Taigen Dan Leighton
Taigen Dan Leighton is a Sōtō priest and teacher and author. He is an authorized lineage holder and Zen teacher in the tradition of Shunryū Suzuki and is the founder and Guiding Teacher of Ancient Dragon Zen Gate in Chicago, Illinois. Leighton began his Zen practice in 1975 at the New York Zen Center, training under Kando Nakajima rōshi, he studied at Columbia University. Leighton worked as a television and film editor in New York City, San Francisco. In 1978, he moved to California and became a resident at San Francisco Zen Center, where he worked at Tassajara Bakery and other of Zen Center's businesses. In subsequent years, Leighton practiced in residence at all of the San Francisco Zen Center facilities, including Green Gulch Farm Zen Center and Tassajara Zen Mountain Center. In 1986, Leighton was ordained as a priest by Reb Anderson in the latter's first ordination ceremony. Leighton lived in Japan from 1990–1992, translating Dōgen texts with Shōhaku Okumura and training under various masters.
In 1994, Leighton founded the Mountain Source Sangha in Bolinas, San Rafael, San Francisco, California. In 2000, Leighton received Dharma transmission, from Reb Anderson, he taught for four years at Loyola University Chicago and has taught since 1994 at the Institute of Buddhist Studies, part of the Berkeley Graduate Theological Union, from which Leighton has a Ph. D. degree. Leighton has been involved in many interfaith dialogue programs, including conducting Buddhist–Christian dialogue workshops, he has long been active in various Engaged Buddhist programs for social justice, including Environmental and Peace activism. Over the years, Leighton has taught at various universities around the world; the following is a complete list: Kansai University Ōtani University California Institute of Integral Studies University of San Francisco Saint Mary's College of California Institute of Buddhist Studies Loyola University Chicago Meadville Lombard Theological School Leighton, Taigen Dan. Just This Is the Practice of Suchness.
Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 978-1-61180-228-3. Leighton, Taigen Dan. "Dogen's Approach to Training in Eihei Koroku". In Heine, Steven. Dogen: Textual And Historical Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 122–138. ISBN 0199754462. OCLC 731191960. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Faces of Compassion: Classic Bodhisattva Archetypes and Their Modern Expression—an Introduction to Mahayana Buddhism. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 1614290148. OCLC 757476824. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Zen Questions: Zazen and the Spirit of Creative Inquiry. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861716450. OCLC 713188144. Leighton, Taigen Dan. "Dongshan and the Teaching of Suchness". In Heine, Steven. Zen Masters. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 33–58. ISBN 0195367642. OCLC 426391158. Leighton, Taigen Dan. "Now the Whole Planet Has Its Head on Fire". In Stanley, John. A Buddhist Response to the Climate Emergency. Boston: Wisdom Publications. Pp. 187–194. ISBN 0861716051. OCLC 298781881. Leighton, Taigen Dan. "Zazen as an Enactment Ritual". In Heine, Steven.
Zen Ritual: Studies of Zen Buddhist Theory in Practice. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 167–184. ISBN 0195304675. OCLC 77573898. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Visions of Awakening Space and Time: Dogen and the Lotus Sutra. Oxford. ISBN 019532093X. OCLC 71350616. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Songs for the True Dharma Eye: Verse Comments on Dogen's Shobogenzo. San Francisco, CA: Browser Books Publishing. ISBN 9780977221271. Payne, Richard Karl. Discourse and Ideology in Medieval Japanese Buddhism. Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism. London. ISBN 0415359171. OCLC 59817941. Dōgen. Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of the Eihei Koroku. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861713052. OCLC 55286286. Kim, Hee-Jin. Eihei Dogen: Mystical Realist. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861713761. OCLC 53138715. Loori, John Daido; the Art of Just Sitting: Essential Writings on the Zen Practice of Shikantaza. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 086171394X. OCLC 54392536. Warner, Jishō. Nothing Is Hidden: Essays on Zen Master Dogen's Instructions for the Cook.
