Enfield is a market town in Greater London, is the historic centre of the London Borough of Enfield. It is 10.1 miles north-northeast of Central London. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London; the town was in the county of Middlesex, but became part of Greater London on 1 April 1965 when the London Government Act 1963 was implemented. Enfield, including its localities such as Ponders End, Crews Hill and Freezywater, had a total population of 132,640 in 2011. Enfield was a set settlements united by one church, including by the High Middle Ages in 1303 a small agrarian market town, otherwise hamlets spread around the royal hunting grounds of Enfield Chase. At the time of the Domesday Book the area was spelt'Enefelde', had a priest who certainly resided in St. Andrew's Church. By 1572 most of the long-distance streets had been completed; the village green, in 1303, became a marketplace making the place a market town. Traders sell products at the regular market, on licence by a non-discriminatory poor relief charity covering the whole Borough.
Its name most came from Anglo-Saxon Ēanafeld or similar, meaning "open land belonging to a man called Ēana" or "open land for lambs". The parish was the largest in Middlesex if excluding from Harrow its Pinner north-west corner, which broke away in 1766; the parish church, on the north side of the marketplace, is dedicated to St Andrew. There is some masonry surviving from the thirteenth century, but the nave, north aisle and tower are late fourteenth century, built of random rubble and flint; the clerestory dates from the early sixteenth century, the south aisle was rebuilt in brick in 1824. Adjacent to the church is the old school building of the Tudor period, Enfield Grammar School, which expanded over the years, becoming a large comprehensive school from the late 1960s. A sixteenth century manor house, known since the eighteenth century as Enfield Palace, is remembered in the name of the Palace Gardens Shopping Centre, it was used as a private school from around 1670 until the late nineteenth century.
The last remains of it were demolished in 1928, to make way for an extension to Pearson's department store, though a panelled room with an elaborate plaster ceiling and a stone fireplace survives, relocated to a house in Gentleman's Row, a street of sixteenth- to eighteenth-century houses near the town centre. In 1303, Edward I granted a charter to Humphrey de Bohun, his wife to hold a weekly market in Enfield each Monday, James I granted another in 1617, to a charitable trust, for a Saturday market; the Market was still prosperous in the early eighteenth century, but fell into decline soon afterwards. There were sporadic attempts to revive it: an unsuccessful one of 1778 is recorded, in 1826 a stone Gothic market cross was erected, to replace the octagonal wooden market house, demolished sixteen years earlier. In 1858, J. Tuff wrote of the market "several attempts have been made to revive it, the last of which, about twenty years ago proved a failure, It has again fallen into desuetude and will never be revived".
However the trading resumed in the 1870s. In 1904 a new wooden structure was built to replace the stone cross, by now decayed; the market is still in existence, administered by the Old Enfield Charitable trust. The charter of 1303 gave the right to hold two annual fairs, one on St Andrew's Day and the other in September; the latter was suppressed in 1869 at the request of local tradesmen and other prominent citizens, having become, according to the local historian Pete Eyre, "a source of immorality and disorder, a growing nuisance to the inhabitants". The New River, built to supply water to London from Hertfordshire, runs behind the town centre through the Town Park, the last remaining public open space of Enfield Old Park; the Enfield Loop of the New River passes through the playing fields of Enfield Grammar School, this is the only stretch of the loop without a public footpath on at least one side of it. Enfield was the location of some of the earliest successful hothouses, developed by Dr Robert Uvedale, headmaster of both Enfield Grammar School and the Palace School.
He was renowned horticulturalist. In an Account of several Gardens near London written by J. Gibson in 1691, the writer says:'Dr. Uvedale of Enfield is a great lover of plants, having an extraordinary art in managing them, is become master of the greatest and choicest collection of exotic greens, anywhere in this land, his greens take up six or seven houses or roomsteads. His orange-trees and largest myrtles fill up his biggest house, … those more nice and curious plants that need closer keeping are in warmer rooms, some of them stoved when he thinks fit, his flowers are choice, his stock numerous, his culture of them methodical and curious.' The poet John Keats went to progressive Clarke's School in Enfield, where he began a translation of the Aeneid. The school's building became Enfield Town railway station until it was demolished in 1872; the current building was erected in the 1960s. In 1840 the first section of the Northern and Eastern Railway had been opened from Stratford to Broxbourne
The Barkhamsted Lighthouse was a historical community located in what is now Peoples State Forest in Barkhamsted, Connecticut. Set on a terrace above the eastern bank of the West Branch Farmington River, it was in the 18th and 19th centuries a small village of economically marginalized mixed Native American, African American, white residents, it was given the name "lighthouse" because its lights acted as a beacon marking the north-south stage road that paralleled the river. The archaeological remains of the village site were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991 as Lighthouse Archeological Site; the area known as the Lighthouse had its beginnings in the mid-18th century with the purchase of land by James Chaugham and his son Samuel, a Narragansett from Block Island. Chaugham was said in early accounts of the community to have married Molly Barber, a white woman whose early life is absent from historical documents; the property was located in a rugged area of northern Connecticut, wilderness, with an old Native American trail running along the river.
When this trail was improve into a stagecoach route in the late 18th century, the small settlement was dubbed the "lighthouse" by southbound coach drivers, as its lights indicated that the coach was nearing New Hartford, a few miles to the south. The community was abandoned in the 1860s, its residents moving to seek better economic opportunities; the first organized history of the community was written in 1952 by Lewis Sprague Mills, a local educator and historian. Archaeological investigations of the site were first conducted on the settlement site in 1986 by Kenneth Feder; the site is located on a terrace on the shoulder of a hill in Peoples State Forest. Excavations have uncovered foundational remains of ten buildings, four charcoal kilns, a well, a small cemetery. Stone for the building foundations was quarried directly nearby. None of the surviving elements give any indication of having been built using dimensional lumber, used in more conventional communities. Found at the site were quantities of typical household items, including a large number of ceramic fragments.
The site is accessible via a short hiking trail from East River Road in Peoples State Forest, has been designated a state archaeological site. National Register of Historic Places listings in Litchfield County, Connecticut
Down in a Mirror: A Second Tribute to Jandek is a tribute album compiled by Moscow, PA-based independent record label Summersteps Records, released as a follow-up to the label's first Jandek tribute, Naked in the Afternoon. As with Naked in the Afternoon, Down In A Mirror features cover versions of songs by the reclusive avant-folk/blues singer/songwriter Jandek; some of the artists are members of the Summersteps roster or fans forming one-time combos to participate on the album, but the album features contributions from Wilco's Jeff Tweedy, Six Organs of Admittance, The Mountain Goats, Kawabata Makoto of Acid Mothers Temple, Lewis & Clarke and Okkervil River. All of the songs are covers of songs from Jandek's back catalog, with the exception of the contribution by the act Dirty Projectors, an original song called "With U Icon"; as with the first Summersteps-led tribute album, Jandek gave full permission to cover his material through his Corwood Industries label and, at Summersteps' request, contributed some photographs taken by the singer/songwriter for the CD's cover art that emulates Jandek's own record/CD releases.
The recording and release of Down In A Mirror came in the wake of both the acclaimed documentary Jandek on Corwood and Jandek's own sudden surprise foray into live performance, as a result gained more attention than the original tribute album. Three of the songs on the compilation, "Nancy Sings", "Babe I Love You", "Cave In On You", were covered on Naked in the Afternoon five years earlier, two songs, "You Painted Your Teeth" and "Babe I Love You" are covered twice on this album - a slight curiosity given the fact that at the time the last contribution to this album was finished in February 2005, Corwood Industries had released over 40 albums of Jandek material. "Crack a Smile" – 3:35 Performed by Jeff Tweedy. "You Painted Your Teeth" – 2:36 Performed by Live Show Rabbits "The Dunes" – 2:04 Performed by Eric Gaffney "Your Other Man" – 5:17 Performed by Okkervil River "Message to the Clerk" – 3:43 Performed by Brother JT "I'll Sit Alone and Think a lot About You" – 4:31 Performed by Six Organs of Admittance "Cave in on You/European Jewel" – 5:06 Performed by Home for the Def "Down in a Mirror" – 3:34 Performed by The Marshmallow Staircase "White Box" – 2:51 Performed by The Mountain Goats "Aimless Breeze" – 2:40 Performed by George Parsons "Nancy Sings" – 4:47 Performed by Lewis & Clarke "Naked in the Afternoon" – 2:45 Performed by Jack Norton "Sung" – 1:46 Performed by Rivulets "Babe I Love You" – 4:31 Performed by Kawabata Makoto "The Spirit" – 4:01 Performed by Wayside Drive "Just Die" – 6:48 Performed by a Real Knife Head "Van Nuys Mission" – 2:51 Performed by Ross Beach "I Found the Right Change" – 1:46 Performed by Multi-Panel "Babe I Love You" – 2:44 Performed by Dan Melchior "You Painted Your Teeth" – 4:09 Performed by Pothole Skinny "With U Icon" – 5:09 Performed by Dirty Projectors Ted Baird – design, layout design Ross Beach – instrumentation Brother JT – instrumentation Dan Burton – engineer Jessica Cowley – engineer Jordan Geiger – piano, keyboards Gary Pig Gold – liner notes Michael Kapinus – bass Kawabata Makoto – vocals, hurdygurdy Dan Melchior – instrumentation The Mountain Goats – guitar, vocals Travis Nelsen – drums Jack Norton – guitar, engineer George Parsons – vocals Rivulets – instrumentation Will Sheff – acoustic guitar, vocals Jeff Tweedy – bass, vocals, mellotron Jason Woods – drums Executive producer: Eric Schlittler Layout and design: Ted Baird Mastering: Dan McKinney