Atommash is a multidisciplinary engineering company located in Volgodonsk, Rostov Oblast, Russia. It was established in 1973 as a nuclear engineering corporation. Following privatization and bankruptcy in 1999, the industrial facilities of the enterprise were owned and managed by ZAO Energomash–Atommash, a part of the diversified engineering company Energomash. Since 2015 the company has been part of Atomenergomash, the mechanical engineering division of Rosatom, its current name is "AEM-technology". Being one of Russia's biggest industrial complexes and having 6 million m2 of production facilities, Atommash was equipped with unique imported modern equipment, over 80% of, purchased in Germany, France, UK, Austria, United States and other countries, from concerns like Italimpianti, ESAB, Varian Associates, Mannesmann AG. One of the early successes of Atommash was the manufacturing of a vacuum chamber toroidal doughnut for the T-15 fusion reactor at the Kurchatov Institute - at 6 meters high, 11 meters in diameter and 120 tons.
In addition to nuclear machinery equipment, Atommash was capable of producing over 1000 kinds of products. Those types of products included, but were not limited to: non-standard metal equipment of large sizes, various metal containers for energy systems, mining and gas production and processing systems, including ready for use plants for deep processing of petroleum and its residual fractions on the basis of cleaner technologies and processes, compact mini oil refineries with a capacity of 50 to 500 thousand tons per year, mini-factories for recycling and processing of by-products and waste oil, equipment for the construction industry, including equipment for launch pads for missiles and spacecraft, for sea water desalination plants, containers for transportation and disposal of nuclear waste, railroad tank cars for transportation of liquid gas, biomass energy units for reprocessing of agricultural and animal breeding waste into environmentally clean, high-quality fertilizers and methane, etc.
Prior to the Chernobyl disaster, Atommash manufactured more than 100 units of high-tech equipment for NPPs, including 14 VVER-1000 reactors, 5 of which never left the plant's warehouse. During the bankruptcy of Atommash OJSC these reactors have been transferred to EMK-Atommash JSC at lowered net book value. In a few years, some of those items and their components became a subject of investigation in the Arbitration court of Rostov region, during mutual lawsuits between EMK-Atommash JSC and the National nuclear energy generating company Energoatom under Case №A53-21263/2005, followed by an appellate to the Federal Arbitration Court of the North Caucasian Federal District, Case №A53-4049/2006, concluded with an according Resolution dated 23.03.2010. Atommash was capable of producing equipment and products with a wall thickness of 1 to 400 millimetres, diameter up to 22 metres, length up to 80 metres and weight up to 1000 tons. Atommash practiced electron beam welding, automatic welding in narrow cutting, automatic welding of nozzles, welding of large-sized products with wall thickness up to 600 millimetres.
It possessed high-end equipment for heat treatment, non-destructive testing, laboratories for exceptionally complex material testing and test facilities for finished products. Atommash exported its production to Germany, United States, China, India, Bulgaria, Turkey, Cuba and others; the company has its own heavy duty mooring berth on Tsimlyansk Reservoir, which allowed shipping bulky and heavy products, which used to be a natural advantage of Atommash over its domestic competition. The quality of items produced by Atommash has been confirmed by an international certificate issued by ASME. In 2009 Atommash re-initiated the manufacturing of equipment for nuclear power plants, it is the Russia's monopolist for manufacturing of melt localization devices for nuclear power plants. The first nuclear reactor produced by Atommash after a 29-year long hiatus was a VVER-1200, for the Belarusian nuclear power plant. According to press reports, it took 840 days to build the reactor. After being transported by barge over the Tsimlyansk Reservoir, the Volga-Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway, the Volkhov River to Novgorod, the reactor was shipped by a special rail car to Belarus.
