Larry Grayson, born William Sulley White, was an English comedian and television presenter, best known in the 1970s and early'80s. He is best remembered for hosting the BBC's popular series The Generation Game and for his high camp and English music hall humour, his camp stand-up act consisted of anecdotes about a cast of imaginary friends. He is cited as one of the first gay entertainers to have enjoyed mass appeal, although he never made any reference to his sexuality, he was devoted to his adopted home town of Nuneaton, where a museum display relating to his life and work and a memorial have been established. Grayson was born William Sulley White in Banbury, Oxfordshire, in 1923, his parents were unmarried and he never met his father. When Grayson was ten days old, his mother, Ethel White, arranged for him to be adopted by Alice and Jim Hammonds in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, he had two adoptive sisters and May. His adoptive mother Alice died when he was six years old, he was brought up by his elder adoptive sister, with whom he lived for much of his life.
It has been reported that his birth mother stayed in touch with the family and was known to Grayson as "Aunt Ethel" throughout his childhood, until he discovered her true identity in life. Grayson left school at the age of 14 and began working professionally as a supporting drag act on the comedy club circuit, he used the stage-name Billy Breen, but changed it to Larry Grayson in the 1950s on the advice of his agent. BBC TV's The One Show reported on 27 November 2012 that the name "Grayson" was taken from the American singer Kathryn Grayson, but the origin of the name "Larry" is unknown. Over the next 30 years he toured the UK in male revues and drag shows, as well as in variety shows at venues including working men's clubs, regional theatres and the Metropolitan in London, he added stand-up comedy to his act and developed a unique and gentle anecdotal style of comedy. It was based around his various imaginary friends such as Everard, Apricot Lil, Slack Alice and the postman Pop-It-In Pete. A lot of his material was observational.
In his early years, Grayson's family had the only telephone in the street, his inspiration came from overhearing his neighbours using it. The "imaginary friends" were in fact based on local characters: for example, Apricot Lil worked at the local jam factory, it was while he performed as Billy Breen at the New Pavilion Theatre Redcar that he started using his familiar catchphrase "shut that door" when a side door had been left open causing a cold breeze to blow across the stage straight from the sea. During this period, Grayson was managed by Eve Taylor, who renamed him'Larry Grayson' and she is credited with being the source of the phrase, as several of her clients revealed that whenever she wanted to discuss money or personal issues with her clients, she would always tell them to "shut that door". Taylor struggled to find him the right opportunities and they parted, with Grayson becoming a client of Michael Grade. An early TV appearance in the 1950s had led to complaints about his act being too outrageous, Grayson had resigned himself to a career off television.
In the early 1970s his club act was seen by Michael Grade an agent, who signed him. Following several successful appearances in ATV variety shows, Grade's uncle, impresario Lew Grade gave Grayson a contract to front a show, Shut That Door!, later, the Larry Grayson Show. Grayson made two cameo appearances in the Midlands-based soap opera Crossroads, as a flouncing, difficult customer at the Crossroads Motel and as the chauffeur at the wedding of Meg Richardson, played by his close friend Noele Gordon. In real life Grayson could not drive, he made a number of guest appearances in variety shows, chat shows and panel games. Grayson's popularity peaked when he was hired by the BBC to present the Saturday night show The Generation Game in 1978, as replacement for Bruce Forsyth; the show became hugely successful. Grayson was assisted by his co-star Isla St Clair, whom he referred to as "my lovely Isla". Despite its huge popularity, by 1981 The Generation Game was being overtaken in the ratings by ITV's rival show Game for a Laugh.
Grayson decided to leave The Generation Game in 1982 while it was still successful, in the expectation that the BBC would offer him another high-profile Saturday night show. Because offers of work were not forthcoming, Grayson went into unintentional semi-retirement, enjoying time on his own at his bungalow in Nuneaton with his beloved dogs, although he did return to television to present the game show Sweethearts for ITV in 1987, he made a number of other TV appearances and radio broadcasts on the Tom O'Connor hosted TV quiz show A Question of Entertainment, where he was one of the team captains in 1988. Grayson moved with Flo to Torquay, Devon, as part of his semi-retirement, but moved back to Nuneaton after just a couple of years when he became bored. Grayson's final public appearance was on 3 December 1994 at the Royal Variety Performance. During this performance he referred to his hiatus from television by commenting to the audience, "They thought I was dead!". While his act began well it became disjointed and rambling.
On New Year's Eve 1994, Grayson was rushed into hospital. He was found to have suffered from a perforated appendix. After being allowed home from hospital, Grayson died on 7 January 1995 in Nuneaton, at the age of 71, his body was buried alongside other members of his family at Oaston Road Cemetery in his home town o
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
London Weekend Television
London Weekend Television was the ITV network franchise holder for Greater London and the Home Counties at weekends, broadcasting from Fridays at 5.15 pm to Monday mornings at 6:00 am. From 1968 until 1992, when LWT's weekday counterpart was Thames Television, there was an on-screen handover to LWT on Friday nights. From 1993 to 2002, when LWT's weekday counterpart was Carlton Television, the transfer occurred invisibly during a commercial break as Carlton and LWT shared studio and transmission facilities. Like most ITV regional franchises, including Carlton's, the London weekend franchise is now operated by ITV plc; the “London Weekend” franchise was renewed by Ofcom in 2015 for a further ten years and is still separately licensed, but it is no longer distinguished on air in any way at all. LWT is now managed with Carlton Television as a single entity, the legal name for LWT is now ITV London. London Weekend Television Ltd is now listed at Companies House as a "dormant company"; the London Television Consortium was created and led by television presenter David Frost, who at the time was working for the London weekday ITV station, Rediffusion.
The consortium consisted of three ex-BBC members of staff: Michael Peacock, Frank Muir and Doreen Stephens. Rediffusion's Controller of Programmes, Cyril Bennett joined the consortium along with Clive Irving, theatre director Peter Hall and, for financial backing, Arnold Weinstock, managing director of GEC. Frost had considered applying for the new Yorkshire region franchise but the expected high number of applicants led to a change of plans; the second choice was to take on Rediffusion for their contract but although it held the largest and most profitable licence it was felt that the company was too powerful to challenge. Changes elsewhere in the system led Frost to believe that the existing Midlands weekday broadcaster ATV had a significant risk of losing its London weekend contract; the consortium's application promised a variety of high-brow arts and drama productions. It accordingly caught the attention of the regulator, the Independent Television Authority, it seemed to address concerns and criticisms raised in the Pilkington Report.
The authority had been worried by criticism of the network's output, seen as downmarket and the LTC plans were viewed by the ITA as being serious contenders to the quality educational programming of the BBC. So keen were the ITA that they were quoted at the time as saying the LTC had to have its chance, whatever the repercussions; the new company, renamed London Weekend Television, benefited from a slight extension in broadcasting hours, as they were allocated Friday evenings from 7 pm as well as Saturday and Sunday. The LTC had planned on buying the superior Teddington Studios of former contractor ABC, but following ABC's merger with Associated Rediffusion to form Thames Television, the LTC were forced by the ITA to purchase Rediffusion's site at Wembley and obliged to employ all members of staff, although the workforce was larger than LWT had wanted. Having worked weekdays for Rediffusion, transmission staff now had to work at weekends, as a result, wanted extra pay for the unsocial hours.
This led to threats of industrial action, with the dispute still unresolved, fifteen seconds into their opening night of 2 August 1968, technicians went on strike and the screens went blank. An emergency service was provided by management from the transmission centre of ATV at Foley Street, London. Upon resolving the dispute, LWT suffered poor rating figures as the station's evening viewing schedule included a Stravinsky musical drama, an avant-garde drama from French film director Jean-Luc Godard, a tribute to Belgian singer-songwriter Jacques Brel and Georgia Brown Sings Kurt Weill; as a consequence viewers deserted their primetime offerings in favour of the more mainstream Saturday night viewing on BBC1. Other ITV stations refused to show LWT productions because of the poor ratings. ATV, now the seven-day Midlands franchise holder after losing their London contract to LWT, refused to transmit any of their programmes in peak time; the situation came to a head during a meeting of the Network Programme Committee on 9 September 1968.
The NPC was being chaired by Lew Grade, ATV's managing director, he is quoted as saying on this occasion: "I've succeeded in business by knowing what I hate," he told them. "And I know I hate David Frost." Frost no one else spoke out against LWT's programming policy. Meanwhile, the £6.5 million they had put up for the franchise began to drain away more than their audience figures. Michael Peacock, the architect in David Frost's vision for the future of television, wanted to stick to the principles of their contract with the ITA. ATV dropped Frost's major S
Susan Joan Pringle Holderness is an English actress. She played the role of Marlene Boyce in the British sitcom Only Fools and Horses and its spin-off The Green Green Grass. Holderness was born in London. After taking her A-levels, she trained at the Central School of Drama, she began her acting career with Manchester’s 69 Theatre Company in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Peer Gynt and as Desdemona in Catch My Soul. She has worked in theatre, radio and television. West End plays include The Female Odd Couple, Why Not Stay for Breakfast, The Male of the Species and the acclaimed one-woman play Our Kid. Sue appears in The Vagina Monologues and she is part of the cast of the touring play Seven Deadly Sins Four Deadly Sinners, she worked in several repertory companies. Much of Sue’s career has been spent doing Alan Ayckbourn plays, three of which she toured with John Challis, who plays Boycie to Sue’s long-suffering Marlene in Only Fools And Horses; the Green, Green Grass ran from 2005 - 2009. A total of four series and two Christmas Specials were created.
Sue played the role of Annie in the 2010 UK Tour of Calendar Girls. She played Annie again in 2011She played Celia in the 2012 tour and went back to playing Annie in the Autumn 2012 tour. Television roles include Marianne in The Sandbaggers, Liz in It Takes a Worried Man, Jo in The Brief, Cleopatra IV in The Cleopatras, she played Rowan Atkinson's love interest, Lorraine, in Canned Laughter, did numerous impersonations in two series of End of Part One. She played Maggie in Dear John, by John Sullivan, Joan Forrester in Heartbeat for YTV, Joan Travis in Revelations, Rachel’s mum in Cold Feet for Granada. Films include That'll Be the Day and It Could Happen to You. Sue appeared in the low budget feature Meat Draw and Out of Sight for Granada. Sue appears in pantomime. and has appeared in productions across the UK. In 2014, Holderness appeared in the BBC One medical drama Casualty as Alice Sweeney. In 2018, Holderness appeared as Mrs Rossi in the sitcom Still Open All Hours, alongside former Only Fools and Horses co-star David Jason.
Sue Holderness on IMDb
The Generation Game
The Generation Game is a British game show produced by the BBC in which four teams of two people from the same family, but different generations, compete to win prizes. The show is based on the Dutch TV show Één van de acht, the format devised in 1969 by Theo Uittenbogaard for VARA Television. Mies Bouwman, a Dutch talk show host and presenter of the show, came up with the idea of the conveyor belt, she wanted to incorporate it into the show. Another antecedent for the game show was Sunday Night at the London Palladium on ATV, which had a game called Beat the Clock, taken from an American game show of the same name, it featured married couples playing silly games within a certain time to win prize money. This was hosted by Bruce Forsyth from 1958, he took the idea with him when he went over to the BBC. During the 1970s, game shows started to replace expensive variety shows. Creating new studio shows was cheaper than hiring a theatre and paying for long rehearsals and a large orchestra, could secure a similar number of viewers.
With less money for their own productions, a game show seemed the obvious idea for ITV. As a result, many variety performers were recruited for game shows; the BBC, suffering poor ratings, decided to make its own game show. Bill Cotton, the BBC's Head of Light Entertainment, believed. For years, The Generation Game was one of the strongest shows in the BBC's Saturday night line-up, became the number-one game show on British television during the 1970s gaining over 21 million viewers. By the mid-1970s, desperate to end the BBC's long-running ratings success on a Saturday night, London Weekend Television offered Forsyth a chance to change channel to host The Big Night. Alan Boyd, producer of The Generation Game at the time, remembers that there were many proposals as to who should take over, with Bill Cotton having a brief discussion with his favoured choice Cilla Black, who wouldn't consider the move and other names mentioned included Jimmy Tarbuck and Kenneth Williams. However, he felt he did not want the new programme to be comparable to Forsyth's Generation Game, so he cast Larry Grayson to take over, with a new theme tune and scenery, a new co-host, Isla St Clair.
