duplicates of native and borrowed vocabulary. An example is "calligraphy", which occurs both as a calqued belskribo and as the direct borrowing kaligrafio. A similar development has occurred in English, Japanese, Spanish and other languages. However, although the debates in ethnic languages are motivated by nationalism or issues of cultural identity, in Esperanto the debates are motivated by differing views on how to make the language practical and accessible. One of the most useful derivational affixes for the beginner is the prefix mal-, which derives antonyms: peza, malpeza. However, except in jokes, this prefix is not used when an antonym exists in the basic vocabulary: suda, not "malnorda" from'north'; the creation of new words through the use of grammatical suffixes, such as nura from nur, tiama from tiam, or vido from vidi, is covered in the article on Esperanto grammar. What follows is a list of what are called "affixes".
Most of them, are lexical roots, in that they can be used as independent words and their relative order in a compound is determined by semantics, not grammar. They are called "affixes" because they derive from affixes in Esperanto's source languages; some are true affixes in that, although they may be used independently, their order within a word is fixed by the grammar. Only a few can not be used independently and so correspond to; when a root receives more than one affix, their order matters, because affixes modify the entire stem they are attached to. That is. Most affixes are themselves roots, as such have an inherent part of speech; this is indicated by the final part-of-speech vowel in the suffix list below. A few affixes do not affect the part of speech of the root. There are, in addition, affixes not listed here: technical affixes, such as the biological family suffix -edo seen in numidedo, a few taken from Ido, such as -oza in montoza, poroza. A proposed suffix -ala makes adjectives out of nouns made from adjectives: varmala, ŝtataligi.
Lexical affixes may act as roots by taking one of the grammatical suffixes: mala, ano, eble, iĝi, ero. Through compounding, lexical roots
Esperanto speakers have their own culture, on top of being a "gateway" to the culture of the entire world. As examples, gufujoj exist, Esperanto speakers will talk about what would be considered touchy subjects without restraint if they wouldn't do this in their home country or another language they know. In general, Esperanto culture places a huge focus on reading, education and acceptance. Esperanto speakers are more prone to being against globalization and culture-washing or throwing away one's native language, meaning that while they want to be able to talk to people they want those people to "stay unique". Native Esperanto speakers are people; as of 1996, there were 350 or so attested cases of families with native Esperanto speakers. Estimates from associations indicate that there are around 1,000 Esperanto-speaking families, involving 2,000 children. In all known cases, speakers are natively bilingual, or multilingual, raised in both Esperanto and either the local national language or the native language of their parents.
In all but a handful of cases, it was the father. In the majority of such families, the parents had the same native language, though in many the parents had different native languages, only Esperanto in common. Esperanto speakers create a makeshift café, using Esperanto coins or voucher-like items as well as real money to pay for food and drink. Live music, poetry reading, or literature reading are usual activities; this custom arose in 1995 in order to contrast with the more usual custom of after-convention partying at a bar. Esperanto has had an influence on certain religious traditions. While some Esperantists subscribe to these beliefs, they are not common, are not required or encouraged by any Esperanto groups. Books that are translated to Esperanto are not internationally famous books, because everyone can read those in another language that they know. For example, Natsume Sōseki's "Kokoro" does not exist but several Japanese crime novels, several Icelandic novels, that have never been translated to English have been translated to Esperanto.
One reason for this is that people are translating their favourite stories instead of the famous stories, another is that it's cheaper and easier to get the rights to translate a small-time book compared to a famous one. The first Harry Potter book, for example, was translated and the translator enquired about how to purchase translating rights so the book could be published, but J. K. Rowling refused to allow it to be published in Esperanto. In lieu of physical books, the translation now exists as a free download on the internet; as Esperanto speakers were persecuted throughout WWII, today might be mocked by journalists and the average person and acceptance have become strong themes in Esperanto writing and conversation. There are over 25,000 Esperanto books as well as over a hundred distributed Esperanto magazines; this is despite. In comparison, the entire literature of Iceland totals to fewer than 50,000 books. Many speakers travel the world using the Pasporta Servo, a free couchsurfing and homestay service combined, meaning that their trips are possible because they don't have to pay for lodging while at the same time they stay with people who speak a language they know fluently.
Many people have commented that this is a useful tool for actual immigrants, as Esperanto speakers are much friendlier and more willing to see the immigrant as a "human" compared to the normal natives of the country. For example, it's suggested that an English speaker in Japan should make friends with Esperanto speakers instead, because the Esperanto speakers won't "simply use the friendship as a way to get free English lessons". Esperanto was a language that one had to learn through books, today most people live apart from each other and converse through the internet, so writing and reading are a big part of Esperanto culture. Most people have created or translated some sort of written work whether fiction or nonfiction, published or available to read online for free. Penpals have been popular since Esperanto's earliest days, as Esperanto was advertised as a language where you could "send a letter with a message, short list of grammar rules and a dictionary to a complete stranger, they'll be able to look up the words and write a coherent reply back".
Many people did indeed do this. At the time, in the early 1900s, there was no major world language that could be used "anywhere" and it was difficult to get accurate information about foreign countries. On top of that, things like stamp collecting were popular hobbies for children. In the modern day, most Esperanto speakers talk to each other through the internet —, just the modern version of a penpal. Monato is a general news magazine "like a genuinely international Time or Newsweek", written by local correspondents. A magazine for the blind, Aŭroro, has been pu
Universal Esperanto Association
The Universal Esperanto Association known as the World Esperanto Association, is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with 5501 individual members in 121 countries and 9215 through national associations and in official relations with the United Nations. In addition to individual members, 70 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated with UEA, its current president is the Canadian professor Mark Fettes. The magazine Esperanto is the main organ used by UEA to inform its members about everything happening in the Esperanto community; the UEA was founded in 1908 by the Swiss journalist Hector Hodler and others and is now headquartered in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The organization has an office at the United Nations building in New York City. According to its 1980 statutes, the Universal Esperanto Association has two kinds of members: individual members join the association directly, paying a fee to the Rotterdam headquarters or to the chief delegate in their country; these members receive the UEA services.
Asociaj membroj, those members of the organizations that joined UEA. These members are administered by their respective organizations, it can be a specialist organization. This kind of membership is for the person in question a mere symbolical membership; the highest organ of UEA, the Komitato, has members elected in three different ways: An organization sends at least one komitatano, plus one more for every 1,000 national members, to the Komitato. Most national organizations have only one komitatano. Per 1,000 individual members, the individual members can choose one member to the Komitato. Both previous groups by-elect more komitatanoj, up to one third of their numbers; the Komitato elects the Estraro. The Estraro sometimes additionally a director; the general director and his staff work at Oficejo de UEA, in Rotterdam. An individual member can become a delegito, a'delegate'; this means that he serves as a local contact person for UEA members in his town. A ĉefdelegito is someone installed by the UEA headquarters, but with the task to collect the member fees in a given country.
TEJO, the World Esperanto Youth Organization, is the youth section of the UEA. Similar to the World Congress, TEJO organizes an International Youth Congress of Esperanto each year in a different location; the IJK is a week-long event of concerts, excursions attended by hundreds of young people from all over the world. The youth section has a Komitato and national and specialist affiliated organizations, just as UEA itself. A TEJO volunteer works at the Rotterdam headquarters; the first national Esperanto organization was founded in 1898 in France as a potential international association. In 1903 the second one followed, in Switzerland. Within a couple of years, many of the now still existing national organizations came into existence. Since 1933/1934 they send representatives into the UEA Komitato, making it a federation of national organizations; the term in Esperanto was mostly Naciaj Societoj, since 1933 Landaj Asocioj. When UEA accepted national organizations in 1933/1934 for the first time, it required them to have at least 100 national members, be'organized in an orderly manner', be neutral, meaning having no political or religious aims, being open to all citizens of the country.
The last prerequisite caused serious problems, e.g. to the German national association coming in those months under national socialist rule. For example, the Cuban association was refused because its statutes claimed to respect the leading role of the communist party in Cuba. In 1980, the UEA statutes were altered. Since a national organization need not be neutral itself, but must respect the neutrality of UEA. Specialist organizations are similar to the national organizations, they are divided into two groups: neutral organizations, that can join UEA in the same way as a national organizations. In Esperanto they are called aliĝintaj fakaj asocioj. Examples are the Esperanto teachers. Other organizations in collaboration with UEA, they do not send representatives to the Komitato but are mentioned in the Yearbook and can have a room at the World Congress. Some of them refuse to be affiliated because of financial reasons, others because they are non-neutral and cannot join UEA. Examples are the Esperanto Catholics and the Esperanto communists.
The youth section TEJO has two affiliated specialist groups, the cyclists and the lovers of rock music. UEA is the publisher of the most important Esperanto periodical, it was started in 1905 by Paul Berthelot. UEA founder Hector Hodler took it over in 1907 and made it the official UEA magazine in 1908. In 1920 he left the magazine to the association. Since the 1950s it has a paid editor-in-chief. Next to Esperanto, the Yearbook is the oldest continuous publication of the association. UEA has the largest mail-order Esperanto bookstore in the world, it maintains an information center and an important Esperanto library, called the Hector Hodler Library. The organisation has a network of local representatives from around the world, the Delegita Reto, who are available to provide information about their geographical area or professional field; the yearly World Esperanto Congress, which attracts 1500–3000 people to a
Since the earliest days of Esperanto, the colour green has been used as a symbol of mutual recognition, it appears prominently in all Esperanto symbols. The Verda Stelo was first proposed in an 1892 article in La Esperantisto for use as a symbol of mutual recognition among Esperantists. In a letter to The British Esperantist in 1911, L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, wrote: "It seems to me, that my attention was drawn to the color green by Mr. Richard H. Geoghegan and from that time I began to publish all of my works with green covers... Looking at one of my pamphlets that I had by chance printed with a green cover, he pointed out that this was the color of his homeland, Ireland. About the five-pointed star, it seems to me, that at first Mr. de Beaufront had it imprinted on his grammar. I liked that and I adopted it as a symbol. Afterward by association of ideas, the star appeared with a green color."The Esperanto flag is composed of a green background with a white square in the upper lefthand corner, which in turn contains a green star.
The green field symbolizes hope, the white symbolizes peace and neutrality, the five-pointed star represents the five continents. The flag was created by the Esperanto Club of Boulogne-sur-Mer for their own use, but was adopted as the flag of the worldwide Esperanto movement by a decision of the first World Esperanto Congress, which took place in 1905 in that town. By recommendation of the board of the Universal Esperanto Association, the flag should have the following proportions: The ratio of the width of the flag to the height of the flag to a side of the white square should be 3 to 2 to 1; the ratio of a side of the white square to the radius of a circle enclosing the star should be 10 to 3.5. Some Esperanto speakers consider the traditional flag too nationalistic for an international language, so many organizations no longer recommend its use and, use the jubilea simbolo; this symbol was created in 1987 by a Brazilian Esperantist to mark the centenary of the creation of Esperanto. On the other hand, this new symbol is jokingly called "the melon" by some.
Most Esperantists, continue to hold the verda stelo dear as a symbol of international or supranational solidarity, regard the preference of one symbol over another as a purely personal choice. At most Esperanto congresses, all three main symbols can be seen in use on displays or being worn as badges. Sometimes, Esperanto travelers will display the flag, wear a badge with one of the above symbols, or wear green clothes, to make themselves known to other Esperanto speakers. In 1905, delegates to the first conference of Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer, unanimously approved a version, differing from the modern only by the superimposition of an "E" over the green star. Other variants include that for Christian Esperantists, with a white Christian cross superimposed upon the green star, that for Leftists, with the color of the field changed from green to red. On December 15, 2009, the Esperanto flag flew on the Google home search page "Google" logo to mark L. L. Zamenhof's 150th birthday; the flagstaff was the "L" of the search-company name.
One hypothesis of the red star as a symbol of socialism relates to an alleged encounter between Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Krylenko. Krylenko, an Esperantist, was wearing a green-star lapel badge. On hearing this, he specified. Jubilee symbol Finvenkismo
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms, such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, mathematical symbols. Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet; the remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. In handwritten Esperanto, the diacritics pose no problem. However, since they do not appear on standard alphanumeric keyboards, various alternative methods have been devised for representing them in printed and typed text; the original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing, the so-called "x-system" has become popular. These systems are described below. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened; the letters have the sound values of the IPA, with the exception of c and the circumflex letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. J transcribes two sounds and vocalic.
There is a nearly one-to-one correspondence of letter to sound. Beside the dual use of ⟨j⟩, significant exceptions are: voicing assimilation, as in the sequence kz of ekzemple, pronounced /ɡz/ place assimilation, as in n, pronounced before g and kNon-Esperantized names are given an Esperanto approximation of their original pronunciation, at least by speakers without command of the original language. Hard ⟨c⟩ is read as k, ⟨qu⟩ as kv, ⟨w⟩ as v, ⟨x⟩ as ks, ⟨y⟩ as j if a consonant, or as i if a vowel; the English digraph ⟨th⟩ is read as t. When there is no close equivalent, the difficult sounds may be given the Esperanto values of the letters in the orthography or roman transcription, accommodating the constraints of Esperanto phonology. So, for example, Winchester is pronounced Vinĉester /vint͡ʃester/, as Esperanto has no w. Changzhou becomes Ĉanĝo /t͡ʃand͡ʒo/, as Esperanto has no ng or ou sound. There are no strict rules, however; the original stress may be kept. The script resembles Western Slavic Latin alphabets but uses circumflexes instead of carons for the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ.
The non-Slavic bases of the letters ĝ and ĵ, rather than Slavic dž and ž, help preserve the printed appearance of Latinate and Germanic vocabulary such as ĝenerala "general" and ĵurnalo "journal". The letter v stands for either w of other languages; the letter ŭ of the diphthongs aŭ and eŭ resemble the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet. Geographic names diverge from English for the English x, w, qu and gu, as in Vaŝingtono "Washington, D. C.", Meksiko "Mexico", or Gvatemalo "Guatemala". Other spelling differences appear when Esperanto spelling is based on the pronunciation of English names which have undergone the Great Vowel Shift, as in Brajtono for Brighton. Zamenhof tacked an -o onto each consonant to create the name of the letter, with the vowels representing themselves: a, bo, co, ĉo, do, e, fo, etc; the diacritics are mentioned overtly. For instance, ĉ may be called ĉo ĉapela or co ĉapela, from ĉapelo, ŭ may be called ŭo luneta or u luneta, from luno plus the diminutive -et-; this is the only system, accepted and in practical use.
The letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet not found in the Esperanto alphabet have distinct names, much as letters of the Greek alphabet do. ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨y⟩ are kuo, ipsilono. However, while this is fine for initialisms such as ktp for etc. it can be problematic when spelling out names. For example, several consonantal distinctions are difficult for many nationalities, who rely on the fact that Esperanto uses these sounds to distinguish words, thus the pairs of letter names ĵo–ĝo, ĥo–ho, co–ĉo, lo–ro, ŭo–vo are problematic. In addition, over a noisy telephone connection it becomes apparent that voicing distinctions can be difficult to make out: noise confounds the pairs po–bo, to–do, ĉo–ĝo, ko–go, fo–vo, so–zo, ŝo–ĵo, as well as the nasals mo–no. There have been several proposals to resolve this problem. Gaston Waringhien proposed changing the vowel of voiced obstruents to a, so that at least voicing is not problematic. Changed to a are h, n, r, distinguishing them from ĥ, m, l; the result is the most common alternative in use: a, ba, co, ĉo, da, e, fo, ga, ĝa, ha, ĥo, i, jo, ĵa, ko, lo, mo, na, o, po, ra, so, ŝo, to, u, ŭo, va, zaHowever, this still requires overt mention of the diacritics, so does not reliably distinguish ba–va, co–so, ĉo–ŝo, or ĝa–ĵa.
