Havana Candy is the second album by American vocalist and songwriter Patti Austin recorded in 1977 and released on the CTI label. The Allmusic review stated "Austin sang this undistinguished material with as much conviction as she could muster, but the general pallid air lingering over the production affected her vocals". All compositions by Patti Austin except as indicated"That's Enough for Me" - 5:46 "Little Baby" - 4:12 "I Just Want to Know" - 4:54 "Havana Candy" - 4:34 "Golden Oldies" - 4:41 "I Need Somebody" - 4:29 "We're in Love" - 4:00 "Lost in the Stars" - 5:02Recorded at Electric Lady Studios in New York City in August 1977 Patti Austin - vocals Alan Rubin, Marvin Stamm - trumpet Wayne Andre - trombone Michael Brecker, Lou Marini - tenor saxophone Gerry Niewood - alto saxophone Ronnie Cuber - baritone saxophone Dave Valentin - flute, timbales Dave Grusin - piano, electric piano, slide whistle, conductor Richard Tee - piano Eric Gale, Steve Khan, Hugh McCracken - electric guitar Frank Gravis, Will Lee - electric bass Steve Jordan - drums Ralph MacDonald - percussion Lani Groves, Gwen Guthrie, Yolanda McCullough, Ken Williams - background vocals Seymour Barab, Eugene Bianco, David Davis, Peter Dimitriades, Regis Iandiorio, Theodore Israel, Jesse Levy, Charles Libove, Guy Lumia, Elliot Magaziner, Joseph Malin, Richard Maximoff, Elliot Rosoff, Paul Winter - string section
More Today Than Yesterday
"More Today Than Yesterday" is a song written by Pat Upton and performed by Spiral Starecase. It reached number 6 in Canada, number 7 on the Cashbox Top 100, number 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1969, it was released in the United Kingdom as a single, but did not chart. The song was featured on More Today Than Yesterday. Produced by Sonny Knight and arranged by Al Capps, it ranked number 50 on Billboard magazine's Top Hot 100 songs of 1969; the principal idea of the song was made famous at the turn of the 20th century in a poem by Rosemonde Gérard, the wife of the poet and playwright Edmond Rostand. Charles Earland released a version of the song on his 1969 album, Black Talk! Shirley Scott released a version of the song on Shirley Scott & the Soul Saxes. Andy Williams released a version of the song featuring The Osmonds on his 1969 Get Together with Andy Williams. Barbara McNair released a version of the song as the title track of her 1969 album More Today Than Yesterday. Colleen Hewett released a version of the song in Australia as the B-side of her 1971 single, "Superstar".
Lena Horne released a version of the song on Nature's Baby. Sonny & Cher released a version of the song on their 1971 album, All I Ever Need Is You as well as on Sonny & Cher Live, released the same year. Patti Austin released a version of the song on End of a Rainbow. James Darren released a version of the song on his 2001 album. Nick Carter released a version of the song on his 2003 album, Before the Backstreet Boys 1989–1993. Grant Green recorded a live version of the song in 1971 and it was released on his 2006 album, Live at Club Mozambique. Diana Ross includes the song as part of her playlist on many tours, including the More Today Than Yesterday: The Greatest Hits Tour. Chicago, with the Les Deux Love Orchestra, released a cover of the song on iTunes in 2013. Allan Harris recorded a version on his 2016 album, Nobody's Gonna Love You Better. Nyoy Volante recorded the song for the 2018 Philippine drama series Playhouse. Goldfinger released a version of the song, featured in the ending credits of the 1998 film, The Waterboy.
Jordan McCoy sang a version of the song on American Juniors. Kenneth "Ken" Dingle sang a version of the song. Tito Sotto, Vic Sotto, Joey de Leon performed a version of the song on the 37th Anniversary of Eat Bulaga! Heard in the first entrance of Jamie Lee Curtis's character in My Girl. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Acoustic bass guitar
The acoustic bass guitar is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to, though larger than a steel-string acoustic guitar. Like the traditional electric bass guitar and the double bass, the acoustic bass guitar has four strings, which are tuned E-A-D-G, an octave below the lowest four strings of the 6-string guitar, the same tuning pitch as an electric bass guitar; because it can sometimes be difficult to hear an acoustic bass guitar without an amplifier in settings with other acoustic instruments, most acoustic basses have pickups, either magnetic or piezoelectric or both, so that they can be amplified with a bass amp. Traditional music of Mexico features several varieties of acoustic bass guitars, such as the guitarrón, a large, deep-bodied Mexican 6-string acoustic bass guitar played in Mariachi bands, the león, plucked with a pick, the bajo sexto, with six pairs of strings; the first modern acoustic bass guitar was developed in the mid-1950s by Kay of Chicago Harpone started producing their B4 model in 1965 under the name Supreme.
