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Enforcer (ice hockey)

Enforcer or policeman is an unofficial role in ice hockey. The term is sometimes used synonymously with "fighter", "tough guy", or "goon". An enforcer's job is to respond to dirty or violent play by the opposition; when such play occurs, the enforcer is expected to respond aggressively, by fighting or checking the offender. Enforcers are expected to react harshly to violence against star players or goalies. Enforcers are different from pests, players who seek to agitate opponents and distract them from the game, without fighting them; the pest's primary role is to draw penalties from opposing players, thus "getting them off their game", while not intending to fight the opposition player. Pests and enforcers play together on the same line the fourth line. At present in the National Hockey League, teams do not carry more than one player whose primary role is that of an enforcer. Enforcers can play either forward or defense, although they are most used as wingers on the fourth forward checking line.

Prized for their aggression, checking ability, fists, enforcers are less gifted at skill areas of the game than their teammates. Enforcers are among the lowest scoring players on the team and receive a smaller share of ice time, they are not paid compared to other players, tend to move from team to team. Enforcers are often popular on their teams. "The enforcer, sometimes mocked as a goon or euphemized as a tough guy, may be hockey's favorite archetype," wrote John Branch of The New York Times. "Enforcers are seen as working-class superheroes—understated types with an alter ego willing to do the sport's most dangerous work to protect others. And they are underdogs, men who otherwise might have no business in the game." John Scott's reputation as an enforcer and fan favorite helped him earn enough fan votes to secure a spot in the 61st National Hockey League All-Star Game despite having been demoted out of the league at the time of his election. Fighting skills can help a less-talented or smaller player play in leagues that their hockey alone would not.

Enforcers sometimes take boxing lessons to improve their fighting. Some players combine aspects of the enforcer role with strong play in other areas of the game. Tiger Williams, Bob Probert, Chris Simon are examples of enforcers who showed an occasional scoring flair, with Williams and Probert playing in the midseason All-Star Game. Terry O'Reilly once scored 90 points in a season, being the first player to finish in the top ten regular season scorers while amassing at least 200 penalty minutes, became captain of the Boston Bruins. Sometimes enforcers can do their job by virtue of their reputation. Clark Gillies was among the best fighters in the NHL during his prime, but over time he had to fight because opponents respected and feared him enough that they would not go after his teammates; some skilled players, such as legends Gordie Howe and NHL all-star Jarome Iginla, are capable fighters and can function as their own enforcer. A "Gordie Howe hat trick" is a player scoring a goal, assisting on a goal, being involved in a fight during a single game.

In the 1970s, the Boston Bruins and Philadelphia Flyers were known as the "Big Bad Bruins" and "Broad Street Bullies", for stocking up on grinders and enforcers. The role of the enforcer has diminished since rule enforcement changed following the 2004–05 NHL lockout to increase game speed and scoring. With a decrease in fighting, teams are less inclined to keep a roster spot available for a one-dimensional fighter, a liability as a scorer and defender; this has led to a decrease in the number of players. Instead, more well-rounded players are expected to contribute aspects of the enforcer role. Intimidation and fighting continue to be utilized as a strategy in the NHL. In the 2007-08 NHL season fights occurred in 38.46% of the games, up from 33% the season before, just below the pre-lockout fighting level of 41.14% of games in the 2003–04 season. The frequency has declined over time, from 1.3 fights per game in the late 1980s to 0.5 in 2012. Major penalties for fighting declined by 25% annually in the first half of the 2011–2012 season.

Another possible reason for the decline in fighting and the use of the enforcer role is greater awareness of the risks from head trauma and resulting chronic traumatic encephalopathy. During the summer of 2011, three NHL enforcers died. Derek Boogaard died at the age of 28 from an accidental mixture of painkillers and alcohol. Rick Rypien died at the age of 27 from what was confirmed as a suicide. Wade Belak was found dead at the age of 35 in his Toronto hotel room in circumstances that caused a newspaper's police source to categorize his death as a suicide. Retired enforcer Georges Laraque has suggested the National Hockey League Players' Association provide counselling to enforcers, but sports journalist and writer Roy Macgregor opines that in light of recent tragic events there should be more done about it, including eliminating the role altogether. New York Times sportswriter John Branch covered Boogaard's death and the epidemic of chronic traumatic encephalopathy that has come as a result of frequent head trauma sustained by hockey enforcers.

The late songwriter Warren Zevon promoted the role with a ballad of a fictional goon "Buddy" in his song "Hit Somebody". Goon, a 2011 comedy film written by Jay Baruchel and Evan Goldberg and starring Seann William Scott, ba

Port of Gaza

The Port of Gaza is a small port near the Rimal district of Gaza City. It is the home port of Palestinian fishing-boats and the base of the Palestinian Naval Police, a branch of the Palestinian National Security Forces. Under the Oslo II Accord, the activities of the Palestinian Naval Police are restricted to 6 nautical miles from the coast. Since 2007, the Port of Gaza has been under an Israeli-imposed naval blockade as part of a blockade of the Gaza Strip, activities at the port have been restricted to small-scale fishing. In earlier times, the port of Maiuma, or el Mineh, was located in the area. In the late Ottoman era, Pierre Jacotin named the place Majumas on his map from 1799. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine noted that el Mineh was the ancient Maiuma. In 2011, eight Roman columns believed to be the remains of a church were swept ashore during a storm. In 2013, the Palestinian Naval Police found ancient artifacts that included baked clay. In 2002, Israeli forces attacked the Palestinian Naval Police facilities in the port, after Naval Police commanders were implicated in the Karine A affair, an attempt to secretly bring in 50 tons of weapons by boat into Gaza.

In 2007, following Hamas' takeover of Gaza, Israel imposed a blockade of the Gaza Strip, including a naval blockade. Several attempts to break the Israeli blockade have been made. Israel has prevented most ships from docking at the Port of Gaza, but did allow two boats, carrying activists and some supplies, to reach the port in 2008; as at 2010, the port was restricted to smaller Palestinian fishing boats. In 2010, the port was deepened by Hamas in preparation for the arrival of a blockade-breaking flotilla of larger international ships. A breakwater was constructed and lighting was installed. Hamas announced plans to develop the port to make it more accessible to fishermen and attract tourists. Since the 1993 Oslo I Accord, there have been plans to build a much larger seaport in Gaza. Due to the continuing Israeli–Palestinian conflict, these plans have not materialized as of 2014. In 2005, Israel approved Palestinian plans to rebuild and complete the construction of a port a few miles south of Gaza City, which had begun before the outbreak of the Second Intifada in September 2000.

The building was destroyed by Israeli forces together with Gaza's existing airport near Rafah following the outbreak of the Second Intifada. Photos of the Port and the Sea of Gaza on Facebook Survey of Western Palestine, Map 19: IAA, Wikimedia commons

Yoon Ga-eun

Yoon Ga-eun is a South Korean film director and script writer. Her films explore the stories of young children and youth. Yoon Ga-eun graduated from History Department at Sogang University and continued her graduate studies at the School of Film, TV & Multimedia at Korea National University of Arts, her first film as a director is 19 minutes short film The Taste of Salvia introduced in 2009. Beginning with it, she directed several films including Proof, Sprout, Tabloid Truth and The World of Us; the first work that she began to make a mark is Guest, a movie perceptively capturing a phase of the growing pains that a pubescent high school girl experience. This film won the grand prix from 34th Clermont-Ferrand International Short Film Festival in 2012, known as Festival de Cannes of Short films. Sprout is an adventure story of a little girl. Yoon expressed the small change. After Yoon finished Sprout, she said she thought that people would strive all the time to achieve their goal, but there are things that they cannot achieve, no matter how hard they try.

She dissolve the meaningful process into the film Sprout. Yoon is known for finding new faces; the Korean actress Jung Yeon-ju started her career with Guest Kim Su-an was cast by Yoon. Kim was invited to the Festival de Cannes as the youngest actress ever; the Taste of Salvia - short film Proof - short film Guest - short film Sprout - short film Tabloid Truth - short film The World of Us - feature film 2017 53rd Baeksang Arts Awards - Best Screenplay 2017 8th KOFRA Film Awards - Best Independent Film 2016 Zlín Film Festival- International Film Festival for Children - International competition of feature films for children - The Golden Slipper 2016 Blue Dragon Film Awards - Best New Director 2016 25th Buil Film Awards - Best New Director 2016 Berlin International Film Festival - Generation 2016 TIFF Kids International Film Festival - TIFF KIDS 2016 Udine Far East Film Festival - Competition Section - SOUTH KOREA 2016 Zlín Film Festival- International Film Festival for Children - International competition of feature films for children - City of Zlín Award - for Best Child Actor in Feature Film for Children 2016 Toronto Korean Film Festival - Opening Night Feature Presentation 2016 Busan International Film Festival - Korean Cinema Today-Panorama 2016 Tokyo Filmex - Competition films 2016 International Film Festival of India - Country Focus - Republic Of Korea 2016 Shanghai International Film Festival - Panorama - Korean Films2 2014 Busan International Short Film Festival: BISFF 2014 Berlin International Film Festival - Generation - Crystal Bear for the Best Short Film 2014 Aspen Shortsfest - International Competition 2014 Busan International Short Film Festival: BISFF 2014 SEOUL International Women’s Film Festival - Asian Short Film & Video Competition 2013 Prague Short Film Festival - Panorama 2013 Flickerfest International Short Film Festival - Competition Section 2013 Busan International Film Festival - Wide Angle: Korean Short Film Competition - Sonje Award Special

George Wetherill

George Wetherill was the Director Emeritus, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC, USA. George Wetherill benefited from the G. I. Bill to receive four degrees, the Ph. B. S. B. S. M. and Ph. D. in physics, all from the University of Chicago. He did his thesis research, on the spontaneous fission of uranium, as well as nuclear processes in nature, as a U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Predoctoral Fellow. Upon receiving his Ph. D. Wetherill became a staff member at Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, D. C. There, he joined an interdepartmental group of Carnegie scientists who were working to date the Earth's rocks by geochemical methods involving natural radioactive decay; this involved determining the concentration and isotopic composition of inert gases such as argon, as well as the isotopes of strontium and lead. He originated the concept of the Concordia Diagram for the uranium-lead isotopic system, he was a member of the Carnegie group that determined the decay constants of potassium and rubidium, an effort that has become fundamental to the measurement of geological time.

Wetherill left DTM in 1960 to become a professor of geophysics and geology at the University of California, Los Angeles. There, he served as chairman of the interdepartmental curriculum in geochemistry, as chairman of the Department of Planetary and Space Sciences. At UCLA, his interests in age-dating techniques expanded to include extraterrestrial material, as he began applying his radiometric chronology techniques to meteorite and lunar samples. At the same time, he began theoretical explorations into the origin of meteorites, his studies concentrated on collisions between objects in the asteroid belt together with resonances between their motions and those of planets. He computed how these events could move material into Earth-crossing orbits to become meteorites or larger Earth-impacting bodies responsible for the devastating impacts that caused mass extinctions of the majority of living species, including the dinosaurs. He, along with scientists elsewhere, proposed that a certain unusual class of meteorites was not asteroidal in origin but instead came from the planet Mars.

This was confirmed by laboratory work elsewhere and is now well accepted. In 1975, Wetherill returned to Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism as director, he remained director until 1991. At DTM, he began extending his research efforts into questions concerning the origin of the terrestrial planets--Mercury, Venus and Mars, he was stimulated by earlier studies by Victor Safronov, who showed that as a swarm of planetesimals coagulated into large bodies the swarm could evolve to produce a few terrestrial planets. Wetherill developed a technique to calculate numerically the orbital evolution and accumulation of planetesimal swarms, he used the technique to reach specific predictions of the physical and orbital properties of terrestrial planets, his results agreed well with present observations. In addition to showing how the inner solar system formed, Wetherill's work provided the basis for a model of a giant-impact origin for the Moon and the core of Mercury, it led to explanations for the isotopic abundances of present-day planetary atmospheres.

Wetherill has shown that Jupiter plays an important role in the evolution of the Solar System. Wetherill's theoretical work supports discussions on the origins of the Solar System as well as on extrasolar planets. Wetherill provided leadership in the scientific community by serving on advisory committees for NASA, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation. For 17 years, he was editor of the Annual Review of Planetary Sciences, he served as president of the Meteoritical Society, the Geochemical Society, the Planetology Section of the American Geophysical Union and the International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Wetherill died at his home in Washington, D. C Wednesday, July 19, 2006 after a long illness, his awards include election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974, the 1981 Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society, the 1984 G. K. Gilbert Award of the Geological Society of America, the 1986 G. P. Kuiper Prize of the Division of Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, the 1991 Harry H. Hess Medal of the American Geophysical Union, the 1997 National Medal of Science awarded by President Clinton and the 2000 J. Lawrence Smith Medal "for his unique contributions to the cosmochronology of the planets and meteorites and to the orbital dynamics and formation of solar system bodies."

In 2003 Wetherill was awarded the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship, the highest honor bestowed by the American Astronomical Society. Washington Post obituary NASA Carnegie Institution Bio Publications International Center for Scientific research Obituary in Nature


Iranistan was a Moorish Revival mansion in Bridgeport, Connecticut commissioned by P. T. Barnum in 1848, it was designed by Bohemian-American architect Leopold Eidlitz. At this "beautiful country seat" Barnum played host to such famous contemporaries as the Hutchinson Family Singers, Matthew Arnold, George Armstrong Custer, Horace Greeley, Mark Twain; the grandiose structure survived only a decade before being destroyed by fire in 1857. It was one of five such fires in the showman's life that "burned to the ground all his accomplishments". "Barnum's most unique mansion" was designed by the New York architect Leopold Eidlitz a founder of the American Institute of Architects. It was a mix of Byzantine and Turkish decorative elements, inspired by the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, which Barnum visited shortly after its construction and admired; the word Iranistan is composed of Iran and -stan. The suffix -stan is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Iranistan means descended from Iran and Persian culture.

As such an architectural style had not yet become established in the United States, Barnum describes his efforts to have it built: I concluded to adopt it, engaged a London architect to furnish me a set of drawings after the general plan of the pavilion, differing sufficiently to be adapted to the spot of ground selected for my homestead. On my second return visit to the United States, I brought these drawings with me and engaged a competent architect and builder, giving him instructions to proceed with the work, not'by the job' but'by the day,' and to spare neither time nor expense in erecting a comfortable and tasteful residence; the work was thus begun and continued while I was still abroad, during the time when I was making my tour with General Tom Thumb through the United States and Cuba. Elegant and appropriate furniture was made expressly for every room in the house. I erected expensive water-works to supply the premises; the stables and out-buildings were perfect in their kind. There was a profusion of trees set out on the grounds.

The whole was built and established literally'regardless of expense,' for I had no desire to ascertain the entire cost. By the time the house was completed in 1848 it had cost Barnum about $150,000; the architectural extravaganza on 17 acres of land was the first of four "famous" Bridgeport mansions built by Barnum. The fanciful three-story oriental-style structure had numerous porches and arches, the whole thing topped by multiple onion domes. A circular driveway curved around a fountain in the front of the house and urns stood at corners of the lawn. Iranistan had a greenhouse from which Barnum used to gather flowers for Sunday services at the local Universalist church. Barnum imported and kept a variety of choice livestock at this property and was soon president of the local Fairfield County agricultural society; the Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind told Barnum that she would not have come to the United States if Barnum had not built Iranistan. Lind explained that she did not "relish the idea of crossing 3,000 miles of water" and declined all offers until she received a letter from Barnum, engraved with an image of Iranistan in its heading.

Deciding that any gentleman successful enough to build "such a palace cannot be a mere adventurer", she agreed to an interview which she would have "declined if I had not seen the picture of Iranistan". When Barnum experienced financial difficulties, he had Iranistan closed and it was unoccupied for more than two years. Carpenters and painters had been ordered not to smoke in the building, they smoked after-dinner pipes there in the evening. A pipe left to smolder may have ignited a blaze; the fire alarm was sounded at 11 PM on December 17, 1857 and the house burned until 1 AM. P. T. Barnum was staying at the Astor House in New York City. In the morning of December 18, he received a telegram from his brother, Philo F. Barnum, informing him that Iranistan had burned to the ground. Barnum had retained some insurance on the unoccupied mansion, but he collected only $28,000. Many pictures and pieces of furniture were saved from the fire, although many of the salvaged pieces were damaged. After the fire, bank assignees sold the property, including the surviving outbuildings, to Elias Howe, the inventor of the sewing machine.

The Iranistan seen in the A&E Network movie P. T. Barnum was a specially constructed model that now marks the entrance to the main gallery of the Barnum Museum; the museum has a recreation of Iranistan's library that holds furniture designed by cabinetmaker Julius Dessoir and "showcases Barnum's distinctive taste." Connecticut History Online, "Iranistan, the Residence of Mr. Barnum." History of Bridgeport, Connecticut

Payao Poontarat

Payao Poontarat was a Thai boxer who, at the age of 18, won the bronze medal in the men's Light flyweight category at the 1976 Summer Olympics. He was the first Thai athlete to win an Olympic medal in any sport. Below is the record of Payao Poontarat, a Thai light flyweight boxer who competed at the 1976 Montreal Olympics: Defeated Remus Cosma by decision, 4-1 Defeated Aleksandr Tkachenko by decision, 3-2 Defeated György Gedó by decision, 4-1 Lost to Li Byong-Uk referee stooped contest in the second round Born in the village of Bang Sapan, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Phayao Poontarat came from a poor family; as a child, he sold flowers in the resort city of Pattaya to help support his younger siblings. Like many poor boys in Thailand, he took up Muay Thai, he proved to be a gifted boxer, he switched to international boxing and won a place on the Thai Olympic team in 1976. Though he finished with a bronze medal, Phayao gained attention by defeating the 1972 Olympic gold medal winner, Gyogy Gedo, in the quarter finals.

He trained hard for the 1980 Moscow Olympics, but his hopes for a gold were ended by the United States led boycott over of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. Instead, he turned professional and on November 27, 1983 became WBC superflyweight world champion by defeating Rafael Orono of Venezuela in a split decision. In his first title defence, against Guty Espadas of Mexico, Phayao was behind on all the score cards, but saved his championship belt with a 10th-round knockout. Phayao was challenged by Japan's Jiro Watanabe and agreed to meet him; when they met in Osaka on July 5, 1984 Phayao lost by a controversial 12-round decision. The World Boxing Council ordered a rematch, it took place with Phayao losing by a technical knockout in the 11th round. Giving up boxing, Phayao Poontarat became a Thai policeman with the rank of captain, he joined the Democratic Party and in 2001 was elected as member of parliament for his home-province. A year he began to suffer from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis known as Lou Gehrig's disease.

The disease is incurable. In 2006, Phayao died at the age of 48 at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, he was survived by several children. Professional boxing record for Payao Poontarat from BoxRec Professional record on Cyber Zone Boxing Encyclopedia Bangkok Post obituary New York Times obituary