It worked, as The Big Night failed to beat The Generation Game and was off the air within three months. The show reached its peak under Grayson, it attracted an audience of 25 million on one occasion, when a strike blacked out the ITV network, meaning the two BBC channels were the only ones the public could watch. Grayson's apparent incompetence and inability to remember what was going on was contrived. In 1980 a junior version was considered, to be titled The Younger Generation Game, with two young siblings of different ages in place of older contestants, it was not confirmed whether Grayson would have hosted this proposed spin-off version, it was never commissioned. The Generation Game was played in 2011 as part of Vernon Kay's 24 Hour Panel People—a charity marathon of game shows for Comic Relief. David Walliams competed with his mother Kathleen; the other team consisted of Miranda Hart and Patricia Hodge, who play mother and daughter in the sitcom Miranda. In 2014, it had been reported. In July 2017, the BBC announced that it had commissioned a revival of The Generation Game hosted by Mel and Sue, with an initial run of two episodes.
There are eight competitors, hence the catchphrase "Let's meet the eight who are going to generate" used in earlier series by Bruce Forsyth. The couples were a generation apart and of different genders. Most of the time it was mother/son, father/daughter. Sometimes aunt/nephew and uncle/niece played. In the first two rounds, two couples compete against each other in two games. One game involves first seeing a skilled professional construct or perform something, such as pottery or dancing; the contestants attempt to do the same, a score is given by the professional. The other game involves more of a quiz element, such as identifying pieces of music. At the end of each of the first two rounds, the couple with the lower score is eliminated; the two highest-scoring couples compete against each other in the final. This is a big set-piece performance; the couple that scores the highest go through to the final'conveyor belt'. This was scored the same way in the first rounds, but when Davidson took over, the winner was decided by an audience vote.
At the end of the show, one member of the victorious team watches prizes pass on a conveyor belt, wins as many as could be recalled in 45 seconds, with some items awarding a bonus prize if the contestant or team recalls that item. A trademark of the show is; this led to an affectionate joke: "Dinner service...fondue set... Cuddly toy! Cuddly toy!", sometimes quoted when the show is mentioned. The audience and the host shout out the names of the prizes in series, allowing the contestants to carry away large numbers of items. Towards the end of the Davidson run, an added twist involved four prizes being referred to as "phantom prizes", if the contestant was to mention those, gunge would be hurled at them every time one was recalled. In the Davidson run, if contestants recalled 15 of the 20 prizes in 4
End of Part One: Their Greatest Hits
End of Part One: Their Greatest Hits is the first compilation album released by Scottish pop rock quartet Wet Wet Wet. Released on 8 November 1993, the album serves as a comprehensive collection of the band's single discography, featuring all sixteen singles released between 1987 and 1993, plus two brand new songs — "Shed a Tear" and "Cold Cold Heart" — which were recorded by Nile Rodgers at The Hit Factory in New York City, where the album's artwork was shot. Both went on to be released as a singles; the album peaked at #4 on the UK Albums Chart. An accompanying VHS video, containing the band's fifteen music videos to date, was released three days after the album on 11 November. In 1994, following the release of the band's biggest hit to date, "Love Is All Around", the album was re-released containing the aforementioned song as a bonus track. Subsequently, the album re-entered the UK Albums Chart, this time peaking at #1. A US-only version of the album, Part One, was released on 26 July 1994, peaking at #24 on the Billboard Hot 100.
All tracks written by Clark/Cunningham/Mitchell/Pellow, except "With a Little Help from My Friends", by Lennon–McCartney, "This Time" by Willie Mitchell & Ed Adams, Jr. and "Love is All Around" by Reg Presley.† Edited to replace the line "don't waste my fucking spirit'" with "don't waste my angry spirit".