In 1967 Harptone started producing the B4 under their name production ended in 1975. Note, they made a limited number under the Standel logo. Ernie Ball of San Luis Obispo, began producing a model in the early 70's. Ball's aim was to provide bass guitarists with a more acoustic-sounding instrument that would match better with the sound of acoustic guitars. Ball stated that "...if there were electric bass guitars to go with electric guitars you ought to have acoustic basses to go with acoustic guitars." Ball notes that "...the closest thing to an acoustic bass was the Mexican guitarron...in mariachi bands, so I bought one down in Tijuana and tinkered with it."Ball collaborated with George Fullerton, a former employee at Fender, to develop the Earthwood acoustic bass guitar, introduced in 1972. Production of this instrument ceased in 1974, resuming a few years under the direction of Ernie Ball's employee Dan Norton, until production ended again in 1985; the Earthwood acoustic bass guitar was quite large in contrast to most instruments in current production, which gave it more volume in the low register.photo 1photo 2photo 3 The Ernie Ball company describes Ball's design as "an idea before its time".
The Earthwood was supplanted by the Washburn AB-40 designed by Mick Donner and Richard Siegle. The AB-40 and the more affordable AB-20 became the instrument of choice for bass players appearing on Unplugged. Folk bass player Ashley Hutchings used the acoustic bass guitar with his Etchingham Steam Band in 1974 and 1975. An early user of the acoustic bass guitar in rock was English multi-instrumentalist and composer Mike Oldfield, who had one custom-built for him by luthier Tony Zemaitis in the mid-1970s. Mike used the bass on a number of his recordings from that time onwards, a prominent example being his 1975 album Ommadawn. Brian Ritchie of Violent Femmes was an early user of acoustic bass guitars. Unlike the electric bass guitar, a solid body instrument, the acoustic bass guitar has a hollow wooden body similar to that of the steel-string acoustic guitar; the majority of acoustic basses are fretted. Semi-fretted versions exist, although they are quite rare. Like the traditional electric bass and the double bass, the acoustic bass guitar has four strings, which are tuned E-A-D-G, an octave below the lowest four strings of the 6-string guitar.
Like the electric bass guitar, models with five or more strings have been produced, although these are less common. In part, this is because the body of an acoustic bass guitar is too small to produce a resonance of acceptable volume at lower pitches on the low "B" string. One solution uses the five string acoustic bass to add an additional high string instead of adding a low "B". Another solution is to rely on amplification to reproduce the low "B" string's notes. There are semi-acoustic models, fitted with pickups, for use with an amplifier; the soundbox of these instruments is not large enough to amplify the sound. Instead, it produces a distinctive tone when amplified to semi-acoustic electric guitars. Thin-body semi-acoustic basses such as the violin-shaped Höfner made famous by the early Beatles and several Fender models are not regarded as acoustic basses at all, but rather as hollow-bodied bass guitars. There are semi-acoustic basses such as Godin Guitars' "A-Series" that, once amplified, sound much closer between acoustic bass guitars and upright basses, have been used in professional circles to "simulate" one when it would be impractical for transportation and other reasons to use a full-sized upright bass.
As with semi-acoustic electric guitars, the line between acoustic instruments fitted with pickups and electric instruments with tone-enhancing bodies is sometimes hard to draw when some instruments can be equipped with a variety of pickups such as piezo pickups, the "standard" of acoustic-electric instruments as well as synth pickups that can replay "virtual" upright bass sounds and bring a semi-acoustic bass much closer to a double bass sonically. Saga Musical Instruments produces a four-string bass resonator guitar under their Regal brand name.videos National Reso-Phonic Guitars produce three models of resonator bass guitar. Other manufacturers of acoustic bass guitars include Alvarez
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Creed Taylor is an American record producer, best known for his work with CTI Records, which he founded in 1968. His career included periods at Bethlehem Records, ABC-Paramount, A&M Records. In the 1960s, he signed bossa nova artists from Brazil to record in the US, such as Antonio Carlos Jobim, Eumir Deodato, João and Astrud Gilberto, among others. Taylor was born and spent his childhood in Pearisburg, where he played trumpet in the high school marching band and symphony orchestra. Although he grew up surrounded by country music and bluegrass, he gravitated more toward the sounds of jazz, citing Dizzy Gillespie as a source of inspiration during his high school years. Taylor recalls spending many evenings beside a small radio, listening to Symphony Sid's live broadcasts from Birdland in New York City. After high school, Taylor completed an undergraduate degree in psychology from Duke University in 1951 while performing with the student jazz ensembles the Duke Ambassadors and the Five Dukes. Taylor credits Duke's strong tradition of student-led jazz ensembles, Les Brown's association with Duke in particular, as drawing him to the university.
As he recalls, "The reason I went to Duke was from hearing Les Brown and all the history of the bands who went through Duke. This was a great jazz band... and the book was handed down from one class to the next, you had to audition and all the best players who came to Duke got in the band.... I had a ball when I was there." After graduating from Duke, Taylor spent two years in the Marines before returning to Duke for a year of graduate study. Shortly thereafter, Taylor relocated to New York City in order to pursue his dream of becoming a record producer. Although he had no formal training at the time in record production, he recalls his "mix of naivete and positive thinking" that convinced him that he could succeed. After arriving in NYC, Taylor approached another Duke University alum, running Bethlehem Records. Taylor convinced Bethlehem Records to allow him to record the vocalist Chris Connor with the trio of pianist Ellis Larkins. Due in part to the album's success, Taylor became head of artists and repertory for Bethlehem Records.
He was at Bethlehem during its two most significant years, recording such artists as Oscar Pettiford, Ruby Braff, Carmen McRae, Charles Mingus, Herbie Mann, Charlie Shavers, the J. J. Johnson-Kai Winding Quintet. In 1956 Taylor left Bethlehem to join ABC-Paramount, where four years he founded the subsidiary label Impulse!. Motivated by the idea of a label dedicated to tasteful, current jazz, Taylor worked with ABC-Paramount executive Harry Levine to advocate for the label, which he dubbed "The New Wave in Jazz", it was Taylor who signed John Coltrane to Impulse!, rather than Coltrane's better known producer at the label, Bob Thiele. Taylor's accomplishments during this period included gaining immediate credibility for the label by releasing successful gate-fold albums by Ray Charles, Gil Evans, Kai Winding and J. J. Johnson and Oliver Nelson. Taylor was sensitive to the importance of album cover design for visually drawing people to the music, he hired photographers Pete Turner and Arnold Newman to create cover images.
Taylor's successful Impulse! Albums blurred the genre-based lines between jazz and popular music, his superb production values became the hallmark of the label. Although he signed John Coltrane for Impulse in 1960, Taylor left the following year to accept a job with Verve Records. There he prominently introduced bossa nova to the US through recordings such as “The Girl from Ipanema” with Antonio Carlos Jobim and Stan Getz. Jobim, a prolific writer on both piano and guitar, had come up with numerous melodies based on the rhythm of the bossa nova. One such piece, "Desafinado", found its way into the repertoire of bebop trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and caught the ear of jazz guitarist Charlie Byrd while he was on tour in Brazil; when Byrd returned to the States in 1961 armed with "Desafinado" and a cache of new Brazilian songs, the first person he rang up was jazz producer Creed Taylor. As Taylor recalls, "I went down to Brazil a few times and spent some time at Jobim’s house and met all the players down there.
Of course after “Desafinado” became a hit, Jobim wanted to come up and see what New York was like, so he came in to see me right off the bat. That started a long friendship and series of albums"; as Gene Lees puts it, "Creed Taylor was treating with dignity. Were it not for Creed Taylor, I am convinced, bossa nova and Brazilian music would have retreated in to itself, gone back to Brazil... and become a quaint parochial phenomenon interesting to tourists, instead of the worldwide music and the tremendous influence on jazz itself that it in fact became". While at Verve, Taylor produced recordings by Wes Montgomery, Jimmy Smith, Bill Evans, Cal Tjader, among others. Taylor formed his own label, CTI, the following year. A&M distributed CTI releases until 1969, when Taylor left A&M to establish CTI as an independent record company. Wes Montgomery joined Taylor at A&M. Taylor soon established CTI among the most successful jazz record companies of the 1970s, gaining notice for his ability to balance the artistic with the commercial.
Musicians including Freddie Hubbard, Stanley Turrentine, George Benson, Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan, Nina Simone, Paul Desmond, Art Farmer, Eumir Deodato, Hubert Laws, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter are among the artists who recorded for CTI during the 1970s. Taylor formed other labels within C
Barry Miles (musician)
Barry Miles is an American pianist, composer, producer and author. Miles grew up in North Plainfield, New Jersey, he joined the musicians union at age nine in 1956 as a child prodigy drummer/pianist/vibist appearing with Miles Davis and John Coltrane among other talents of the day live and on TV shows including To Tell the Truth, Dick Van Dyke's variety show, The Andy Williams Show. He made his solo artist debut recording at age fourteen in 1961, "Miles Of Genius", as drummer and composer with sidemen Al Hall and Duke Jordan. Miles continued to perform with his own band in the early 1960s in which he composed the material that enabled up and coming talents such as Woody Shaw, Eddie Gómez and Robin Kenyatta to display their talents, he wrote the instruction book, "Twelve Themes With Improvisations", published in 1963 by Belwin-Mills, out of print. While a student at Princeton University, Miles concentrated his efforts on his piano playing, recording a live album in 1966 entitled Barry Miles Presents His Syncretic Compositions.
He applied the philosophical term "syncretic" to music, defining the process of melding any combination of musical influences and styles together in the improvisational jazz idiom with originality. The combination of Miles's early jazz influences, his early Rock and roll background from the late 1950s and early 1960s, his innovative "melting pot of musical styles" concept, resulted in this recording. Miles followed this release in 1969 with the eponymously titled album, Barry Miles, incorporating electric instruments including the electric piano. In 1971, Miles recruited his brother Terry Silverlight on drums along with guitarists Pat Martino and John Abercrombie to record his White Heat album, regarded as one of the pioneering fusion jazz recordings. For the next decade, Miles recorded several albums in which he developed the principle of fusing styles together in jazz. In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, Miles embarked upon a prolific career as a keyboardist and Minimoog soloist on many recordings in the heyday of studio work, while working as Roberta Flack's musical director for a stint that lasted fifteen years.
During that time, he composed and recorded songs that Flack recorded in the film Bustin' Loose, on her album Oasis. After Al Di Meola's stint as the guitarist in Miles's band on live performances and Miles's PBS special "Fusion Suite" in 1973, a long-lasting relationship developed between Miles and DiMeola that resulted in Miles's frequent appearances as keyboardist on DiMeola's albums along with co-production credits. Miles of Genius Barry Miles Presents His Syncretic Compositions Barry Miles White Heat Scatbird Barry Miles and Silverlight Magic Theatre Together with Eric Kloss Sky Train Fusion Is... Barry Miles Zoot Suit Stomp Oasis – Roberta Flack Best Of: Softly With These Songs – Roberta Flack Imagination- Gladys Knight & the Pips I Feel a Song – Gladys Knight & the Pips Very Best Of – Patti Austin Land of the Midnight Sun – Al Di Meola Elegant Gypsy – Al Di Meola Casino – Al Di Meola Kiss My Axe – Al Di Meola Consequence of Chaos – Al Di Meola Capricorn Princess – Esther Phillips Tenor Saxophone – Nino Tempo Calello Serenade – The Charlie Calello Orchestra Jimmy McGriff featuring Hank Crawford – Jimmy McGriff Bodies' Warmth – Eric Kloss Miami – Gumbi Ortiz The London Sessions – Mel Tormé Roadsong – Vic Juris Horizon Drive – Vic Juris Celebration – Eric Kloss Seven Deadly Sins – Phil Woods Shoogie Wanna Boogie – David Matthews with Whirlwind Terry Silverlight – Terry Silverlight Diamond in the Riff – Terry Silverlight The Fox – Urbie Green End of a Rainbow – Patti Austin "Midnight Train to Georgia" – Gladys Knight & the Pips "Dynomite" – Bazuka "I Feel a Song" – Gladys Knight & the Pips Official website Barry Miles discography at Discogs Barry Miles artist page at The Bottom End
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl