SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

End time

The end time is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions, which teach that world events will reach a final climax. The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous, the world to come; some sects of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the Antichrist along with his power structure and usher in the Kingdom of God. In Islam, the Day of Judgement is preceded by the appearance of the al-Masih al-Dajjal, followed by the descending of Isa. Isa will triumph over the false messiah, or the Antichrist, which will lead to a sequence of events that will end with the sun rising from the west and the beginning of the Qiyamah.

Non-Abrahamic faiths tend to have more cyclical world-views, with end-time eschatologies characterized by decay and rebirth. In Hinduism, the end time occurs when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will rediscover the teaching of dharma; the ultimate destruction of the world will come through seven suns. Since the development of the concept of deep time in the 18th century and the calculation of the estimated age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end times has centered on the ultimate fate of the universe. Theories have included the Big Rip, Big Crunch, Big Bounce, Big Freeze. There is no classic account of end in Buddhism. History is embedded in the continuing process of samsara or the "beginningless and endless cycles of birth-death-rebirth". Buddhists believe that there is an end to things but it is not final because they are bound to be born again.

However, the writers of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures establish a specific end-time account in Buddhist tradition: this describes the return of Maitreya Buddha, who would bring about an end to the world. This constitutes one of the two major branches of Buddhist eschatology, with the other being the Sermon of the Seven Suns. End time in Buddhism could involve a cultural eschatology covering "final things", which include the idea that Sakyamuni Buddha's dharma will come to an end; the Buddha described his teachings disappearing five thousand years from when he preached them, corresponding to the year 4300, since he was born in 623BCE. At this time, knowledge of dharma will be lost as well; the last of his relics will be cremated. There will be a new era in which the next Buddha Maitreya will appear, but it will be preceded by the degeneration of human society; this will be a period of greed, poverty, ill will, murder, physical weakness, sexual depravity and societal collapse, the Buddha himself will be forgotten.

This will be followed by the coming of Maitreya. Maitreya was the first Bodhisattva around whom a cult developed, in the 3rd century CE; the earliest known mention of Maitreya occurs in the Cakavatti, or Sihanada Sutta in Digha Nikaya 26 of the Pali Canon. In it, Gautama Buddha predicted that his teachings of dharma would be forgotten after 5,000 years."At that period, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Maitreya, Fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One, a Buddha as I am now. He, by himself, will know and see, as it were face to face, this universe, with Its worlds of the spirits, Its Brahmas and Its Maras, Its world of recluses and Brahmins, of princes and peoples as I now, by myself know and see them" The text foretells the birth of Maitreya Buddha in the city of Ketumatī in present-day Benares, whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the former palace of King Mahāpanadā, will become a renunciate who follows Maitreya.

In Mahayana Buddhism, Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days, the minimum period, by virtue of his many lifetimes of preparation. Once Buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati Pure Land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the Indian city of Varanasi or Benares in present-day Uttar Pradesh. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha presides over a land of purity. For example, Amitabha presides over Sukhavati, more popularly known as the "Western Paradise". A notable teaching he will rediscover is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds—killing, sexual misconduct, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, harmful intent and wrong views; the ten virtuous deeds will replace them with the abandonment of each of these practices. Edward Conze in his Buddhist Scriptures gives an account of Maitreya: The Lord replied,'Maitreya, the best of men, will leave the Tuṣita heavens, go for his last rebirth; as soon as he is born he will walk seven steps forward, where he puts down his feet a jewel or a lotus will spring up.

He will raise his eyes to the ten directions, will speak these words: "This is my last birth. There will be no rebirth after this one. Never will I come back here, all pure, I shall win Nirvana."' Ma

Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can be said to feed back into itself; the notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled when applied to feedback systems: Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole. Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity, the idea of feedback had started to enter economic theory in Britain by the eighteenth century, but it was not at that time recognized as a universal abstraction and so did not have a name; the first known artificial feedback device was a float valve, for maintaining water at a constant level, invented in 270 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. This device illustrated the principle of feedback: a low water level opens the valve, the rising water provides feedback into the system, closing the valve when the required level is reached.

This reoccurs in a circular fashion as the water level fluctuates. Centrifugal governors were used to regulate the distance and pressure between millstones in windmills since the 17th century. In 1788 James Watt designed his first Centrifugal governor following a suggestion from his business partner Matthew Boulton, for use in the steam engines of their production. Early steam engines employed a purely reciprocating motion, were used for pumping water – an application that could tolerate variations in the working speed, but the use of steam engines for other applications called for more precise control of the speed. In 1868, James Clerk Maxwell wrote a famous paper "On governors", considered a classic in feedback control theory; this was mathematics of feedback. The verb phrase "to feed back", in the sense of returning to an earlier position in a mechanical process, was in use in the US by the 1860s, in 1909, Nobel laureate Karl Ferdinand Braun used the term "feed-back" as a noun to refer to coupling between components of an electronic circuit.

By the end of 1912, researchers using early electronic amplifiers had discovered that deliberately coupling part of the output signal back to the input circuit would boost the amplification, but would cause the audion to howl or sing. This action of feeding back of the signal from output to input gave rise to the use of the term "feedback" as a distinct word by 1920. Over the years there has been some dispute as to the best definition of feedback. According to Ashby and theorists interested in the principles of feedback mechanisms prefer the definition of circularity of action, which keeps the theory simple and consistent. For those with more practical aims, feedback should be a deliberate effect via some more tangible connection. Object to the mathematician's definition, pointing out that this would force them to say that feedback was present in the ordinary pendulum... between its position and its momentum—a "feedback" that, from the practical point of view, is somewhat mystical. To this the mathematician retorts that if feedback is to be considered present only when there is an actual wire or nerve to represent it the theory becomes chaotic and riddled with irrelevancies.

Focusing on uses in management theory, Ramaprasad defines feedback as "...information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter", used to "alter the gap in some way". He emphasizes. There are two types of feedback: negative feedback. Positive feedback: If the signal fed back from output is in phase with the input signal,the feedback is called positive feedback. Negative feedback: If the signal fed back is of opposite polarity or out of phase by 180° with respect to input signal, the feedback is called as negative feedback; as an example of negative feedback, the diagram might represent a cruise control system in a car, for example, that matches a target speed such as the speed limit. The controlled system is the car; the car's speed is measured by a speedometer. The error signal is the departure of the speed; this measured error is interpreted by the controller to adjust the accelerator, commanding the fuel flow to the engine. The resulting change in engine torque, the feedback, combines with the torque exerted by the changing road grade to reduce the error in speed, minimizing the road disturbance.

The terms "positive" and "negative" were first applied to feedback prior to WWII. The idea of positive feedback was current in the 1920s with the introduction of the regenerative circuit. Friis and Jensen described regeneration in a set of electronic amplifiers as a case where the "feed-back" action is positive in contrast to negative feed-back action, which they mention only in passing. Harold Stephen Black's classic 1934 paper first details the use of negative feedback in electronic amplifiers. According to Black: Positive feed-back increases the gain of the amplifier, negative feed-back reduces it. According to Mindell confusion in the terms arose shortly after this:... Friis and Jensen had made the same distinction Black used between "positive feed-back" and "negative feed-back", based not on the sign of the feedback itself but rather on its effect on the amplifier's gain. In co

Junior enterprise

A junior enterprise is a civil social nonprofit organization established and executed by students of a university or a business school, both at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. The purpose of the organization is to provide services for companies and society in the form of consultancies, while enriching the learning of its members with practical experience in the field of their studies. A junior enterprise is linked to a particular university or business school; the most common expertise areas for junior enterprises are business and management, marketing, communication, IT services and law. The members of the organization have the chance to take part into real-world projects, while experiencing the functioning of a real company: junior enterprises, either are real companies, or resemble one in their operational activities having a management council and an executive board, together with an own regulation. Non-profit 1.1 Not by legal status but by nature of activities 1.2 Surplus of the JE should not be used for any economic benefits for the members of the JE unless it is for execution of project work.

If the legal status allows economic benefits for Management Board the National umbrella should ensure that there is a rule in place to prevent this from happening in a JE Non-political: not affiliated to political movement or party, able to lobby Non-religious: not affiliated to a religious movement or church Managed by students: only students make and execute strategic decisions. Linked to an institution of higher education, but not affiliated legally. However, support from the University should be proactively sought. Legal entity: legal settlement should be proactively sought. Fostering entrepreneurship spirit: 7.1 Proactively engaging members in decision making. Contribute to the development of the National Network by providing trainings to the Junior Entrepreneurs about the Network and motivating them to be a part of its activities. Fostering members development 9.1 The end result of every project should be the development of members by any mean. The business acquisition, however, if the market allows, should focus on acquiring projects which develop hard skills 9.3 Projects should assume interaction with external parties: private and civil companies Aiming at sustainable activity.

Thus, the Junior Enterprise seeks the quality implementation of the Concept. This is an opportunity for students to develop self-confidence and experience entrepreneurship at an early stage in their careers, to add practical experience to the theoretical skills and to provide private business with state-of-the-art knowledge from universities. Due to the particularity of the Junior Enterprise work, the students distinguish themselves for example by their soft skills such as entrepreneurial spirit, team-working, presentation skills, public speaking and intercultural understanding, work experience, project management. 1967: Establishment of the first Junior Enterprise in France: Junior ESSEC. 1969: Establishment of the second Junior Enterprise in Lille, France: EDHEC Junior Etudes. 1969: Creation of the French National Confederation. 1983: Foundation of Junior Entreprise EPFL, the first Junior Entreprise in Switzerland, at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. 1988: Foundation of JEME Bocconi, the first Junior Enterprise in Italy, based in Milano.

Foundation of the first Junior Enterprises in Brazil. 1989: Foundation of uniforce Consulting GmbH, the first Junior Enterprise in Austria, based in Vienna. 1989: Foundation of Junior Consult, the first Junior Enterprise in Denmark, based in Aarhus. 1989: Foundation of FEA Júnior USP, the first business Junior Enterprise of the University of São Paulo in Brazil. 1990: Foundation of EJCM in Brazil, first JE of IT of America. 1991: Foundation of EAA Consult, the first Junior Enterprise in Belgium, based in Liège. 1991: Foundation of 3E Unicamp, the first JE of University of Campinas, Brazil. 1992: Foundation of CIJE, the Italian Confederation of Junior Enterprises, in order to link the National Confederations. It is based in Milan. 1992: Foundation of JADE, the European Confederation of Junior Enterprises, in order to link the National Confederations. It is based in Brussels. 1992: Foundation of Motriz Empresa Junior, the Junior Enterprise of the University of Campinas School of Mechanical Engineering, Brazil.

1992: Foundation of EESC jr. the Junior Enterprise of the Engineering School of São Carlos, Brasil. 1993: Foundation of Company Consulting Team, the first Junior Enterprise of Berlin, Germany. 1995: First Junior Enterprise in the UK - WBC, based at the University of Westminster in London. 1995: Foundation of Domani Consultoria Internacional, based at the University of Brasília, Brasil. 1996: CEJE, Spanish Confederation of Junior Enterprises, joins JADE. 1997: Foundation of ETH juniors - Junior Enterprise of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, called "ETH Zurich". 1997: Foundation of UniPartners - A network of Junior Enterprises in the Netherlands. 1997: Foundation of Quanta Jr. the Junior Enterprise of the Institute of Physics "Gleb Wataghin" and the Institute of Mathematics and Scientific Computing, University of Campinas, Brazi