New York: Weatherhill. ISBN 0834804786. OCLC 45488199. Leighton, Taigen Dan. "Sacred Fools and Monastic Rules: Zen Rule-Bending and the Training for Pure Hearts". In Barnhart, Bruno. Purity of Heart and Contemplation: A Monastic Dialogue Between Christian and Asian Traditions. New York: Continuum. Pp. 151–164. ISBN 082641348X. OCLC 47136534. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Cultivating the Empty Field: The Silent Illumination of Zen Master Hongzhi. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804832404. OCLC 43978646. Leighton, Taigen Dan. Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and Their Modern Expression. New York: Penguin Arkana. ISBN 0140195564. OCLC 37211178. Dōgen; the Wholehearted Way: A Translation of Eihei Dogen's Bendowa. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 080483105X. OCLC 38190728. Dōgen. 永平清規. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791427102. OCLC 32859858. Buddhism in the United States Timeline of Zen Buddhism
Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor
Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, achieve a mentally clear and calm and stable state. Some of the earliest written records of meditation, come from the Hindu traditions of Vedantism around 1500 BCE. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs as part of the path towards enlightenment and self realization. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its origins to other cultures where it is practiced in private and business life. Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety and pain, increasing peace, self-concept, well-being. Meditation is under research to define other effects; the English meditation is derived from Old French meditacioun and the Latin meditatio from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, devise, ponder". The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the 12th century monk Guigo II.
Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as dhyāna in Hinduism and Buddhism and which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in English may refer to practices from Islamic Sufism, or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm. In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are used imprecisely to designate broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures and traditions. What is considered meditation can include any practice that trains the attention or teaches calm or compassion. Definitions in the Oxford and Cambridge living dictionaries and Merriam-Webster include both the original Latin meaning of "think about". Criteria for defining a practice as meditation "for use in a comprehensive systematic review of the therapeutic use of meditation" were identified by Bond et al. using "a 5-round Delphi study with a panel of 7 experts in meditation research" who were trained in diverse but empirically studied forms of meditation.
Other criteria deemed important involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence. It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a natural category of techniques best captured by'family resemblances' or by the related'prototype' model of concepts." The table shows several other definitions of meditation that have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across multiple traditions. In modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and characterized in a variety of ways. Scientific reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more define the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results of their studies be made clearer. One review of the field provides a detailed set of questions as a starting point in reaching this goal; the practitioner of meditation attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "thinking" mind This may be to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state.
In this article the terms "meditative practice" and "meditation" are used in this broad sense. However, in some contexts more specialized meanings of "meditation" may be intended; some of the difficulty in defining meditation has been the difficulty in recognizing the particularities of the many various traditions. There may be differences between the theories of one tradition of meditation as to what it means to practice meditation; the differences between the various traditions themselves, which have grown up a great distance apart from each other, may be starker. Taylor noted that to refer only to meditation from a particular faith...is not enough, since the cultural traditions from which a particular kind of meditation comes are quite different and within a single tradition differ in complex ways. The specific name of a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a specific text is quite important for identifying a particular type of meditation. Ornstein noted that "Most techniques of meditation do not exist as solitary practices but are only artificially separable from an entire system of practice and belief."
This means that, for instance, while monks engage in meditation as a part of their everyday lives, they engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices. These meditative practices sometimes have similarities, for instance concentration on the breath is practiced in Zen and Theravadan contexts, these similarities or "typologies" are noted here. In the West, meditation techniques have sometimes been thought of in two broad categories: focused (
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. In the social sciences, a larger society exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. A society can consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society; this is sometimes referred to a term used extensively within criminology. More broadly, within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
The term "society" came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun socius used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity, although those who are unfriendly or uncivil to the remainder of society in this sense may be deemed to be "antisocial". However, the Scottish economist, Adam Smith taught instead that a society "may subsist among different men, as among different merchants, from a sense of its utility without any mutual love or affection, if only they refrain from doing injury to each other."Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language, or hierarchical structure. Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit; the great apes have always been more or less social animals, so Robinson Crusoe-like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.
Cultural relativism as a widespread approach or ethic has replaced notions of "primitive", better/worse, or "progress" in relation to cultures. According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in society, in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives, is the parental role assumed by the males, which would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not determinable. Societies may be structured politically. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes and state societies; these structures may have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more to survive than one in close proximity to others that may encroach on their resources. A society, unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will be subsumed into the culture of the competing society.
Sociologist Peter L. Berger defines society as "...a human product, nothing but a human product, that yet continuously acts upon its producers." According to him, society was created by humans but this creation turns back and creates or molds humans every day. Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology and economy: hunters and gatherers, simple agricultural, advanced agricultural and special; this is similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. Fried, a conflict theorist, Elman Service, an integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state; this system of classification contains four categories: Hunter-gatherer bands. Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Stratified structures led by chieftains. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.
In addition to this there are: Humanity, upon which rest all the elements of society, including society's beliefs. Virtual society, a society based on online identity, evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of control; this cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become cities. Cities turned into nation-states. Many societies distribute largess at some larger group of people; this type of generosity can be seen i
14th Dalai Lama
The 14th Dalai Lama is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, formally headed by the Ganden Tripas. From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama to 1959, the government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the position of Dalai Lama with temporal duties; the 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser, Tibet. He was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama in a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939. On January 26, 1940, the Regent Reting Rinpoche requested the Central Government to exempt Tenzin Gyatso from the lot-drawing process of the Golden Urn to become the 14th Dalai Lama; the request was approved by the Central Government. His enthronement ceremony as the Dalai Lama was held in Lhasa on 22 February 1940 and he assumed full temporal duties on 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, after the People's Republic of China's incorporation of Tibet; the Gelug school's government administered an area corresponding to the Tibet Autonomous Region, just as the nascent PRC wished to assert control over it.
During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama fled to India, where he lives as a refugee. He has traveled the world and has spoken about the welfare of Tibetans, economics, women's rights, non-violence, interfaith dialogue, astronomy and science, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive health, sexuality, along with various topics of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist teachings. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, Time magazine named him one of the "Children of Mahatma Gandhi" and his spiritual heir to nonviolence. Lhamo Thondup was born on 6 July 1935 to a farming and horse trading family in the small hamlet of Taktser, or Chija Tagtser, at the edge of the traditional Tibetan region of Amdo, his family was of Monguor extraction. He was one of seven siblings to survive childhood; the eldest was eighteen years his senior. His eldest brother, Thupten Jigme Norbu, had been recognised at the age of eight as the reincarnation of the high Lama Taktser Rinpoche, his sister, Jetsun Pema, spent most of her adult life on the Tibetan Children's Villages project.
The Dalai Lama has said that his first language was "a broken Xining language, the Chinese language", a form of Central Plains Mandarin, his family did not speak the Tibetan language. Following reported signs and visions, three search teams were sent out to the north-east, the east, the south-east to locate the new incarnation when the boy, to become the 14th Dalai Lama was about two years old. Sir Basil Gould, British delegate to Lhasa in 1936, related his account of the north-eastern team to Sir Charles Alfred Bell, former British resident in Lhasa and friend of the 13th Dalai Lama. Amongst other omens, the head of the embalmed body of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, at first facing south-east, had turned to face the north-east, indicating, it was interpreted, the direction in which his successor would be found; the Regent, Reting Rinpoche, shortly afterwards had a vision at the sacred lake of Lhamo La-tso which he interpreted as Amdo being the region to search. This vision was interpreted to refer to a large monastery with a gilded roof and turquoise tiles, a twisting path from it to a hill to the east, opposite which stood a small house with distinctive eaves.
The team, led by Kewtsang Rinpoche, went first to meet the Panchen Lama, stuck in Jyekundo, in northern Kham. The Panchen Lama had been investigating births of unusual children in the area since the death of the 13th Dalai Lama, he gave Kewtsang the names of three boys whom he had identified as candidates. Within a year the Panchen Lama had died. Two of his three candidates were crossed off the list but the third, a "fearless" child, the most promising, was from Taktser village, which, as in the vision, was on a hill, at the end of a trail leading to Taktser from the great Kumbum Monastery with its gilded, turquoise roof. There they found a house. According to the 14th Dalai Lama, at the time the village of Taktser stood right on the "real border" between the region of Amdo and China; when the team visited, posing as pilgrims, its leader, a Sera Lama, pretended to be the servant and sat separately in the kitchen. He held an old rosary that had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama, the boy Lhamo Dhondup, aged two and asked for it.
The monk said "if you know who I am, you can have it." The child said "Sera Lama, Sera Lama" and spoke with him in a Lhasa accent, in a dialect the boy's mother could not understand. The next time the party returned to the house, they revealed their real purpose and asked permission to subject the boy to certain tests. One test consisted of showing him various pairs of objects, one of which had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama and one which had not. In every case, he rejected the others. Thus, it was the Panchen Lama who first identified the 14th Dalai Lama. From 1936 the Hui'Ma Clique' Muslim warlord Ma Bufang ruled Qinghai as its governor under the nominal authority of the Republic of China central government. According to an interview with the 14th Dalai Lama, in the 1930s, Ma Bufang had seized this north-east corner of Amdo in the name of Chiang Kai-shek's weak government and incorporated it into the Chinese province of Qinghai. Before going to Taktser, Kewtsang had gone to Ma Bufang to pay his respects.
When Ma Bufang heard a candidate had be
Sulak Sivaraksa is a visiting professor, the founder of the Thai NGO and director of the Thai NGO"Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation", named after two authorities on Thai culture and Nagapradeepa. He initiated a number of social, humanitarian and spiritual movements and organizations in Thailand, such as the College SEM. Sulak Sivaraksa is known in the West as one of the fathers of the International Network of Engaged Buddhists, established in 1989 with leading Buddhists, including the 14th Dalai Lama, the Vietnamese monk and peace-activist Thich Nhat Hanh, the Theravada Bhikkhu Maha Ghosananda, as its patrons; when Sulak Sivaraksa was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 1995, he became known to a wider public in Europe and the US. Sulak was chair of the Asian Cultural Forum on Development and has been a visiting professor at UC Berkeley, the University of Hawaii, Cornell; the grandson of a Chinese immigrant whose surname was Lim and born into an affluent Sino-Thai family, Sulak Sivaraksa was educated in Bangkok and at the University of Wales, where he is now an honorary fellow in Buddhism.
He passed the Bar in London in 1961. Upon his return home, he became the editor of Social Science Review magazine. Many considered it the leading Thai intellectual journal of its time. By 1968 the Social Science Review had become "the intellectual voice of the nation". In 1968, Sulak founded the Sathirakoses-Nagapradipa Foundation, which publishes "the intellectual successor" to Social Science Review and acts as an umbrella organization for a group of NGOs. Soon after his return to Thailand, he directed his energies towards the development of sustainable models for a changing economic and social environment; the military coup of 1976 forced him into exile for two years. At this time he toured Canada, the US, Europe to lecture academic audiences; because of the coup, Sulak's commitment to peace was strengthened. Since he has championed nonviolence in war torn and repressed countries like Sri Lanka, his devotion to peace and nonviolence is demonstrated by his leadership and membership in international peace organizations like Buddhist Peace Fellowship, Peace Brigade International, Gandhi Peace Foundation.
After he returned to Thailand, Sulak was prompted to establish the Thai Inter-religious Commission for Development, soon thereafter Sulak was appointed chairperson of the Asian Cultural Forum on Development and the editor of its newsletter, Asia Action. In 1982, Sulak established the Thai Development Support Committee as a way to coordinate other nongovernmental organizations to better tackle large problems that they could not tackle alone; the foreign contacts he made while in exile proved beneficial when Sivaraksa was arrested in 1984 for lèse majesté, causing international protests which pressured the government to release him. Sivaraksa was again charged with lèse majesté in September 1991 after a talk he gave at Thammasat University about the repression of democracy in Thailand. Sivaraksa fled the county and went into exile until he was able to convince the courts of his innocence in 1995, he was awarded the Swedish Right Livelihood Award in 1995, the UNPO Award in 1998, the Indian Millennium Gandhi Award in 2001.
He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the American Friends Service Committee in 1994. Sulak was a strong critic of deposed Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, he publicly accused Thaksin of adultery at rallies organized by the People's Alliance for Democracy. However, he has never cited any evidence for his claims. During a protest on 26 February 2006, Sulak called Thaksin a pitiful dog. Sulak's comments were condemned by Somsri Hananantasuk, former Chairperson of Amnesty International Thailand, who said that such words could provoke violence. In 2007, he spoke out against proposals to declare Buddhism Thailand's "national religion" in the new constitution, arguing that to do so would exacerbate the existing conflict in southern Thailand. Sulak Sivaraksa appears in the feature documentary film about the Dalai Lama entitled Dalai Lama Renaissance. Sulak Sivaraksa is an advocate for political change in Thailand, as well as globally. Sivaraksa has written several influential works that have both inspired people to work towards justice and provoked controversy from political leaders.
Nonetheless, Sulak Sivaraksa's speeches and other writings discuss political and economic corruption in Thai government, universal ethics, engaged Buddhism. Some of Sivaraksa's most influential works include his autobiography, Loyalty Demands Dissent, as well as Seeds of Peace: A Buddhist Vision for Renewing Society, Conflict, Change: Engaged Buddhism in a Globalizing World. Sulak Sivaraksa’s writings, as well the organizations he has created, express his desire for a moral and ethical world from a Buddhist perspective. Sivaraksa's religious faith is the foundation of all of his political and social beliefs, yet he uses his religious beliefs to create social change in a modernist fashion. Sulak was arrested on 6 November 2009 for lèse majesté, he was bailed out shortly thereafter. In 2014 Sulak was again charged with defamation of the monarchy after questioning the historicity of a 16th-century royal duel on elephantback, he was cleared of these charges in December 2017. Sulak Sivaraksa’s presents his view of Buddhism is his autobiography, Loyalty Demands Dissent.
Along with a first hand account of this life, he includes information about his views on the relationship between religion, and