Some of the products manufactured by Atommash are: refueling equipment and manipulators, spent fuel storages, depleted uranium shielding, lead shielding, condensers and lifting equipment, specialised doors, heat exchangers, large ferrous components, pool water purification systems, pressure vessels, storage tanks, valves, nuclear steam supply systems, reactor control rods and mechanisms, reactor internals, reactor pressure vessel seals, containers/casks handling equipment, hydraulic integrated circuits, packaging design and engineering and more. On May 22, 1970 a state committee for the construction of the plant was assembled. On July 8, 1972, official hiring process for workers and engineers willing to take part in the construction was kicked off. On August 30, 1975 the first stilt of the Production Facility #1 was erected. In 1973 the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union made a decision to establish a major nuclear engineering enterprise in Volgodonsk, Rostov Oblast.
There were several reasons for choosing Volgodons
NPO Energomash “V. P. Glushko” is a major Russian rocket engine manufacturer; the company develops and produces liquid propellant rocket engines. Energomash originates from the Soviet design bureau OKB-456, founded in 1946. NPO Energomash acquired its current name on May 15, 1991, in honor of its former chief designer Valentin Glushko. Energomash is noted for its long history of large scale LOX/Kerosene engine development. Notable examples are the RD-107/RD-108 engines used on the R-7, Molniya and Soyuz rocket families, the RD-170, RD-171 and RD-180 engines used on the Energia and Atlas V launch vehicles; as of July 2013, the company remained owned by the federal government of Russia, but RSC Energia owned 14% of the total shares. As of 2009, NPO Energomash employed 5500 workers at its headquarters in Khimki and its satellite facilities in Samara, St. Petersburg. On 4 August 2016, the company announced that it would launch a new plant by December 2016. Valentin Petrovich Glushko was appointed chief designer of the newly founded OKB-456 design bureau on July 3, 1946.
The company was tasked with the production of a Russian copy of the German V2 rocket engine, under the supervision of Glushko and 234 German designers added to the company in October, 1946. At the end of that year, OKB-456 took up residence in an aviation factory near the city of Khimki, just outside Moscow. Here, the bureau constructed facilities to build and test fire its engines; the RD-100 performed admirably, low-pressure LOX/Ethanol engine development continued, in the form of the RD-102 and RD-103. However, the development of high-pressure engine technology allowed propellants with a higher energy density to be used, so LOX/Kerosene replaced LOX/Ethanol as the propellant of choice. In 2013, the Russian government began a major effort to renationalize the Russian space sector, created United Rocket and Space Corporation to consolidate its space holdings. In December 2013 President Putin issued a presidential decree setting up the URSC corporation; the decree stipulated. The industry reorganization continued into 2014 with a Sberbank cooperation agreement.
In 1954, the development and success of the LOX/Kerosene RD-107 and RD-108 engines allowed the company to expand its engine development work further. The RD-214 engine, using a storable mixture of Nitric Acid and Kerosene, was developed for ballistic missiles with a short readiness time requirement; the RD-214 was soon superseded by the RD-216 and variants, which used a hypergolic combination of UDMH and Nitric Acid. This line of development led to the successful UDMH/N2O4 engines RD-253 and RD-275 used on the Proton launch vehicles – these were the most powerful hypergolic engine of its time, remains in production to the current day; the RD-107 and RD-108 engines developed from 1954-1957 were reliable and used. However, DB Energomash saw great potential in the development of LOX/Kerosene engines with a higher chamber pressure; this presented many challenges to the engine designers, most notably the development of a turbopump which could deliver enough propellant to keep the engine running at a pressure high enough to maintain combustion stability.
The resulting engine, developed in the early 1980s, was the RD-170, which runs at a chamber pressure of 24.5 megapascals and produces 7,550 kilonewtons of thrust at a sea-level specific impulse of 309 sec, 7,903 kilonewtons of thrust at a vacuum specific impulse of 337 sec — one of the most efficient and powerful LOX/Kerosene engines in the world. Variants of the RD-170 are still in use today on such vehicles; the modern Soyuz rocket uses updated versions of the RD-108 engines. The RD-180 engine, developed with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne through the RD AMROSS partnership, is a direct descendant of the RD-170 line and is used as the propulsion system for the first stage of Atlas V; the most current engine listed on the NPO Energomash website is the single-chamber RD-191, developed for the Angara and Baikal launch vehicles. NPO Energomash works with other Russian companies, in cooperation with European companies on the Volga rocket engine project; the company continues to research and explore new engine concepts, such as the tripropellant, bi-modal engines of the RD-700 family.
On 1 June 2016 - the company tested first-stage engine named RD-181 - a modified version of the RD-191 for Antares. On 10 August 2016 - the company tested first-stage engine named PDU-99 "ПДУ-99" for RS-28 Sarmat. United Rocket and Space Corporation NPO Energomash website
Power engineering called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission and utilization of electric power, the electrical apparatus connected to such systems. Although much of the field is concerned with the problems of three-phase AC power – the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world – a significant fraction of the field is concerned with the conversion between AC and DC power and the development of specialized power systems such as those used in aircraft or for electric railway networks. Power engineering draws the majority of its theoretical base from electrical engineering. Electricity became a subject of scientific interest in the late 17th century. Over the next two centuries a number of important discoveries were made including the incandescent light bulb and the voltaic pile; the greatest discovery with respect to power engineering came from Michael Faraday who in 1831 discovered that a change in magnetic flux induces an electromotive force in a loop of wire—a principle known as electromagnetic induction that helps explain how generators and transformers work.
In 1881 two electricians built the world's first power station at Godalming in England. The station employed two waterwheels to produce an alternating current, used to supply seven Siemens arc lamps at 250 volts and thirty-four incandescent lamps at 40 volts; however supply was intermittent and in 1882 Thomas Edison and his company, The Edison Electric Light Company, developed the first steam-powered electric power station on Pearl Street in New York City. The Pearl Street Station consisted of several generators and powered around 3,000 lamps for 59 customers; the power station operated at a single voltage. Since the direct current power could not be transformed to the higher voltages necessary to minimise power loss during transmission, the possible distance between the generators and load was limited to around half-a-mile; that same year in London Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated the first transformer suitable for use in a real power system. The practical value of Gaulard and Gibbs' transformer was demonstrated in 1884 at Turin where the transformer was used to light up forty kilometres of railway from a single alternating current generator.
Despite the success of the system, the pair made some fundamental mistakes. The most serious was connecting the primaries of the transformers in series so that switching one lamp on or off would affect other lamps further down the line. Following the demonstration George Westinghouse, an American entrepreneur, imported a number of the transformers along with a Siemens generator and set his engineers to experimenting with them in the hopes of improving them for use in a commercial power system. One of Westinghouse's engineers, William Stanley, recognised the problem with connecting transformers in series as opposed to parallel and realised that making the iron core of a transformer a enclosed loop would improve the voltage regulation of the secondary winding. Using this knowledge he built the world's first practical transformer based alternating current power system at Great Barrington, Massachusetts in 1886. In 1885 the Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris demonstrated an induction motor and in 1887 and 1888 the Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla filed a range of patents related to power systems including one for a practical two-phase induction motor which Westinghouse licensed for his AC system.
By 1890 the power industry had flourished and power companies had built thousands of power systems in the United States and Europe – these networks were dedicated to providing electric lighting. During this time a fierce rivalry in the US known as the "War of Currents" emerged between Edison and Westinghouse over which form of transmission was superior. In 1891, Westinghouse installed the first major power system, designed to drive an electric motor and not just provide electric lighting; the installation powered a 100 horsepower synchronous motor at Telluride, Colorado with the motor being started by a Tesla induction motor. On the other side of the Atlantic, Oskar von Miller built a 20 kV 176 km three-phase transmission line from Lauffen am Neckar to Frankfurt am Main for the Electrical Engineering Exhibition in Frankfurt. In 1895, after a protracted decision-making process, the Adams No. 1 generating station at Niagara Falls began transmitting three-phase alternating current power to Buffalo at 11 kV.
Following completion of the Niagara Falls project, new power systems chose alternating current as opposed to direct current for electrical transmission. The generation of electricity was regarded as important following the Bolshevik seizure of power. Lenin stated "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country." He was subsequently featured on stamps etc. presenting this view. The GOELRO plan was initiated in 1920 as the first Bolshevik experiment in industrial planning and in which Lenin became involved. Gleb Krzhizhanovsky was another key figure involved, having been involved in the construction of a power station in Moscow in 1910, he had known Lenin since 1897 when they were both in the St. Petersburg chapter of the Union of Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class. In 1936 the first commercial high-voltage direct current line using mercury-arc valves was built between Schenectady and Mechanicville, New York. HVDC had been achieved by installing direct current generators in series (a system known as the Thury sy
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing and distribution. Modern society consumes large amounts of fuel, the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in all countries. In particular, the energy industry comprises: the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations the gas industry, including natural gas extraction, coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales the coal industry the nuclear power industry the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power generation, the manufacture and sale of alternative fuels traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is common in poorer countries The use of energy has been a key in the development of the human society by helping it to control and adapt to the environment.
Managing the use of energy is inevitable in any functional society. In the industrialized world the development of energy resources has become essential for agriculture, waste collection, information technology, communications that have become prerequisites of a developed society; the increasing use of energy since the Industrial Revolution has brought with it a number of serious problems, some of which, such as global warming, present grave risks to the world. In some industries, the word energy is used as a synonym of energy resources, which refer to substances like fuels, petroleum products and electricity in general, because a significant portion of the energy contained in these resources can be extracted to serve a useful purpose. After a useful process has taken place, the total energy is conserved, but the resource itself is not conserved, since a process transforms the energy into unusable forms. Since humanity discovered various energy resources available in nature, it has been inventing devices, known as machines, that make life more comfortable by using energy resources.
Thus, although the primitive man knew the utility of fire to cook food, the invention of devices like gas burners and microwave ovens has increased the usage of energy for this purpose alone manyfold. The trend is the same in any other field of social activity, be it construction of social infrastructure, manufacturing of fabrics for covering. Production and consumption of energy resources is important to the global economy. All economic activity requires energy resources, whether to manufacture goods, provide transportation, run computers and other machines. Widespread demand for energy may encourage competing energy utilities and the formation of retail energy markets. Note the presence of the "Energy Marketing and Customer Service" sub-sector; the energy sector accounts for 4.6% of outstanding leveraged loans, compared with 3.1% a decade ago, while energy bonds make up 15.7% of the $1.3 trillion junk bond market, up from 4.3% over the same period. Since the cost of energy has become a significant factor in the performance of economy of societies, management of energy resources has become crucial.
Energy management involves utilizing the available energy resources more, with minimum incremental costs. Many times it is possible to save expenditure on energy without incorporating fresh technology by simple management techniques. Most energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by eliminating energy wastage or to balance justifiable energy demand with appropriate energy supply; the process couples energy awareness with energy conservation. The United Nations developed the International Standard Industrial Classification, a list of economic and social classifications. There is no distinct classification for an energy industry, because the classification system is based on activities and expenditures according to purpose. Countries in North America use the North American Industry Classification System; the NAICS sectors #21 and #22 might define the energy industry in North America. This classification is used by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission; the Global Industry Classification Standard used by Morgan Stanley define the energy industry as comprising companies working with oil, gas and consumable fuels, excluding companies working with certain industrial gases.
Add to expand this section: Dow Jones Industrial Average Government encouragement in the form of subsidies and tax incentives for energy-conservation efforts has fostered the view of conservation as a major function of the energy industry: saving an amount of energy provides economic benefits identical to generating that same amount of energy. This is compounded by the fact that the economics of delivering energy tend to be priced for capacity as opposed to average usage. One of the purposes of a smart grid infrastructure is to smooth out demand so that capacity and demand curves align more closely; some parts of the energy industry generate considerable pollution, including toxic and greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, nuclear waste from the generation of nuclear power, oil spillages as a result of petroleum extraction. Government regulations to internaliz
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be low, it is possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure; this permits the use of low-mass propellant tanks. An inert gas stored in a tank at a high pressure is sometimes used instead of pumps in simpler small engines to force the propellants into the combustion chamber; these engines may have a lower mass ratio, but are more reliable, are therefore used in satellites for orbit maintenance. Liquid rockets can be monopropellant rockets using a single type of propellant, bipropellant rockets using two types of propellant, or more exotic tripropellant rockets using three types of propellant; some designs are throttleable for variable thrust operation and some may be restarted after a previous in-space shutdown.
Liquid propellants are used in hybrid rockets, in which a liquid oxidizer is combined with a solid fuel. The idea of liquid rocket as understood in the modern context first appears in the book The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices, by the Russian school teacher Konstantin Tsiolkovsky; this seminal treatise on astronautics was published in May 1903, but was not distributed outside Russia until years and Russian scientists paid little attention to it. Pedro Paulet wrote a letter to a newspaper in Lima in 1927, claiming he had experimented with a liquid rocket engine while he was a student in Paris three decades earlier. Historians of early rocketry experiments, among them Max Valier, Willy Ley, John D. Clark, have given differing amounts of credence to Paulet's report. Paulet did not claim to have launched a liquid rocket; the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket took place on March 16, 1926 at Auburn, when American professor Dr. Robert H. Goddard launched a vehicle using liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants.
The rocket, dubbed "Nell", rose just 41 feet during a 2.5-second flight that ended in a cabbage field, but it was an important demonstration that liquid-fueled rockets were possible. Goddard proposed liquid propellants about fifteen years earlier and began to experiment with them in 1921; the German-Romanian Hermann Oberth published a book in 1922 suggesting the use of liquid propellants. In Germany and scientists became enthralled with liquid-fuel rockets and testing them in the early 1930s in a field near Berlin; this amateur rocket group, the VfR, included Wernher von Braun, who became the head of the army research station that designed the V-2 rocket weapon for the Nazis. By the late 1930s, use of rocket propulsion for manned flight began to be experimented with, as Germany's Heinkel He 176 made the first manned rocket-powered flight using a liquid-fueled rocket engine, designed by German aeronautics engineer Hellmuth Walter on June 20, 1939; the only production rocket-powered combat aircraft to see military service, the Me 163 Komet in 1944-45 used a Walter-designed liquid-fueled rocket motor, the Walter HWK 109-509, which produced up to 1,700 kgf thrust at full power.
After World War II the American government and military seriously considered liquid-propellant rockets as weapons and began to fund work on them. The Soviet Union did and thus began the Space Race. Liquid rockets have been built as monopropellant rockets using a single type of propellant, bipropellant rockets using two types of propellant, or more exotic tripropellant rockets using three types of propellant. Bipropellant liquid rockets use a liquid fuel, such as liquid hydrogen or a hydrocarbon fuel such as RP-1, a liquid oxidizer, such as liquid oxygen; the engine may be a cryogenic rocket engine, where the fuel and oxidizer, such as hydrogen and oxygen, are gases which have been liquefied at low temperatures. Liquid-propellant rockets can be throttled in realtime, have control of mixture ratio. Hybrid rockets apply a liquid oxidizer to a solid fuel. All liquid rocket engines have tankage and pipes to store and transfer propellant, an injector system, a combustion chamber, typically cylindrical, one rocket nozzles.
Liquid systems enable higher specific impulse than solids and hybrid rocket engines and can provide high tankage efficiency. Unlike gases, a typical liquid propellant has a density similar to water 0.7–1.4g/cm³, while requiring only modest pressure to prevent vapourisation. This combination of density and low pressure permits lightweight tankage. For injection into the combustion chamber, the propellant pressure at the injectors needs to be greater than the chamber pressure. Suitable pumps use centrifugal turbopumps due to their high power and light weight, although reciprocating pumps have been employed in the past. Turbopumps are extremely lightweight and can give excellent performance. Indeed, overall rocket engine thrust to weight ratios including a turbopump have been as high as 155:1 with the SpaceX Merlin 1D ro
Cogeneration or combined heat and power is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling and power refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector; the terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be applied to the power systems generating electricity and industrial chemicals – e.g. syngas or pure hydrogen. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel because otherwise wasted heat from electricity generation is put to some productive use. Combined heat and power plants recover otherwise wasted thermal energy for heating; this is called combined heat and power district heating. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures can be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling; the supply of high-temperature heat first drives a steam turbine-powered generator. The resulting low-temperature waste heat is used for water or space heating.
At smaller scales a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the waste heat is used for both heating and cooling in an absorption refrigerator. Combined cooling and power systems can attain higher overall efficiencies than cogeneration or traditional power plants. In the United States, the application of trigeneration in buildings is called building cooling and power. Heating and cooling output may operate concurrently or alternately depending on need and system construction. Cogeneration was practiced in some of the earliest installations of electrical generation. Before central stations distributed power, industries generating their own power used exhaust steam for process heating. Large office and apartment buildings and stores generated their own power and used waste steam for building heat. Due to the high cost of early purchased power, these CHP operations continued for many years after utility electricity became available. Many process industries, such as chemical plants, oil refineries and pulp and paper mills, require large amounts of process heat for such operations as chemical reactors, distillation columns, steam driers and other uses.
This heat, used in the form of steam, can be generated at the low pressures used in heating, or can be generated at much higher pressure and passed through a turbine first to generate electricity. In the turbine the steam pressure and temperature is lowered as the internal energy of the steam is converted to work; the lower pressure steam leaving the turbine can be used for process heat. Steam turbines at thermal power stations are designed to be fed high pressure steam, which exits the turbine at a condenser operating a few degrees above ambient temperature and at a few millimeters of mercury absolute pressure. For all practical purposes this steam has negligible useful energy. Steam turbines for cogeneration are designed either for extraction of some steam at lower pressures after it has passed through a number of turbine stages, with the un-extracted steam going on through the turbine to a condenser. In this case, the extracted steam causes a mechanical power loss in the downstream stages of the turbine.
Or they are designed, for final exhaust at back pressure. The extracted or exhaust steam is used for process heating. Steam at ordinary process heating conditions still has a considerable amount of enthalpy that could be used for power generation, so cogeneration has an opportunity cost. A typical power generation turbine in a paper mill may have extraction pressures of 160 psig and 60 psig. A typical back pressure may be 60 psig. In practice these pressures are custom designed for each facility. Conversely generating process steam for industrial purposes instead of high enough pressure to generate power at the top end has an opportunity cost; the capital and operating cost of high pressure boilers and generators are substantial. This equipment is operated continuously, which limits self-generated power to large-scale operations. A combined cycle, may be used to extract heat using a heating system as condenser of the power plant's bottoming cycle. For example, the RU-25 MHD generator in Moscow heated a boiler for a conventional steam powerplant, whose condensate was used for space heat.
A more modern system might use a gas turbine powered by natural gas, whose exhaust powers a steam plant, whose condensate provides heat. Cogeneration plants based on a combined cycle power unit can have thermal efficiencies above 80%; the viability of CHP in smaller CHP installations, depends on a good baseload of operation, both in terms of an on-site electrical demand and heat demand. In practice, an exact match between the heat and electricity needs exists. A CHP plant can either meet the need for heat or be run as a power plant with some use of its waste heat, the latter being less advantageous in terms of its utilisation factor and thus its overall efficiency; the viability can be increased where opportunities for trigeneration exist. In such cases, the heat from the CHP plant is used as a primary energy source to deliver cooling by means of an absorption c
Valentin Petrovich Glushko, was a Soviet engineer, designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race. At the age of fourteen he became interested in aeronautics after reading novels by Jules Verne, he is known to have written a letter to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1923. He studied at an Odessa trade school. After graduation he apprenticed at a hydraulics fitting plant, he was first trained as a fitter moved to lathe operator. During his time in Odessa, Glushko performed experiments with explosives; these were recovered from unexploded artillery shells, left behind by the White Guards during their retreat. From 1924-25 he wrote articles concerning the exploration of the Moon, as well as the use of Tsiolkovsky's proposed engines for space flight, he attended Leningrad State University where he studied physics and mathematics, but found the specialty programs were not to his interest. He left without graduating in April, 1929. From 1929-1930 he pursued rocket research at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory.
A new research section was set up for the study of liquid-propellant and electric engines. He became a member of the GIRD, founded in Leningrad in 1931. On 23 March 1938 he became caught up in Joseph Stalin's Great Purge and was rounded up by the NKVD, to be placed in the Butyrka prison. By 15 August 1939 he was sentenced to eight years imprisonment. In 1941 he was placed in charge of a design bureau for liquid-fueled rocket engines, he was released in 1944. In 1944, Sergei Korolev and Glushko designed the RD-1 KhZ auxiliary rocket motor tested in a fast-climb Lavochkin La-7R for protection of the capital from high-altitude Luftwaffe attacks. At the end of World War II, Glushko was sent to Germany and Eastern Europe to study the German rocket program. In 1946, he became the chief designer of his own bureau, the OKB 456, remained at this position until 1974; this bureau would play a prominent role in the development of rocket engines within the Soviet Union. His OKB 456 would design the 35-metric ton thrust RD-101 engine used in the R-2, the 120-ton thrust RD-110 employed in the R-3, the 44-ton thrust RD-103 used in the R-5 Pobeda.
The R-7 would include four of Glushko's RD-107 engines and one RD-108. In 1954, he began to design engines for the R-12 Dvina, designed by Mikhail Yangel, he became responsible for supplying rocket engines for Sergei Korolev, the designer of the R-9 Desna. Among his designs was the powerful RD-170 liquid propellant engine. In 1974, following the successful American moon landings, premier Leonid Brezhnev decided to cancel the troubled Soviet program to send a man to the Moon, he consolidated the Soviet space program, moving Vasily Mishin's OKB-1, as well as other bureaus, into a single bureau headed by Glushko named NPO Energia. Glushko's first act, after firing Mishin altogether, was to cancel the N-1 rocket, a program he had long criticized, despite the fact that one of the reasons for its difficulties was his own refusal to design the high power engines Korolev needed because of friction between the two men and ostensibly a disagreement over the use of cryogenic or hypergolic fuel. In 1965, after the UR-500 booster began flying, the Chelomei Bureau offered a counterproposal to Korolev's N-1 in the UR-700, a Saturn V-class booster with nine F-1 sized engines powered by dinitrogen tetroxide and UDMH.
Korolev was an outspoken opponent of hypergolic propellants due to their toxicity citing the 1960 Nedelin catastrophe as evidence of the danger posed by them, had objected to the UR-500 for the same reason. Glushko meanwhile was an advocate of Chelomei's UR-700 as well as an more powerful UR-900 with a nuclear-powered upper stage; when Korolev continued protesting about the safety risk posed by hypergolic propellants, Glushko responded with the counterargument that the US was launching the manned Gemini spacecraft atop a Titan II rocket with similar propellants and it was not a safety issue for them. He argued that the N-1 was not a workable solution because they could not develop RP-1/LOX engines on the scale of the Saturn F-1; when Korolev suggested developing a liquid hydrogen engine for the N-1, Glushko said that LH2 was impractical as a rocket fuel. The UR-700, Glushko said, could enable a direct-ascent trajectory to the Moon which he considered safer and more reliable than the rendezvous-and-dock approach used by the Apollo program and Korolev's N-1 proposals.
He imagined the UR-700 and 900 in all sorts of applications from lunar bases to manned Mars missions to outer planet probes to orbiting battle stations. When Korolev died in January 1966, his deputy Vasily Mishin took over the OKB-1 design bureau. Mishin succeeded in getting the Kremlin to terminate the UR-700/900 project as well as the RD-270 engine Glushko planned for the launch vehicle family, his main arguments were the tremendous safety risk posed by a low-altitude launch failure of the UR-700 in addition to the waste of money by developing two HLV families at once. After the complete failure of the Soviet manned lunar effort, unmanned Mars missions, the deaths of four cosmonauts, Mishin was fired in 1973 and the Kremlin decided to consolidate the entire Soviet space program into one organization headed by Glushko. One of Glushko's first acts