National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares
Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, 1st Duke of Sanlúcar, 3d Count of Olivares, GE, KOA known as the Count-Duke of Olivares was a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister. As prime minister from 1621 to 1643, he over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform, his policy of committing Spain to recapture Holland led to a renewal of the Eighty Years' War while Spain was embroiled in the Thirty Years' War. In addition, his attempts to centralise power and increase wartime taxation led to revolts in Catalonia and in Portugal, which brought about his downfall. Olivares was born in Rome in 1587, where his father, Enrique de Guzmán, 2nd Count of Olivares, from one of Spain's oldest noble families, was the Spanish ambassador, his mother died young, his father brought him up under a strict parental regime. He returned to Spain in 1599, became student rector at Salamanca University. By background, he was both a man of letters and well trained in arms. During the reign of King Philip III, he was appointed to a post in the household of the heir apparent, Philip, by his maternal uncle Don Baltasar de Zúñiga, a key foreign policy advisor to Phillip III, who himself had established a significant influence over the young prince.
Olivares in turn became the young prince's most trusted advisor. When Philip IV ascended the throne in 1621, at the age of sixteen, he showed his confidence in Olivares by ordering that all papers requiring the royal signature should first be sent to the count-duke. Olivares told his uncle de Zúñiga, to die the following year, that he was now "all" – the dominant force at court, his compound title is explained by the fact that he inherited the title of count of Olivares, but was created Duke of Sanlúcar la Mayor by King Philip IV of Spain. He begged the king to allow him to preserve his inherited title in combination with the new honour — according to a practice unique in Spanish history. Accordingly, he was spoken of as el conde-duque. Olivares' personality and appearance have attracted much comment by 17th-century writers, who were critical of them, he possessed a strikingly'big, heavy body and florid face'. Contemporaries described an'extravagant, out-size personality with a gift for endless self-dramatisation', more positively, have outlined a'determined and ambitious' personality.
Olivares' enemies saw in him a desire to acquire excessive power. He disliked sports and light-hearted entertainment, but was a good horseman, albeit hampered by his weight in life. Olivares did not share the king's taste for acquiring art and literature, although he may have helped assemble the king's own collection, it was he who brought to Philip's attention the young artist Diego Velázquez, in 1623. For himself he formed a vast collection of state papers and contemporary, which he endeavoured to protect from destruction by entailing them as an heirloom, he formed a splendid aviary for the Buen Retiro Palace, which lent him comfort after the death of his daughter but which opened the door for his enemies to nickname the entire Retiro the Gallinero, or the hencoop. Velázquez painted at least three portraits of his friend and original patron, producing the baroque equestrian portrait along with the standing portraits now at the Hermitage and São Paulo, it is possible that other portraits by Velázquez commissioned by the king were destroyed after Olivares' fall — in a copy of Prince Baltasar Carlos in the Riding School, his figure was painted over — though a few minor portraits made in the conde-duque's last years of power remain.
The royal favourite, Sumiller de Corps and Caballerizo mayor to the King, came to power with a desire to commit the monarchy to a'crusade of reform', with his early recommendations being radical. The heart of the problem, Olivares felt, was Spain's spiritual decline. De Zúñiga and Olivares had both presented Philip IV with the concept of restoring the kingdom to its condition under Philip II, undoing the alleged decline that had occurred under the king's father, Philip III, in particular his royal favourite, the Duke of Lerma. Olivares was concerned that Spain was too attached to the idea of limpieza de sangre,'purity of blood', worried about Castilians' disinclination for manual work. For Olivares, the concept of Spain was centred on Philip IV as a person. Olivares was inclined to see domestic policy as a tool in support of foreign policy – a common view amongst contemporary arbitristas, such as Sancho de Moncada and Jeronimo Zeballos. Like many other contemporaries, he had a keen interest in astrology, its potential impact on the world around him.
He incorporated that interest into political expression: he promoted Philip as "The Planet King" — the Sun, traditionally the fourth planet, was a fitting emblem for the fourth Philip of Spain — taking for his own symbol the sunflower. Whilst displaying huge confidence in his own capabilities and judgment, he felt considerable'doubt and uneasiness' over his position as chief minister to the king. Olivares was well known for his passion for work. Olivares would rise early, go to confession, wake Philip IV and discuss the day's events with him, before working throughout the rest of the day until 11 o'clock
Robert Herrick (poet)
Robert Herrick was a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for a book of poems; this includes the carpe diem poem "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time", with the first line "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may". Born in Cheapside, London, he was the seventh child and fourth son of Julia Stone and Nicholas Herrick, a prosperous goldsmith, he was named for his uncle, Robert Herrick, a prosperous MP for Leicester, who had bought the land Greyfriars Abbey stood on after its dissolution. Nicholas Herrick died in a fall from a fourth-floor window in November 1592, when Robert was a year old; the tradition that Herrick received his education at Westminster is based on the words "beloved Westminster" in his poem "Tears to Thamesis", but the allusion is to the city, not the school. It is more that he attended The Merchant Taylors' School. In 1607 he became apprenticed to his other uncle, Sir William Herrick, a goldsmith and jeweler to the king; the apprenticeship ended after only six years when Herrick, at age twenty-two, matriculated at St John's College, Cambridge.
He migrated to Trinity Hall, graduating in 1617. He became a member of the Sons of Ben, a group centered upon an admiration for the works of Ben Jonson. Herrick wrote at least five poems to Jonson. Herrick in 1629 became the vicar of Dean Prior in Devonshire. In 1647, in the wake of the English Civil War, Herrick was ejected from his vicarage for refusing the Solemn League and Covenant, he returned to London, living in Westminster and depending on the charity of his friends and family. He spent some time preparing his lyric poems for publication, had them printed in 1648 under the title Hesperides; when King Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, Herrick petitioned for his own restoration to his living. He had obtained favour by writing verses celebrating the births of both Charles II and his brother James before the Civil War. Herrick became the vicar of Dean Prior again in the summer of 1662 and lived there until his death in October 1674, at the age of 83, his date of death is not known.
Herrick was a bachelor all his life, many of the women he names in his poems are thought to be fictional. Herrick wrote over 2,500 poems, about half of which appear in Hesperides. Hesperides includes the much shorter Noble Numbers, his first book, of spiritual works, first published in 1648, he is well known for his style and, in his earlier works, for frequent references to lovemaking and the female body. His poetry was of a more spiritual and philosophical nature. Among his most famous short poetical sayings are the unique monometers, such as number 475, "Thus I / Pass by / And die,/ As one / Unknown / And gone." Herrick sets out his subject-matter in the poem he printed at the beginning of his collection, The Argument of his Book. He dealt with English country life and its seasons, village customs, complimentary poems to various ladies and his friends, themes taken from classical writings and a solid bedrock of Christian faith, not intellectualized but underpinning the rest, it has been said of Herrick's style'his directness of speech with clear and simple presentation of thought, a fine artist working with conscious knowledge of his art, of an England of his youth in which he lives and moves and loves assigns him to the first place as a lyrical poet in the strict and pure sense of the phrase'.
Herrick never married, none of his love-poems seems to connect directly with any one woman. He loved the richness of sensuality and the variety of life, this is shown vividly in such poems as Cherry-ripe, Delight in Disorder and Upon Julia's Clothes; the over-riding message of Herrick's work is that life is short, the world is beautiful, love is splendid, we must use the short time we have to make the most of it. This message can be seen in To the Virgins, to make much of Time; the opening stanza in one of his more famous poems, "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time", is as follows: This poem is an example of the carpe diem genre. His poems were not popular at the time they were published, his style was influenced by Ben Jonson, by the classical Roman writers, by the poems of the late Elizabethan era. This must have seemed quite old-fashioned to an audience whose tastes were tuned to the complexities of the metaphysical poets such as John Donne and Andrew Marvell, his works were rediscovered in the early nineteenth century, have been printed since.
The Victorian poet Swinburne described Herrick as "the greatest song writer born of English race". Despite his use of classical allusions and names, Herrick's poems are easier for modern readers to understand than those of many of his contemporaries. Robert Herrick is the subject of James Branch Cabell's "Concerning Corrina," published in Cabell's 1916 short story volume The Certain Hour: Dizain des Poëtes; the story more than suggests. Though technically a mystery-horror story, it is best categorized as a philosophical comedy. Robert Herrick is a major character in Rose Macaulay's 1932 historical novel, They Were Defeated. In Ken Bruen's debut noir crime novel Rilke on Black, Herrick's two-line poem "Dreams" is a favorite of the protagonist, Nick. Robert Herrick is one of many histor
The Bowes Museum has a nationally renowned art collection and is situated in the town of Barnard Castle, County Durham, England. The museum contains paintings by El Greco, Francisco Goya, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and François Boucher, together with a sizable collection of decorative art, textiles, tapestries and costumes, as well as older items from local history; the early works of French glassmaker Émile Gallé were commissioned by Joséphine, wife of the founder John Bowes. A great attraction is the 18th-century Silver Swan automaton, which periodically preens itself, looks round and appears to catch and swallow a fish; the Bowes Museum was purpose-built as a public art gallery for John Bowes and his wife Joséphine Chevalier, Countess of Montalbo, who both died before it opened in 1892. Bowes was the illegitimate son of the 10th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, it was designed with the collaboration of two architects, the French architect Jules Pellechet and John Edward Watson of Newcastle. The building, in a grand French style within landscaped gardens, an early account described it as "... some 500 feet in length by 50 feet high, is designed in the French style of the First Empire.
Its contents are priceless, consisting of unique Napoleon relics, splendid picture galleries, a collection of old china, not to be matched anywhere else in the world, jewels of incredible beauty and value. In scale it is just as gloriously inappropriate for the town to which it belongs as in style"; the building was begun in 1869 and was reputed to have cost £100,000. Bowes and his wife left a total of 800 paintings, their collection of European fine and decorative arts amounted to 15,000 pieces. A major redevelopment of the Bowes Museum began in 2005. To date, improvements have been made to visitor facilities; the three art galleries, on the second floor of the museum, were updated at the same time. The museum hosts an internationally significant programme of exhibitions featuring works by Monet, Turner, Gallé, William Morris, Toulouse-Lautrec; the BBC announced in 2013 that a Portrait of Olivia Boteler Porter was a unknown Anthony van Dyck painting. It had been found in the Bowes Museum storeroom by art historian Dr. Bendor Grosvenor who had observed it on-line at the Your Paintings web site.
The painting itself was covered in layers of varnish and dirt, had not been renovated. It was thought to be a copy, valued at between £3,000 to £5,000. Christopher Brown, director of the Ashmolean Museum, confirmed it was a van Dyck after it had been restored. Selection of paintings Charles E. Hardy - John Bowes and the Bowes Museum ISBN 0-9508165-0-7 Caroline Chapman - John and Josephine: The Creation of The Bowes Museum Official website Paintings from the Bowes Museum on VADS Information from the 24 Hour Museum The Bowes Museum at Google Cultural Institute
Droitwich Spa is a town in northern Worcestershire, England, on the River Salwarpe. It is located 22 miles south of Birmingham and 12 miles west of Redditch; the town was called Salinae in Roman times later called Wyche, derived from the Anglo-Saxon Hwicce kingdom, referred to as "Saltwich" according to Anglo-Saxon charters, with the Droit added when the town was given its charter on 1 August 1215 by King John. The "Spa" was added in the 19th century; the River Salwarpe running through Droitwich is derived from Sal meaning "salt" and weorp which means "to throw up" i.e. "the river which throws up salt" which overflows from the salt brines. The town is situated on massive deposits of salt, salt has been extracted there since ancient times; the natural Droitwich brine contains 2 1⁄2 pounds per imperial gallon of salt – ten times stronger than sea water and rivalled only by the Dead Sea. During the Roman era the settlement was known as Salinae and was located at the crossroads of several Roman roads.
Railway construction in 1847 revealed Roman mosaic pavements, excavations unearthed a Roman villa or corridor house some 44 yards long. Droitwich remained a small town until the 1960s, when the population was still 7,000, but since it has grown from overspill from Birmingham with many housing estates being developed in the 1970s and'80s. In 2014, new housing consent was granted to large developments at Copcut and Yew Tree Hill with a number of other in-fill developmentsIn July 2007, Droitwich was hit by the UK-wide flooding caused by some of the heaviest rainfall in many years; the flooding was pictured in UK-wide news, having flooded the majority of the subsided high street. Many shops in the high street remained closed a year later; the flooding crossed from the stream and canal in Vines Park, crossed Roman Way, spilled across to the High Street some 110 yards from the source stream. Following specialist inspections at Droitwich Spa Brine Baths on 12 December 2008, the facility was closed to allow further building investigations to take place and to avoid any potential hazard to the public or staff.
Rock salt and brine was extracted by the Romans and this continued through to the Middle Ages. A salt tax was levied by the king until it was abolished in 1825. A local family named. Brine rose to the surface at three sites along the River Salwarpe within Vines Park in the centre of Droitwich. Unusually the brine was saturated with sodium chloride, was valuable because it was economic to boil, the yield of salt was high; because of its value the brine was divided into shares, one share comprising 6,912 imperial gallons which produced eight long tons of salt annually in the set boiling period. When it rained in the winter when brine was not being boiled, the rain water, less dense that saltwater, settled on top of the brine and was removed. Brine for boiling was extracted with buckets lowered into the pits which were replenished. Upwich, the deepest of the three pits at 30 feet, supplied most of the brine, while the pit at Netherwich was only 18 feet deep; the Middlewich pit, located between the two, was adversely affected by brine extraction at the other two pits and fell into disuse.
Steynor in the 17th century discovered the pit and set up business for himself, but due to the lack of brine he failed to compete with the town monopoly. The underground brine reservoirs were only 200 feet deep and in 1725 boreholes were sunk to the base of the pits, accessing brine in unlimited quantities and independent of the natural brine flow, the monopoly ceased. With this production increased and pumps were used to draw brine, however, as a result parts of the town succumbed to subsidence. In the mid-19th century, Droitwich became famous as a spa town. Unlike other places, the medicinal benefits were not derived from drinking the spa water, saturated brine, but from the muscular relief derived from swimming and floating in such a dense, concentrated salt solution, at the town's brine baths; the spa water at Droitwich is the warmest in the United Kingdom outside Bath, but it does not meet the most common definition of a hot spring as the water is below standard human body temperature.
The original Brine Baths have long since closed, but a new brine bath opened to the public for relaxation and hydrotherapy. But this too was closed in December 2008 due to a dispute between the operator and Wychavon District Council over health and safety inspections; the salt industry was industrialised and developed in the 19th century by John Corbett who built the nearby Chateau Impney for his Franco-Irish wife in the French'château' style. He was responsible for the redevelopment of Droitwich as a Spa. Lido Opened in the 1930s was the town's lido, a large open-air swimming pool, which used diluted brine from beneath the town. After many years of closure Droitwich Spa Lido was reopened in 2006. Droitwich's first workhouse was set up on Holloway in 1688 and were abolished in the 1920s. Droitwich Lunatic Asylum was established in 1791. Records at the Worcestershire County Record Office show its presence in 1837 to 1838. An advert in the Transactions of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association in 1844, records that Martin Ricketts, of Droitwich, was the Surgeon and Sir Charles Hastings from th
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to