A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and, grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet. Together with other beet cultivars, such as beetroot and chard, it belongs to the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, its closest wild relative is the sea beet. In 2013, France, the United States and Turkey were the world's five largest sugar beet producers. In 2010–2011, North America and Europe did not produce enough sugar from sugar beets to meet overall demand for sugar and were all net importers of sugar; the US harvested 1,004,600 acres of sugar beets in 2008. In 2009, sugar beets accounted for 20% of the world's sugar production; the sugar beet has a conical, fleshy root with a flat crown. The plant consists of a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesis in the leaves and is stored in the root; the root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, 5% pulp. The exact sugar content can vary between 12% and 21% sugar, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions.
Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, is used in animal feed; the byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest. Sugar beets grow in the temperate zone, in contrast to sugarcane, which grows in the tropical and subtropical zones; the average weight of sugar beet ranges between 1 kg. Sugar beet foliage grows to a height of about 35 cm; the leaves are numerous and broad and grow in a tuft from the crown of the beet, level with or just above the ground surface. Modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where the king of Prussia subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747, Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1.3–1.6%. He demonstrated that sugar could be extracted from beets, identical with sugar produced from sugarcane, his student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a local strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for conical tubers. The selection was named weiße schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, boasted about a 6% sugar content; this selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia in 1801; the Silesian sugar beet was soon introduced to France, where Napoleon opened schools for studying the plant. He ordered that 28,000 hectares be devoted to growing the new sugar beet; this was in response to British blockades of cane sugar during the Napoleonic Wars, which stimulated the rapid growth of a European sugar beet industry. By 1840, about 5% of the world's sugar was derived from sugar beets, by 1880, this number had risen more than tenfold to over 50%; the sugar beet was introduced to North America after 1830, with the first commercial production starting in 1879 at a farm in Alvarado, California.
The sugar beet was introduced to Chile by German settlers around 1850. "The beet-root, when being boiled, yields a juice similar to syrup of sugar, beautiful to look at on account of its vermilion color". This was written by 16th-century scientist, Olivier de Serres, who discovered a process for preparing sugar syrup from the common red beet. However, because crystallized cane sugar was available and provided a better taste, this process never caught on; this story characterizes the history of the sugar beet. The competition between beet sugar and sugarcane for control of the sugar market plays out from the first extraction of a sugar syrup from a garden beet into the modern day; the use of sugar beets for the extraction of crystallized sugar dates to 1747, when Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, professor of physics in the Academy of Science of Berlin, discovered the existence of a sugar in vegetables similar in its properties to that obtained from sugarcane. He found. Despite Marggraf’s success in isolating pure sugar from beets, their commercial manufacture for sugar did not take off until the early 19th century.
Marggraf's student and successor Franz Karl Achard began selectively breeding sugar beet from the'White Silesian' fodder beet in 1784. By the beginning of the 19th century, his beet was about 5–6% sucrose by weight, compared to around 20% in modern varieties. Under the patronage of Frederick William III of Prussia, he opened the world's first beet sugar factory in 1801, at Cunern in Silesia; the work of Achard soon attracted the attention of Napoleon Bonaparte, who appointed a commission of scientists to go to Silesia to investigate Achard's factory. Upon their return, two small factories were constructed near Paris. Although these factories were not altogether a success, the results attained interested Napoleon. Thus, when two events, the blockade of Europe by the British Navy and the Haitian Revolution, made the importation of cane sugar untenable, Napoleon seized the opportunity offered by beet sugar to address the shortage. In 1811, Napoleon issued a decree appropriating one million francs for the establishment of sugar schools, compelling the farmers to plant a large acreage to sugar be
Candi sugar is a Belgian sugar used in brewing in stronger, Belgian beers such as dubbel and tripel. Chemically, it is an unrefined sugar beet, an object to Maillard reaction and caramelization. A common misconception is to consider this is the same as invert sugar while actual candi sugar is a subject of multiple complicated chemical reactions happening during Maillard process. Used as a priming sugar, to aid in bottle-conditioning and carbonation, with the same benefits as listed above. Adjuncts Inverted sugar syrup
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Glucose syrup known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize is used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called "corn syrup", but glucose syrup is made from potatoes and wheat, less from barley and cassava.p. 21Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation, but syrups used in confectionery contain varying amounts of glucose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade, can contain 10% to 43% glucose. Glucose syrup is used in foods to soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose, a sweeter product, high fructose corn syrup can be produced, it was first made in 1811 in Russia. Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses; the syrups are broadly categorised according to their dextrose equivalent.
The further the hydrolysis process proceeds, the more reducing sugars are produced, the higher the DE. Depending on the process used, glucose syrups with different compositions, hence different technical properties, can have the same DE; the original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. The typical product had a DE of 42, but quality was variable due to the difficulty of controlling the reaction. Higher DE syrups made by acid hydrolysis tend to have a bitter taste and a dark colour, due to the production of hydroxymethylfurfural and other byproducts.p. 26 This type of product is now manufactured using a continuous process and is still used due to the low cost of acid hydrolysis. The sugar profile of a confectioner's syrup can be mimicked by enzyme hydrolysis. A typical confectioner's syrup contains 19% glucose, 14% maltose, 11% maltotriose and 56% higher molecular mass carbohydrates.p. 464 A typical 42 DE syrup has about half the sweetness of sugar,p. 71 and increasing DE leads to increased sweetness, with a 63 DE syrup being about 70%, pure dextrose about 80% as sweet as sugar.p.
71 By using β-amylase or fungal α-amylase, glucose syrups containing over 50% maltose, or over 70% maltose can be produced.p. 465 This is possible because these enzymes remove two glucose units at a time from the end of the starch molecule. High-maltose glucose syrup has a great advantage in the production of hard candy: at a given moisture level and temperature, a maltose solution has a lower viscosity than a glucose solution, but will still set to a hard product. Maltose is less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.p. 81 Irrespective of the feedstock or the method used for hydrolysis, certain steps are common to the production of glucose syrup: Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. This includes removing protein. Protein produces off-flavours and colours due to the Maillard reaction, fibre is insoluble and has to be removed to allow the starch to become hydrated.
The plant material needs to be ground as part of this process to expose the starch to the water. The starch needs to be swelled to allow the enzymes or acid to act upon it; when grain is used, sulfur dioxide is added to prevent spoilage. By heating the ground, cleaned feedstock, starch gelatinization takes place: the intermolecular bonds of the starch molecules are broken down, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites to engage more water; this irreversibly dissolves the starch granule, so the chains begin to separate into an amorphous form. This prepares the starch for hydrolysis. Glucose syrup can be produced by enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination of the two. However, a variety of options are available. Glucose syrup was only produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture under pressure. Glucose syrup is produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. Α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium Bacillus. The enzyme breaks the starch into oligosaccharides, which are broken into glucose molecules by adding the enzyme glucoamylase, known as "γ-amylase".
Glucoamylase is secreted by various species of the fungus Aspergillus. The glucose can be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column, loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme, isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria. After hydrolysis, the dilute syrup can be passed through columns to remove impurities, improving its colour and stability; the dilute glucose syrup is evaporated under vacuum to raise the solids concentration. Its major uses in commercially prepared food products are as a thickener and humectant. Glucose syrup is widely used in the manufacture of a variety of candy products. In the United States, domestically produced corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup are used in American-made processed and mass-produced foods, soft drinks and fruit drinks to increase profit margins. Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the
Birch syrup is a savory mineral tasting syrup made from the sap of birch trees, produced in much the same way as maple syrup. It is used for pancake or waffle syrup, more it is used as an ingredient paired with pork or salmon dishes in sauces and dressings, as a flavoring in ice cream, beer and soft drinks, it is condensed from the sap, which has about 0.5–2% percent sugar content, depending on the species of birch, location and season. The finished syrup is 66 % more to be classified as a syrup. Birch sap sugar is about 42–54% fructose and 45% glucose, with a small amount of sucrose and trace amounts of galactose; the flavor of birch syrup has a distinctive and mineral-rich caramel-like taste, not unlike molasses or balsamic condiment or some types of soy, with a hint of spiciness. Different types of birch will produce different flavour profiles. Many people remark that while Birch syrup has the same sugar content of maple it is far more savory than sweet. Making birch syrup is more difficult than making maple syrup, requiring about 100–150 liters of sap to produce one liter of syrup.
The tapping window for birch is shorter than for maple because birches live in more northerly climates. It happens in the year than maple tapping; the trees are tapped and their sap collected in the spring. The common belief is that while birches have a lower trunk and root pressure than maples, pipeline or tubing method of sap collection used in large maple sugaring operations is not as useful in birch sap collection; however Rocky Lake Birchworks in The Pas, Manitoba is using the tubing method along with a vacuum system for collection of birch sap. The sap is reduced in the same way as maple sap, using reverse osmosis machines and evaporators in commercial production. While maple sap may be boiled down without the use of reverse osmosis, birch syrup is difficult to produce this way: the sap is more temperature sensitive than is maple sap because fructose burns at a lower temperature than sucrose, the primary sugar in maple sap; this means that boiling birch sap to produce syrup can much more result in a scorched taste.