The proposal closest to international norms that clarifies all the above distinctions is a modification of a proposal by Kálmán Kalocsay. As with Zamenhof, vowels stand for themselves, but it follows the international standard of placing vowel e after a consonant by default, but before sonorants and voiceless fricatives; the vowel a is used for ⟨h⟩ and the voiceless plosives ⟨p⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨k⟩, after the international names ha for ⟨h⟩ and ka for ⟨k⟩. The letter ⟨v⟩ has the i vowel of ĵi, distinguishing it from ⟨b⟩
L. L. Zamenhof
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the inventor of the international language Esperanto, the most widely-used constructed language in the world. Zamenhof first developed the language in 1873 while still in school, he grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war. He believed; the language would be a tool to gather people together through neutral, equitable communication. He formed a community that continues today despite the World Wars of the 20th century, it has developed like other languages, through the interaction and creativity of its users. In light of his achievements, his support of intercultural dialogue, UNESCO selected Zamenhof as one of its eminent personalities of 2017, on the 100th anniversary of his death. Zamenhof was born on December 15, 1859, the son of Markus Zamenhof and Rozalia Zamenhof, in the multi-ethnic city of Białystok, now in Poland. At that time the city was in the Grodno Governorate of the Russian Empire as a result of the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit.
His parents were of Litvak Jewish descent. This group inhabited the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, he appears to have been natively bilingual in Russian. His father was a teacher of French. From him, Zamenhof learned German and Hebrew, he spoke some major language of Białystok: Polish, a Yiddish and German. Polish became the native language of his children in Warsaw. In school he studied the classical languages Latin, Greek and Aramaic, he learned some English, though in his own words not well. He had an interest in Lithuanian and Italian, learned Volapük when it came out in 1880. By that point his international language project was well developed. In addition to the Yiddish-speaking Jewish majority, the population of Białystok included Roman Catholic Poles and Eastern Orthodox Russians, with smaller groups of Belarusians and other ethnic groups. Zamenhof was frustrated by the many quarrels among these groups, he supposed that the main reason for the hate and prejudice lay in the mutual misunderstanding caused by the lack of a common language.
If such a language existed, Zamenhof postulated, it could play the role of a neutral communication tool between people of different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. As a student at secondary school in Warsaw, Zamenhof attempted to create an international language with a grammar, rich, but complex; when he studied English, he decided that the international language must have a simpler grammar. Apart from his parents' native languages Russian and Yiddish and his adopted language Polish, his projects were aided by his mastery of German, a good passive understanding of Latin and French, a basic knowledge of Greek and Italian. By 1878, his project Lingwe uniwersala was finished. However, Zamenhof was too young to publish his work. Soon after graduation he began to study medicine, first in Moscow, in Warsaw. In 1885, Zamenhof began his practice as a doctor in Veisiejai. After 1886 he worked as an ophthalmologist in Vienna. While healing people there, he continued to work on his project of an international language.
For two years he tried to raise funds to publish a booklet describing the language, until he received the financial help from his future wife's father. In 1887, the book titled Международный язык. Предисловие и полный учебник was published in Russian under the pseudonym "Doktoro Esperanto" Zamenhof called his language "Lingvo internacia", but those who learned it began to call it Esperanto after his pseudonym, this soon became the official name for the language. For Zamenhof, this language, far from being a communication tool, was a way to promote peaceful coexistence between people of different cultures. In 1879 Zamenhof wrote the first grammar of the Yiddish, it was published years in the Yiddish magazine Lebn un visnshaft. The complete original Russian text of this manuscript was only published in 1982, with parallel Esperanto translation by Adolf Holzhaus, in L. Zamenhof, provo de gramatiko de novjuda lingvo, Helsinki, pp. 9–36. In this work, not only does he provide a review of Yiddish grammar, but proposes its transition to the Latin script and other orthographic innovations.
In the same period Zamenhof wrote some other works in Yiddish, including the first survey of Yiddish poetics. In 1882 a wave of pogroms within the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, motivated Zamenhof to take part in the early Zionist movement, the Hibbat Zion, he left the movement in 1887, in 1901 published a statement in Russian with the title Hillelism, in which he argued that the Zionist project could not solve the problems of the Jewish people. In 1914 he declined an invitation to join a new organization of Jewish Esperantists, the TEHA. In his letter to the organizers, he said, "I am profoundly convinced that every nationalism offers humanity only the greatest unhappiness... It is true that the nationalism of oppressed peoples – as a natural self-defensive reaction – is much more excusable than the nationalism of peoples who oppress.