Anthony David Leighton Scott was an English film director and producer. He was known for directing action and thriller films such as Top Gun, Beverly Hills Cop II, The Last Boy Scout, True Romance, Crimson Tide, Enemy of the State, Man on Fire, Déjà Vu, Unstoppable. Scott was the younger brother of film director Sir Ridley Scott, they both graduated from the Royal College of Art in London. In 1995 both Tony and Ridley received the BAFTA Award for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema. In 2010, they received the BAFTA Britannia Award for Worldwide Contribution to Filmed Entertainment, he committed suicide on 19 August 2012, by jumping off the Vincent Thomas Bridge in San Pedro, California. Scott was born in Tynemouth, North East England, the youngest of three sons of Elizabeth and Colonel Francis Percy Scott. Scott's great uncle Dixon Scott was a pioneer of the cinema chain. One of Dixon's cinemas, Tyneside cinema, is still operating in Newcastle, it is the last remaining open newsreel cinema operating in the United Kingdom.
He followed in his elder brother's footsteps, studying at Grangefield School, West Hartlepool College of Art and graduating from Sunderland Art School with a fine arts degree. At the age of 16 he appeared in Boy and Bicycle, a short film marking the directorial debut of his 23-year-old brother Ridley. Scott studied art in Leeds after failing to gain admission to the Royal College of Art in London at his first attempt, he made a short film in 1969 based on the Ambrose Bierce story One of the Missing. As Ridley had cast him in a film, he reciprocated by giving his brother a role too. "The film cost £1,000", he recalled in April 2012. Whilst at the Royal College of Art, where he was taught by Raymond Durgnat, he starred in "Don't Walk", a film by fellow students Hank Onrust and Richard Stanley: the film credits state it was "made for BUNAC by MARCA films at the Royal College of Art", he graduated from the Royal College of Art, following in the footsteps of his elder brother Ridley, with the intention of becoming a painter.
His eldest brother Frank had earlier joined the British Merchant Navy. It was the success of his elder brother's fledgling television commercial production outfit, Ridley Scott Associates, that subsequently diverted his attention to film, his brother Ridley said, "Tony had wanted to do documentaries at first. I told him,'Don't go to the BBC, come to me first.' I knew that he had a fondness for cars, so I told him,'Come work with me and within a year you'll have a Ferrari.' And he did!" Scott said, "I was finishing eight years at art school, Ridley had opened Ridley Scott Associates and said,'Come and make commercials and make some money' because I owed money left and right and centre." He directed many television commercials for RSA while overseeing the company's operation while his brother was developing his feature film career. "My goal was to make films but I got sidetracked into commercials and I took off. I had 15 years, it was a blast. We were prolific, and, our training ground. You'd shoot 100 days in a year we gravitated from that to film," he said.
Scott took time out in 1975 to direct a television adaptation of the Henry James story The Author of Beltraffio. After the feature film successes of fellow British directors Hugh Hudson, Alan Parker, Adrian Lyne and his elder brother during the late 1970s, all of whom had graduated from directing advertising commercials, he received initial overtures from Hollywood in 1980, his eldest brother Frank died, aged 45, of skin cancer during the same year. Scott reflected on his career in 2009: The'80s was a whole era. We were criticised, we being the Brits coming over, because we were out of advertising—Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson, Adrian Lyne, my brother—we were criticised about style over content. Jerry Bruckheimer was bored of the way American films were traditional and classically done. Jerry was always looking for difference. That's, he always applauded the way. That period in the'80s was a period when I was being criticised, my press was horrible. I never read any press after The Hunger. Scott persisted in trying to embark on a feature film career.
Among the ideas interesting to him was an adaptation of the Anne Rice novel Interview with the Vampire in development. MGM was developing the vampire film The Hunger, for which they brought Scott on in 1982; the Hunger introduced Willem Dafoe in a small role. The Hunger had elaborate photography and sumptuous production design, but it failed to find an audience or impress the critics, had disappointing box office sales, though it became a cult favourite. Finding few film opportunities in Hollywood over the next two and a half years, Scott returned to commercials and music videos. In 1985, producers Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer approached Scott to direct Top Gun on the strength of The Hunger, as well as a commercial he had done for Swedish automaker Saab in the early 1980s, where a Saab 900 turbo is shown racing a Saab 37 Viggen fighter jet. Scott, though reluctant at first, agreed to direct Top Gun. Though the film received mixed critical review, it became one of the highest-grossing films of 1986, taking in more than $350 million, making a star of its young lead, Tom Cruise.
Sam Delaney of The Guardian writes, "By the mid-80s, Hollywood was awash with British directors who had ushered in a new era of blockbusters using the crowd-pleasing skills they'd honed in advertising. The vast resources and freedom made available to ad
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of the U. S. Congress, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001; the title of the Act is a contrived three letter initialism preceding a seven letter acronym, which in combination stand for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The acronym was created by Chris Kyke. In response to the September 11 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks, Congress swiftly passed legislation to strengthen national security. On October 23, 2001, Republican Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner introduced H. R. 3162 incorporating provisions from a previously-sponsored House bill and a Senate bill introduced earlier in the month. The next day, the Act passed the House by a vote of 357–66, with Democrats comprising the overwhelming portion of dissent; the three Republicans voting "no" were Robert Ney of Ohio, Butch Otter of Idaho, Ron Paul of Texas. On October 25, the Act passed the Senate by a 98–1 vote, the only dissident being Russ Feingold of Wisconsin.
Those opposing the law have criticized its authorization of indefinite detentions of immigrants. Since its passage, several legal challenges have been brought against the act, federal courts have ruled that a number of provisions are unconstitutional. Many of the act's provisions were to sunset beginning December 31, 2005 four years after its passage. In the months preceding the sunset date, supporters of the act pushed to make its sun-setting provisions permanent, while critics sought to revise various sections to enhance civil liberty protections. In July 2005, the U. S. Senate passed a reauthorization bill with substantial changes to several of the act's sections, while the House reauthorization bill kept most of the act's original language; the two bills were reconciled in a conference committee criticized by Senators from both the Republican and Democratic parties for ignoring civil liberty concerns. The bill, which removed most of the changes from the Senate version, passed Congress on March 2, 2006, was signed by President Bush on March 9 and 10 of that year.
On May 26, 2011, President Barack Obama signed the PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011, a four-year extension of three key provisions in the Act: roving wiretaps, searches of business records, conducting surveillance of "lone wolves"—individuals suspected of terrorist-related activities not linked to terrorist groups. Following a lack of Congressional approval, parts of the Patriot Act expired on June 1, 2015. With passing the USA Freedom Act on June 2, 2015, the expired parts were restored and renewed through 2019. However, Section 215 of the law was amended to stop the National Security Agency from continuing its mass phone data collection program. Instead, phone companies will retain the data and the NSA can obtain information about targeted individuals with permission from a federal court. Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism; the title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center, administered by the FBI.
The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General. The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism; the title condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was proposed by Senator Tom Harkin in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act of 2001, though in a different form, it included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, the Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, 2001 for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D. C. and Pennsylvania reminds all Americans that'We must seek the guilty and not strike out against the innocent or we become like them who are without moral guidance or proper direction.'"
Further condemnation of racial vilification and violence is spelled out in Title X, where there was condemnation of such activities against Sikh Americans, who were mistaken for Muslims after the September 11th terrorist attack. Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities, it made amendments to FISA, the ECPA, many of the most controversial aspects of the USA PATRIOT Act reside in this title. In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. S. and non-U. S. Citizens, changed FISA to make gaining foreign intelligence information the significant purpose of FISA-based surveillance, where it had been the primary purpose; the change in definition was meant to remove a legal "wall" between criminal investigations and surveillance for the purposes of gathering foreign intelligence, which hampered in
Jerome Leon Bruckheimer is an American film and television producer. He has been active in the genres of action, drama and science fiction, his best known television series are CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Without a Trace, Cold Case, the U. S. version of The Amazing Race. At one point, three of his TV series ranked among the top 10 in the U. S. ratings—a unique feat in television. Some of his best-known films include Flashdance, Top Gun, The Rock, Con Air, Enemy of the State, Black Hawk Down, Pearl Harbor, the Beverly Hills Cop, Bad Boys, Pirates of the Caribbean and National Treasure franchises, he serves as a Director at ZeniMax Media. Many of his films have been produced by Disney and Paramount, while many of his television series have been co-produced by Warner Bros. and CBS Television Studios. In July 2003, Bruckheimer was honored by Variety magazine as the first producer in Hollywood history to produce the top two highest-grossing films of a single weekend, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl and Bad Boys II.
He is the co-founder and co-majority owner of the future National Hockey League team in Seattle. Bruckheimer was born in Detroit, the son of German-Jewish immigrants, he graduated at age 17, before moving to Arizona for college. Bruckheimer was an active member of the Stamp Collecting Club, he graduated with a degree in psychology from the University of Arizona. He was a member of the Zeta Beta Tau fraternity. A film buff at an early age with an interest in photography, Bruckheimer would take snapshots when he had the opportunity. After college Bruckheimer worked in advertising in New York City. Bruckheimer started producing films in the 1970s, after leaving his job in advertising, with director Dick Richards, they had worked together on the films The Culpepper Cattle Company, Farewell, My Lovely, March or Die. Bruckheimer worked with Paul Schrader on two films, American Gigolo and Cat People, which began to give him notice in Hollywood. During the 1980s and 1990s, he was a co-producer with Don Simpson of a string of successful Hollywood films for Paramount Pictures.
He met Don at a screening of 1973's The Harder They Come at Warner Brothers. The two worked together and created Bruckheimer's first big hit, 1983's Flashdance, which brought in US$95 million, he had a number of other hits during that time period, including the Beverly Hills Cop films, Top Gun and Days of Thunder. Top Gun marked his first collaboration with English director Tony Scott, who would direct six films for Bruckheimer. While working with Simpson, Bruckheimer became known as "Mr. Outside" because of his experience with film making, while Simpson became known as "Mr. Inside" because of his film industry contacts; the Rock was the last film in which Bruckheimer collaborated with Simpson, due to Simpson's death in 1996. Bruckheimer stipulated. Despite the setback of the untimely death of Simpson in 1996, Bruckheimer has continued to produce a large number of action films working with director Michael Bay for several hits including Armageddon, his other hit films produced include Remember the Titans, Black Hawk Down and the Pirates of the Caribbean series.
He has acquired the rights to produce a film based on the popular role playing game by Palladium Books, Rifts. Early in his career, Bruckheimer produced television commercials, including one for Pepsi. Since 1997 he has branched out into television, creating a number of police dramas of which CSI: Crime Scene Investigation has been the most successful, he has produced the reality game show The Amazing Race. In May 2008 CBS announced it had picked up Bruckheimer's newest series, Eleventh Hour, for the 2008–2009 broadcast television season; the science fiction drama follows a government agent and a professor as they investigate strange scientific and medical activity. From 2004 to 2009, Bruckheimer had six hit television shows on the air: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Cold Case, Without a Trace and The Amazing Race. At one point, three of his TV series ranked among the top 10 in the ratings, it was announced on September 10, 2009 that NBC had picked up an action procedural from Jerry Bruckheimer.
The show, titled Chase, "tells the stories of a team charged with making sure fugitive criminals don't evade justice," reports The Hollywood Reporter. It was canceled in May 2011. Bruckheimer's most notable flop was Skin, cancelled after three episodes in 2003. In June 2016, Jerry Bruckheimer Television became an Independent outfit, ending a 15-year run exclusive pact with Warner Bros. Television. One of the most successful producers of all time, Bruckheimer has been nicknamed "Mr. Blockbuster", due to his track record of commercially successful, high-grossing films. Overall, his films have grossed over $13 billion and have launched the careers of numerous actors and directors. In 2007, he was ranked No. 39 on Forbes Celebrity 100 List, up from No. 42 in 2006. With reported annual earnings of $120 million, he was the 10th highest money-earner on the 2006 Forbes Celebrity 100 List. In July 2003, Bruckheimer was honored by Variety magazine as the first producer in Hollywood history to produce the top two highest-grossing films of a single weekend, the buddy-cop Bad Boys II and the Disney theme-park spin-off, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.
The Pirates of the Caribbean film trilogy, produced through Walt Disney Pictures, was enormously profitable, demonstrated Bruckheimer's ability to create lucrative projects. Pirates of the Cari
Edward Joseph Snowden is an American whistle-blower and fugitive. A former Central Intelligence Agency employee and contractor for the United States government, he copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency in 2013, his disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments, prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy. In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. Snowden says he became disillusioned with the programs with which he was involved and that he tried to raise his ethical concerns through internal channels but was ignored. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Ewen MacAskill.
Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including The New York Times. On June 21, 2013, the U. S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property, following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U. S. passport had been cancelled, he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia recognized his right of asylum, with a visa for residence for one year. Repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance; as of 2017, he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow.
Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 1983, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett, a rear admiral in the U. S. Coast Guard, became a senior official with the FBI and was at the Pentagon in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. Snowden's father, was an officer in the Coast Guard, his mother, Elizabeth, is a clerk at the U. S. District Court for the District of Maryland, his older sister, was a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D. C. Edward Snowden said that he had expected to work for the federal government, as had the rest of his family, his parents divorced in 2001, his father remarried. Snowden scored above 145 on two separate IQ tests. In the early 1990s, while still in grade school, Snowden moved with his family to the area of Fort Meade, Maryland. Mononucleosis caused him to miss high school for nine months. Rather than returning to school, he passed the GED test and took classes at Anne Arundel Community College. Although Snowden had no undergraduate college degree, he worked online toward a master's degree at the University of Liverpool, England, in 2011.
He was interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language, worked for an anime company that had a resident office in the U. S, he said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was interested in martial arts. At age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent." Snowden has said that, in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate, though he "believed in Obama's promises." Following the election, he believed President Barack Obama was continuing policies espoused by George W. Bush. In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting Internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project. A week after publication of his leaks began, Ars Technica confirmed that Snowden had been an active participant at the site's online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discussing a variety of topics under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA."
In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the U. S. security state apparatus and said leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls." However, Snowden disliked Obama's CIA director appointment of Leon Panetta, saying "Obama just named a fucking politician to run the CIA." Snowden was offended by a possible ban on assault weapons, writing "Me and all my lunatic, gun-toting NRA compatriots would be on the steps of Congress before the C-Span feed finished." Snowden disliked Obama's economic policies, was against Social Security, favored Ron Paul's call for a return to the gold standard. In 2014, Snowden supported a basic income. Feeling a duty to fight in the Iraq War to help free oppressed people, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve on May 7, 2004, became a Special Forces candidate through its 18X enlistment option, he did not complete the training. After breaking both legs in a training accident, he was discharged on September 28, 2004. Snowden was employed for less than a year in 2005 as a security guard at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a research center sponsored by the National Security Agency.
According to the University, this is not a classified facility, though it is guarded. In June 2014, Snowden told Wired that his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance, for which he passed a polygraph exam and underwent a stringent background check. After attending a 2006 job-fair focused on intelligence agencies, Sno
Jonathan Vincent Voight is an American actor. He is the winner of one Academy Award, he has won four Golden Globe Awards and has so far been nominated for eleven. He is the father of actor James Haven. Voight came to prominence in the late 1960s with his Oscar-nominated performance as Joe Buck, a would-be gigolo in Midnight Cowboy. During the 1970s, he became a Hollywood star with his portrayals of a businessman mixed up with murder in Deliverance, his output became sparse during the 1980s and early 1990s, although he won the Golden Globe and was nominated for an Academy Award for his iconic performance as the ruthless bank robber Oscar "Manny" Manheim in Runaway Train. Voight made a comeback in Hollywood during the mid-1990s, starring in Michael Mann's crime epic Heat opposite Robert De Niro and Al Pacino, he portrayed Jim Phelps in Mission: Impossible, a corrupt NSA agent in Enemy of the State, the unscrupulous attorney Leo F. Drummond in Francis Ford Coppola's The Rainmaker, which earned him a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actor.
Voight gave critically acclaimed biographical performances during the 2000s, appearing as legendary sportscaster Howard Cosell in Ali for which his supporting performance was nominated for the Academy Award, the Golden Globe and a Critics Choice Award, as Nazi officer Jürgen Stroop in Uprising, as Franklin D. Roosevelt in Michael Bay's Pearl Harbor and as Pope John Paul II in the eponymous miniseries. Voight appears in Showtime's Ray Donovan TV series, now in its sixth season as Mickey Donovan, a role that brought him newfound critical and audience acclaim and his fourth Golden Globe win in 2014. Voight was born on December 29, 1938, in Yonkers, New York, the son of Barbara and Elmer Voight, a professional golfer, he has two brothers, Barry Voight, a former volcanologist at Pennsylvania State University, Wesley Voight, known as Chip Taylor, a singer-songwriter who wrote "Wild Thing" and "Angel of the Morning." Voight's paternal grandfather and his paternal grandmother's parents were Slovak immigrants, while his maternal grandfather and his maternal grandmother's parents were German immigrants.
Joseph P. Kamp was his great-uncle through his mother. Voight was raised as a Catholic and attended Archbishop Stepinac High School in White Plains, New York, where he first took an interest in acting, playing the comedic role of Count Pepi Le Loup in the school's annual musical, The Song of Norway. Following his graduation in 1956, he enrolled at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C. where he majored in art and graduated with a B. A. in 1960. After graduation, Voight moved to New York City. In 1962, Voight married actress Lauri Peters, who he met when they both appeared in the original Broadway production of The Sound of Music, they divorced in 1967. He married actress Marcheline Bertrand in 1971, they separated in 1976, filed for divorce in 1978, divorced in 1980. Their children, James Haven and Angelina Jolie, would go on to enter the film business as actors and producers. Voight was estranged from his children for several years, but they reconciled in 2007 after Bertrand's death.
In the early 1960s, Voight found work in television, appearing in several episodes of Gunsmoke, between 1963 and 1968, as well as guest spots on Naked City, The Defenders, both in 1963, Twelve O'Clock High, in 1966. His theatre career took off in January 1965, playing Rodolfo in Arthur Miller's A View from the Bridge in an Off-Broadway revival. Voight's film debut did not come until 1967, when he took a part in Phillip Kaufman's crimefighter spoof, Fearless Frank. Voight took a small role in 1967's western, Hour of the Gun, directed by veteran helmer John Sturges. In 1968 Voight took a role in director Paul Williams's Out of It. In 1969, Voight was cast in a film that would make his career. Voight played a naïve male hustler from Texas, adrift in New York City, he comes under the tutelage of Dustin Hoffman's Ratso Rizzo, a tubercular petty thief and con artist. The film explored late 1960s New York and the development of an unlikely, but poignant friendship between the two main characters. Directed by John Schlesinger and based on a novel by James Leo Herlihy, the film struck a chord with critics and audiences.
Because of its controversial themes, the film was released with an X rating and would make history by being the only X-rated feature to win Best Picture at the Academy Awards. Both Voight and co-star Hoffman were nominated for Best Actor, but lost out to John Wayne in True Grit. In 1970, Voight appeared in Mike Nichols' adaptation of Catch-22, re-teamed with director Paul Williams to star in The Revolutionary, as a left wing college student struggling with his conscience. Voight next starred in 1972's Deliverance. Directed by John Boorman, from a script that poet James Dickey had helped to adapt from his own novel of the same name, it tells the story of a canoe trip in a feral, backwoods America. Both the film and the performances of Voight and co-star Burt Reynolds received great critical acclaim, were popular with audiences. Voight appeared at the Studio Arena Theater, in Buffalo, New York in the Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar Named Desire from 1973-74 as Stanley Kowalski. Voight played a directionless young boxer in 1973's The All American Boy appeared in th
Jason Lee (actor)
Jason Michael Lee is an American actor, producer and comedian. He is best known for his roles as Earl Hickey in the television comedy series My Name Is Earl, David Seville in the live action/CGI Alvin and the Chipmunks, the voice of Syndrome in The Incredibles, he is known for his roles in Kevin Smith films such as Mallrats, Chasing Amy, Dogma and Silent Bob Strike Back, Jersey Girl, Clerks II, Cop Out. A former professional skateboarder, Lee is the co-founder and co-owner of Stereo Skateboards, a company that manufactures and distributes skateboard decks and apparel. Lee was born in Santa Ana, California on April 25, 1970, his father, was a car dealership manager and his mother, Carol, a homemaker. Lee attended Ocean View High School. Before he became an actor, Lee was known as a professional skateboarder in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1992, he founded Stereo Sound Agency, known as Stereo Skateboards, with fellow skater Chris "Dune" Pastras. In 2003, after the company had been defunct for a few years, the pair revived the company.
As of October 2013, Lee and Pastras remain on the professional "Classics" team roster. Lee was featured in the skateboarding promotional video, Video Days, filmed for the skateboarding company "Blind Skateboards". In 2004, Lee's skateboarding was featured in Way Out East!, a film produced by Stereo Skateboards. In August 2012, Lee was featured in a brief video on the skateboard website The Berrics entitled "Jason Lee decided to come to the park."In August 2012, Lee participated in the ninth annual Stand-Up for Skateparks Event, which he chaired with Tony Hawk. The event is held annually by the Tony Hawk Charitable Foundation and seeks to "help create free, quality public skateparks for youth in low-income communities."In October that same year, a video was released by the Keep A Breast Foundation, featuring various skateboarding identities, including Lee, together with Pastras. The video, contributing to the Foundation's aim to prevent and raise awareness of breast cancer, promotes the "I Love Boobies" bracelet.
It features Clint Peterson and Giovanni Reda, who are both teammates of Lee. Lee worked with Tony Hawk when he lent his voice and likeness to Tony Hawk's Project 8 to become a playable character. Lee voiced Coach Frank, a character created during the development of Stereo, in Skate 3. Professional skateboarder and owner of the Girl and Lakai Limited Footwear skateboard brands Mike Carroll has cited Lee as one of his skating influences. After taking some minor acting roles in 1992–1994, Lee left professional skateboarding for a full-time acting career, his first major movie role was in Kevin Smith's Mallrats. This started a friendship that subsequently led to appearances in many of Smith's films, including Chasing Amy, Dogma and Silent Bob Strike Back, Clerks II, Cop Out. Lee won an Independent Spirit Award for his role in Chasing Amy as Banky Edwards. Lee graduated to leading man roles in Heartbreakers, Stealing Harvard, A Guy Thing, he has had supporting roles in Vanilla Sky, Almost Famous, Big Trouble, The Ballad of Jack and Rose, Mumford, as well as a minor role in Enemy of the State.
Lee voiced Syndrome in The Incredibles and Jack-Jack Attack. He reprised the role as a "robot copy" of Syndrome in Disney Presents Pixar's The Incredibles in a Magic Kingdom Adventure. Lee is the voice of Underdog in Underdog and portrays Dave Seville in the live action/CGI films starring Alvin and the Chipmunks. In 2005, Lee was offered the lead role in My Name Is Earl. According to interviews on the first-season DVD, he passed on the series twice before agreeing to read for the pilot. In the series, he stars as Earl Hickey. Lee received two Golden Globe nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series – Musical or Comedy in 2006 and 2007, as well as a nomination for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series in 2006. After four seasons of My Name is Earl NBC cancelled the series. On June 22, 2010, Memphis Beat premiered. In the series, Lee portrayed Dwight Hendricks. In October 2011, it was announced, he guest-starred in 2010 and 2013 episodes of Raising Hope, created by My Name is Earl creator and producer Greg Garcia.
As of December 2011, Lee appeared in Up All Night, but after its second season, it was cancelled on May 9, 2013. In June 2013, a fourth installment of the Alvin and the Chipmunks franchise was announced by the 20th Century Fox studio and a release date of December 18, 2015. Lee's latest projects are with the Hallmark Channel. With Amazon Studios, Lee is seen in the pilot of Cocked, where he plays the character of Grady Paxson, one of three men who run a gun manufacturing company; the show premiered on January 15, 2015 and stars Brian Dennehy, Diora Baird, Dreama Walker, Sam Trammell. On January 25, 2015, The Hallmark Channel premiered Away & Back, a Hallmark Hall of Fame film starring Lee along with Maggie Elizabeth Jones and Minka Kelly. Lee began shooting photos in the early 2000s, became interested in instant photography, he released a photo book through Refueled Magazine. It consists of "184 pages of Polaroid & Fuji Instant Film photographs from 2006-2016." Printed in a limited edition run of 500 copies, the book sold out.
Lee married actress and photographer Carmen Llywelyn in 1995.
The Iranian Revolution was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements, which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978, strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country; the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar, an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians; the royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power.
Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979 and to formulate and approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution, occurred in a nation, experiencing relative prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, replaced a pro-Western authoritarian monarchy with an anti-Western totalitarian theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, it was a non-violent revolution, it helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions. Reasons advanced for the revolution and its populist and Shi'a Islamic character include a conservative backlash against the Westernizing and secularizing efforts of the Western-backed Shah, a rise in expectations created by the 1973 oil revenue windfall and an overly ambitious economic program, anger over a short, sharp economic contraction in 1977–78, other shortcomings of the previous regime.
The Shah's regime was seen as an oppressive, brutal and extravagant regime by some of the society’s classes at that time. It suffered from some basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks and inflation; the Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non-Muslim Western power whose culture was affecting that of Iran. At the same time, support for the Shah may have waned among Western politicians and media – under the administration of U. S. President Jimmy Carter – as a result of the Shah's support for OPEC petroleum price increases earlier in the decade; when President Carter enacted a human-rights policy which said countries guilty of human-rights violations would be deprived of American arms or aid, this helped give some Iranians the courage to post open letters and petitions in the hope that the repression by the government might subside. The revolution that replaced the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi with Islamism and Khomeini, rather than with another leader and ideology, is credited in part to the spread of the Shia version of the Islamic revival that opposed Westernization and saw Ayatollah Khomeini as following in the footsteps of the Shi'a Imam Husayn ibn Ali and the Shah in the role of Husayn's foe, the hated tyrant Yazid I.
Other factors include the underestimation of Khomeini's Islamist movement by both the Shah's reign – who considered them a minor threat compared to the Marxists and Islamic socialists – and by the secularist, opponents of the government – who thought the Khomeinists could be sidelined. The Shi'a clergy had a significant influence on Iranian society; the clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the 1891 Tobacco protest. On 20 March 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production and export of tobacco for fifty years. At the time the Persian tobacco industry employed over 200,000 people, so the concession represented a major blow to Persian farmers and bazaaris whose livelihoods were dependent on the lucrative tobacco business; the boycotts and protests against it were widespread and extensive because of Mirza Hasan Shirazi's fatwa. Nasir al-Din Shah found himself powerless to stop the popular movement and cancelled the concession.
The Tobacco Protest was the first significant Iranian resistance against the Shah and foreign interests, revealed the power of the people and the Ulema influence among them. The growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911; the revolution led to approval of the first constitution. Although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. In the decades following the establishment of the new parliament, a number of critical events took place. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. Insecurity and chaos created