Most birch syrup is produced in Russia and Canada from Paper Birch or Alaska Birch sap. These trees are found in interior and south central Alaska; the Kenai birch, used, grows most abundantly on the Kenai Peninsula, but is found in the south central part of the state and hybridizes with humilis. The southeast Alaska variety is the Western paper birch, has a lower sugar content. One litre of syrup from these trees requires evaporation of 130–150 litres of sap. Total production of birch syrup in Alaska is 3,800 liters per year, with smaller quantities made in other U. S. states and Canada, Belarus and Scandinavia. Because of the higher sap-to-syrup ratio and difficulties in production, birch syrup is more expensive than maple syrup, up to five times the price. Birch beer List of syrups Xylitol, a sugar alcohol extracted from birch Petition to US Food and Drug Administration for establishment of Standard of Identity for birch syrup, including the Alaska Birch Syrupmakers' Association Best Practices.
July 18, 2005. Birch Boy Gourmet Syrups' educational articles on birch and other syrups Crooked Chimney Syrups research page research on sugar content of birch sap Birch: white gold in the boreal forest. 2004. Deirdre Helfferich. Agroborealis 35:2, pp. 4–12. CBC story on Rocky Lake Birchworks April 2018Listening"Alaska Sap Suckers" edibletoronto Article on Birch Syrup
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847; the name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Allen Miller. Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, odorless, crystalline solid, is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. Fructose is found in honey and vine fruits, flowers and most root vegetables. Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, maize. Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, ground, of high purity. High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of fructose as monosaccharides. Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, for browning of some foods, such as baked goods.
About 240,000 tonnes of crystalline fructose are produced annually. Excessive consumption of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance, elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the European Food Safety Authority stated that fructose is preferable over sucrose and glucose in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages because of its lower effect on postprandial blood sugar levels, noted that "high intakes of fructose may lead to metabolic complications such as dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, increased visceral adiposity". Further, the UK’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in 2015 disputed the claims of fructose causing metabolic disorders, stating that "there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that fructose intake leads to adverse health outcomes independent of any effects related to its presence as a component of total and free sugars." The word "fructose" was coined in 1857 from the Latin for fructus and the generic chemical suffix for sugars, -ose.
It is called fruit sugar and levulose. Fructose is a 6-carbon polyhydroxyketone. Crystalline fructose adopts a cyclic six-membered structure owing to the stability of its hemiketal and internal hydrogen-bonding; this form is formally called D-fructopyranose. In water solution, fructose exists as an equilibrium mixture of 70% fructopyranose and about 22% fructofuranose, as well as small amounts of three other forms, including the acyclic structure. Fructose may be anaerobically fermented by yeast or bacteria. Yeast enzymes convert sugar to carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide released during fermentation will remain dissolved in water, where it will reach equilibrium with carbonic acid, unless the fermentation chamber is left open to the air. The dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid produce the carbonation in bottled fermented beverages. Fructose undergoes non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids; because fructose exists to a greater extent in the open-chain form than does glucose, the initial stages of the Maillard reaction occur more than with glucose.
Therefore, fructose has potential to contribute to changes in food palatability, as well as other nutritional effects, such as excessive browning and tenderness reduction during cake preparation, formation of mutagenic compounds. Fructose dehydrates to give hydroxymethylfurfural; this process, in the future, may become part of a low-cost, carbon-neutral system to produce replacements for petrol and diesel from plants. The primary reason that fructose is used commercially in foods and beverages, besides its low cost, is its high relative sweetness, it is the sweetest of all occurring carbohydrates. The relative sweetness of fructose has been reported in the range of 1.2–1.8 times that of sucrose. However, it is the 6-membered ring form of fructose, sweeter. Warming fructose leads to formation of the 5-membered ring form. Therefore, the relative sweetness decreases with increasing temperature; however it has been observed that the absolute sweetness of fructose is identical at 5 °C as 50 °C and thus the relative sweetness to sucrose is not due to anomeric distribution but a decrease in the absolute sweetness of sucrose at lower temperatures.
The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or glucose, the taste sensation reaches a peak and diminishes more than that of sucrose. Fructose can enhance other flavors in the system. Fructose exhibits a sweetness synergy effect; the relative sweetness of fructose blended with sucrose, aspartame, or saccharin is perceived to be greater than the sweetness calculated from individual components. Fructose has higher water solubility than other sugars, as well as other sugar alcohols. Fructose is, difficult to crystallize from an aqueous solution. Sugar mixes containing fructose, such as candies, are softer than those containing other sugars because of the greater solubility of fructose. Fructose is quicker to absorb moisture and slower to release it to the environment than sucrose, glucose, or other nutritive sweeteners. Fructose is an excellent humectant and retains moisture for a long period of time at low relative humidity. Therefore, fructose can contribute a more palatable texture, longer shelf life to the food products in which it is used.
Fructose has a greater effect on freezing point depression than disaccharides or oligosaccharides, which may prot
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced