Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
Innisfail is a town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town was called Geraldton until 1910, it is the major township of the Cassowary Coast Region and is well renowned for its sugar and banana industries, as well as for being one of Australia's wettest towns. In March 2006 Innisfail gained worldwide attention when severe Tropical Cyclone Larry passed over causing extensive damage. In the 2011 census, the town of Innisfail had a population of 7,176 people. Prior to European settlement the Innisfail area was occupied by five separate societies of the Mamu people; these Aboriginal people followed migratory lifestyles in the rainforest and traversed rivers in string-bark canoes. The first arrival of European people came in 1872 when survivors of the shipwreck, the "Maria" arrived on the coastal areas surrounding what is now the Johnstone River. Sub-Inspector Robert Arthur Johnstone of the Native Police came with the intention of rescuing remaining survivors and collectively punishing Aboriginals thought to have killed a number of the shipwrecked crew.
In mid 1873, Johnstone returned to the area as part of another punitive mission and ventured further upriver between what is today Flying Fish Point and Coquette Point. Johnstone wrote highly of the area, stating:A most glorious view appeared - a noble reach of fresh water, studded with blacks with their canoes and catamarans, others on the sandy beaches. In October 1873, Johnstone again returned as part of the Northeast Coast Expedition led by the explorer George Elphinstone Dalrymple. British settlement was first established at the junction of the north and south branches of the Johnstone River by this expedition on the 5th October 1873, it was named Nind's Camp after Philip Henry Nind. In 1879, Irishman Thomas Henry FitzGerald arrived in the area to establish a sugar industry, he was accompanied by large numbers of Kanaka South Sea Islanders workers accompanied by smaller numbers of Irish labourers. The house built by FitzGerald and thus the first establishment in the area was called Innisfallen, after the largest island in the Lakes of Killarney, Ireland.
Inis Fáil is an ancient Irish name for Ireland itself. The name is used in the rarely-sung third verse of the Irish national anthem; the stone mentioned may be the stone at Co Meath, at which high kings of Ireland were crowned. From 1879, the settlement was named Geraldton after FitzGerald, but in 1910 was renamed "Innisfail" to avoid confusion with the town of the same name in Western Australia. Johnstone River Post Office opened on 1 November 1882, was renamed Geraldton two months and Innisfail in 1910. In May 1885, the Queensland Government called for tenders to build the Geraldton Hospital to replace the existing tent hospital. In 1906 Patrick Leahy established the Johnstone River Advocate newspaper, it was renamed the Johnstone River Advocate and Innisfail News, the Evening Advocate, the Innisfail Chronicle. The newspaper continues to be published as the Innisfail Advocate; the 1920s and 1930s saw the beginning of a major period of settlement by Italian immigrants and noteworthy populations from Greece and Malta.
In this period populations from Yugoslavia and the Philippines would settle in the area. Local rugby league footballer Kerry Boustead was the only player from outside the Sydney and Brisbane Leagues selected to represent Australia on the 1978 Kangaroo tour; the Innisfail War Memorial in Jack Fossey Park on Fitzgerald Esplanade was dedicated on 16 April 2005. In the 2006 census, Innisfail had a population of 8,262 people. Today the town still boasts many good examples of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne styles of architecture. Innisfail State School opened on 18 July 1887 and Innisfail East State School opened on 3 February 1936. Innisfail State High School was open from 24 January 1955 until 2009 when it was amalgamated with the Innisfail Inclusive Education Centre - A State Special School and Tropical North Queensland TAFE to form Innisfail State College Innisfail has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 10 Edith Street: Innisfail Courthouse 134 Edith Street: See Poy House Fitzgerald Esplanade: Canecutters Memorial 70 Rankin Street: Johnstone Shire Hall 90 Rankin Street: Mother of Good Counsel Catholic Church 114 Rankin Street: St Andrew's Presbyterian Memorial Church Innisfail is diverse.
There are populations of indigenous Australians, South Asians and East Asians. Popular annual events to celebrate Innisfail's diversity include: Kulture Karnival Festival Innisfail Feast of the Senses Feast of the Three SaintsIn 2001 Los Angeles band Sugar Ray filmed part of their music DVD "Music in High Places" at the Johnstone Crocodile Farm in Innisfail; the township has only 2 secondary schools: Good Counsel College and Innisfail State College and a single business district. There are many events that act predominantly as community events, the main ones include: The Innisfail Rodeo Harvest Festival Annual ShowWhile Innisfail was always reputed to have a positive sense of community spirit, the aftermath of Tropical Cyclone Larry and the unified cleanup effort acted to promote this spirit through shared suffering; the Cassowary Coast Regional Council operates a public library at 49 Rankin Street. The current library opened in 2015; the Innisfail branch of the Queensland C
Herberton is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Herberton had a population of 855 people; the first European exploration of this area, part of the traditional land of the Dyirbal, was undertaken in 1875 by James Venture Mulligan. Mulligan instead found tin; the town of Herberton was established on 19 April 1880 by John Newell to exploit the tin find, mining began on 9 May. By the September of that year, Herberton had a population of 27 women. Herberton Post Office opened on 22 November 1880. In December 1881 a State School was established; the Herberton Public Library opened in 1995 with a major refurbishment in 2016. In the late 19th century the Mulligan Highway was carved through the hills from Herberton and passed through what is now Main Street, before continuing down to Port Douglas; this road was used by the coaches of Co to access Western Queensland. At its apogee, Herberton was the richest tin mining field in Australia, was home to 17 pubs, 2 local newspapers and a brewery.
Tin mining ceased in Herberton in 1985. At the 2006 census, Herberton had a population of 974. In the 2011 census, Herberton had a population of 934 people. Herberton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 38 Broadway Street: Holy Trinity Anglican Church Grace Street: Jack & Newell General Store 61 Grace Street: Herberton School of Arts off Jacks Road: Great Northern Mine 2-4 Lillian Street: Herberton Uniting Church Myers Street: Herberton War Memorial Herberton is situated 918 m high on the Great Dividing Range south-west of Atherton. Vegetation ranges from tropical rainforest to the east, wet schlerophyl forests to the north and east and open schleorphyl forests and woodlands to the north and west. Herberton is notably drier than the area around Atherton with average rainfall for Herberton of 1,155 mm. Herberton is the most northerly location in Australia to have recorded a temperature at or below −5 °C, the only location in Tropical North Queensland to have done so; the average minimum temperature ranges from 10 °C in winter to 18 °C in summer, while maximums range from 21 to 29 °C.
Several crops are grown around Herberton, it is the location of Queensland's only tropical vineyard. Herberton is a mini salad bowl with crops including avocados, tomatoes and pumpkins. Poultry and beef industries are present. Herberton's public hospital and the private school, Mt Saint Bernard residential college, are other major employers in the town; the Herberton Mining Museum and Visitor Information Centre opened in 2005, houses mining and social history of the Herberton Mining field, archives for the local area and maintains a genealogy project recording the families of the district and their histories. A Heritage Walk for tourists that takes in some of the old buildings and historical features of the town is a popular attraction. Historic Village Herberton is a 16-acre representation of a mining town filled with streets of buildings of the time, each one a museum in its own right with exhibits such as vintage machinery and Australian antiques, it has more than 50 restored period buildings.
The Herberton Spy & Camera Museum houses antique spy cameras, a photographic gallery and photographic memorabilia with guided tours through the museum and a working photographer and photographic studio. Most a Railway Museum has been established by volunteers in the former Herberton Railway Station building; this is operated by volunteers and only open part-time. The Tepon Equestrian Grounds just out of Herberton have been upgraded with a large undercover pavilion for equestrian and other sporting events such as cycling and mountain biking. Local markets are held on the 3rd Sunday of every month at the Wondecla Oval. There are several caravan parks, motels and B&Bs located in the town; the Tablelands Regional Council operates a Herberton Public Library and Customer Service Centre at 61 Grace Street. The Herberton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 14 William Street. Herberton State School opened on 12 December 1881. In 1912 the school had a secondary top added to the school.
Notable people associated with Herberton include: Bunny Adair, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Cook who attended Herberton State School. Alice Bonar. Founder of the Australian Red Cross in Herberton, now the oldest continuously operating branch in Australia. In 1914 reconvened the branch as a member of the Australian Red Cross. Eldest son David Welbourn Bonar a tunneller at Hill 60 and daughter May was a nurse in World War 1. Nancy Francis and poet known as'Black Bonnet'. Wrote extensively on life in the Daintree area including recording indigenous culture. Wrote poetry published in North queensland The Bulletin. James Douglas Henry Mining Engineer, served in 4th Queensland Imperial Bushmen contingent. Member of the Mining Corps Commanding Officer of 1st Australian Tunnellers involved in Hill 60. Retired to Tepon near Herberton and A. R. P. Warden for Wondecla area in World War 2. John Ledlie, one of the founders of North Queensland firm Armstrong and Stillman. Brought the first electric street lights outside his Herberton store.
Shire Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, member of Cairns Harbour Board and Cairns Regional Electricity Board. Teamed with Robert Ringrose to establish Herberton State High School in 1912. John Newell, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Woothakata, Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, Mayor of Herberton Municipality. One of the discoverers of payable tin and the establishment of Herberton Gold and Mineral Field. Founding member of the Tinaroo Division Board
Coen is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. The town of Coen is inland on the Peninsula Developmental Road, the main road on the Cape York Peninsula in far northern Queensland. In the 2011 census, Coen had a population of 416 people; the locality of Coen is on the eastern side of Cape York Peninsula with the Coral Sea forming its eastern boundary. Part of the northern boundary follows the Archer River, while the Coen River forms part of its western boundary; the Peninsula Developmental Road runs north to south through the locality. In 1623, Jan Carstensz, the navigator of the ship Pera of the Dutch East India Company named a river on Cape York Peninsula after Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Today that river is known as the Archer River and the name Coen River is given to one of its tributaries. Gold was discovered on the Coen River in 1876. Coen came into being first as a small fort built by gold miners and prospectors in May 1877 but this first gold rush came to an end, the settlement did not recover until 1883.
It became a centre for several small goldmines in the region but, in 1893, the rich Great Northern mine boomed and the town became a more substantial place. Coen Post Office opened on 20 June 1893; the Great Northern mine continued operations until 1916 and produced some 52,000 troy ounces of gold before it closed. On 3 July 2014, Barry Port retired from the Queensland Police, he was Australia's last Aboriginal police tracker. In his 36 years working for the police, he has tracked criminals, missing stowaways. Today Coen provides services to the region, is an important supply point on the long unpaved road leading to Weipa and other northern communities, it is a popular stopping point for tourists driving to the tip of Cape York - the northernmost part of the Australian mainland. It has an airstrip at Coen Airport, public library, hotel/motel, guest house, two general stores and fuel outlets, post office, police station, camping grounds, primary school kindergarten, ranger base and more. There is a scheduled air service to Cairns four times a week.
Coen is an ideal destination for birdwatchers: there are good accommodations and a large and varied bird fauna with representatives from rain forest, monsoon forest and coastal forests. Coen has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coleman Close: Coen Carrier Station Moon, Ron & Viv. 2003. Cape York: An Adventurer's Guide. 9th edition. Moon Adventure Publications, Victoria. ISBN 0-9578766-4-5 Roberts, Jan. 1981. Massacres to Mining: The Colonization of Aboriginal Australia. Dove Communications, Victoria. Rev. Australian ed. Previous ed.: CIMRA and War on Want, 1978, London. ISBN 0-85924-171-8. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-7008-6 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter.
Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wallace, Lennie. 2003. Cape York Peninsula: A History of Unlauded Heroes 1845-2003. Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton. ISBN 1-876780-43-6 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. McIvor, Roy. Cockatoo: My Life in Cape York. Stories and Art. Roy McIvor. Magabala Books. Broome, Western Australia. ISBN 978-1-921248-22-1
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate