Endothelin receptor

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endothelin receptor type A
Symbol EDNRA
Entrez 1909
HUGO 3179
OMIM 131243
RefSeq NM_001957
UniProt P25101
Other data
Locus Chr. 4 q31.2
endothelin receptor type B
Symbol EDNRB
Alt. symbols HSCR2, HSCR
Entrez 1910
HUGO 3180
OMIM 131244
RefSeq NM_000115
UniProt P24530
Other data
Locus Chr. 13 q22

There are at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC,[1] all of which are G protein-coupled receptors whose activation result in elevation of intracellular-free calcium,[2] which constricts the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, or relaxes the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, among other functions.

Physiological functions[edit]

Brain and nerves[edit]

Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels.[5]

A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a peripheral neuropathy model in rats.[6]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the EDNRB gene are associated with ABCD syndrome[7] and some forms of Waardenburg syndrome.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep, eds. (2009). Medical physiology a cellular and molecular approach (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 480. ISBN 9781437720174. 
  2. ^ Davenport AP (2002). "International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature". Pharmacol. Rev. 54 (2): 219–26. doi:10.1124/pr.54.2.219. PMID 12037137. 
  3. ^ Hynynen MM, Khalil RA; Khalil (January 2006). "The vascular endothelin system in hypertension--recent patents and discoveries". Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 1 (1): 95–108. doi:10.2174/157489006775244263. PMC 1351106Freely accessible. PMID 17200683. 
  4. ^ Barnes K, Turner AJ; Turner (August 1997). "The endothelin system and endothelin-converting enzyme in the brain: molecular and cellular studies". Neurochem. Res. 22 (8): 1033–40. doi:10.1023/A:1022435111928. PMID 9239759. 
  5. ^ Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF (July 1992). "Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels". Neuropeptides. 22 (3): 155–65. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(92)90158-S. PMID 1331845. 
  6. ^ Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM (December 1992). "Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve". Am. J. Physiol. 263 (6 Pt 2): H1806–10. PMID 1481904. 
  7. ^ Verheij JB, Kunze J, Osinga J, van Essen AJ, Hofstra RM (2002). "ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene". Am. J. Med. Genet. 108 (3): 223–5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10172. PMID 11891690. 
  8. ^ Read AP, Newton VE (1997). "Waardenburg syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 34 (8): 656–65. doi:10.1136/jmg.34.8.656. PMC 1051028Freely accessible. PMID 9279758. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Davenport AP, Hyndman KA, Dhaun N, Southan C, Kohan DE, Pollock JS, Pollock DM, Webb DJ, Maguire JJ. (2016) 'Endothelin' Pharmacol. Rev. 68: 357-418. pmid =26956245 doi =10.1124/pr.115.011833

External links[edit]