Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
The Olsen Gang is a fictional Danish criminal gang in the eponymous comedy film series. The gangs leader is the genius and habitual offender Egon Olsen and his accomplices are Benny. The gang members are harmless, extremely rarely target ordinary citizens, a Norwegian version of the film series was made, in most cases based directly on the scripts for the Danish films. Later, starting in 1981, Sweden produced their own version, most of the films start with Egon coming out of jail and being enthusiastically welcomed by Benny and Kjeld. Plans are often two-step plans, where the first heist will get the equipment for the real, bennys main function in the heists, besides get-away-driver, is often as keeper of The Thing, a metal bottle opener used for manipulating most any machinery. Egon often serves time with lawyers or executives who provide him with the information he needs, Egon is a brilliant safecracker, operating manually, specializing in the fictive Franz Jäger brand. Egons plans often bring the gang into perilously close contact with white-collar criminals from the Danish business elite.
For example, in one episode some well-connected people try to make out of the so-called butter mountain. Egon Olsen learns about this from a lawyer who is serving time. But as always, Egon – after having succeeded with a genius plan – loses because he underestimates the power, for several movies the role of antagonist was filled by CEO Hallandsen of Hallandsen Inc. Egon is usually arrested in the end, for reasons, bad luck, some completely irrelevant crime. A recurring part of the films is making fun of danish authorities, superintendent Jensen to his younger colleague, inspector Holm, The only thing the police can do when the real big criminals come by is offer them protection. Jensen incredously uses the recurring exclamation Bagmændene. to reference the in-joke of powerful players moving outside of the law, in the early episodes and soft-erotica were more freely used than in ones, where said content was somewhat watered down to suit younger viewers. Later movies focused on the interplay between Jensen and Holm and Egon and Kjeld, with a frequent outburst of anger from either Olsen or superintendent Jensen.
Especially Olsens long list of slurs are famous, like social democrats, sop. scumbag. to name a few. The films differ a bit each other, but they follow a generally similar formula to the Danish films. The original, Danish films were popular in the former GDR, the film series has another character, Dynamite Harry, as the little brother of Benny Frandsen, which is featured on the Norwegian rendition of the episodes – is the demolition expert. Harry made an appearance in six Norwegian films, played by Harald Heide-Steen Jr and he appeared in two early Danish Olsen Gang films, played by Preben Kaas
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
Enghave Plads is a central public square of the Vesterbro district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located where Istedgade reaches Enghavevej, which separates the square from Enghave Park, Enghave Plads School opened on the square in 1892. Completed in 1900, Christ Church was the church to be built in the rapidly growing Vesterbro neighbourhood. A fountain, Boy with fiasco, designed by Jens Lund, was installed in the centre of the square in 1903, for many years, the square played host to an annual fun fair. The tram line was extended to Frederiksholm in 1915 and again from Frederiksholm to Mozarts Plads in 1937, the area on the other side of Enghavevej remained open land. The Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments at the, the square was renovated and pedestrianized in 1995. The 114-year-old chestnut tree, which for decades had dominated the square, was removed in October 2011 to make way for the construction of Enghave Station, after a merger with Mathæusgade School in 2008, Enghave Plads School is now part of Tove Ditlevsens School.
Both buildings were designed by city architect Ludvig Fenger, Christ Church was designed by Valdemar Koch in an Italian style. He designed the two buildings that flank it on both sides. The buildings on the side of the square are from 1898 and were designed by Christian Mandrup-Poulsen. Jens Christian Kofoed contributed to the buildings around the square, a cluster of low buildings that were formerly used by the tram workers have been converted into a kindergarten
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to pragmatic and cost-effective reasons, an alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks. The historical use of island platforms depends greatly upon the location, the island platform layout is a popular, cost-effective and practical solution in modern railway systems. Island platforms allow facilities such as escalators, shops and this is essential for wheelchair accessible stations. An island platform makes it easier for users and the infirm to change services between tracks. Additionally, an island platform layout eliminates the need to construct a crossover or subway between two platforms, island platforms may become overcrowded, especially at busy stations, and this can lead to safety issues such as Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground.
However, for the tracks to diverge around the platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are normally 3 to 5 meters, if the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks have to slew out by the same distance. While this is not a problem on a new line that is being constructed, in addition, a single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are usually between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, high-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms. This arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where trains can be passed by faster trains. The purpose of this design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form and this was because the line was planned to connect to a Channel Tunnel.
Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. Almost all railway stations in India consist of island platforms, in Toronto,29 subway stations use island platforms. A slight disadvantage is that crossovers have to be rather long, in southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 stations, to facilitate one-person train operation. Most elevated stations in Singapores Mass Rapid Transit system use island platforms, the exception is Dover MRT Station, which uses side platforms as it is built on an existing rail line. The planned Canberra MRT Station will use side platforms, as it be built on an existing rail line
Ghost stations is the usual English translation for the German word Geisterbahnhöfe. This term was used to describe certain stations on Berlins U-Bahn and S-Bahn metro networks that were closed during the period of Berlins division during the Cold War. Since then, the term has come to be used to any disused underground station actively passed through by passenger trains. In August 1961 the East German government built the Berlin Wall, as a result, the Berlin public transit network, which had formerly spanned both halves of the city, was divided into two. Some U- and S-Bahn lines fell entirely into one half of the city or the other, other lines were divided between the two jurisdictions, with trains running only to the border and turning back. The name Geisterbahnhof was soon applied to these dimly lit, heavily guarded stations by travelers from West Berlin. However, the term was never official, West Berlin subway maps of the period simply labelled these stations Bahnhöfe, East Berlin subway maps neither depicted the West Berlin lines nor the ghost stations.
The situation was less than ideal. If a train on a West Berlin line broke down in East Berlin territory, passengers had to wait for Eastern border police to appear and escort them out. The East German government occasionally hinted that it might block access to the tunnels at the border. However, this status quo persisted for the entire 28-year period of the division of Berlin. An alarm was triggered if anyone breached one of the barriers, as for the entrances, the signage was removed, walkways were walled up and stairways were sealed with concrete slabs. Police stations were built into the windowed platform service booths, from which the platform area could be monitored. A wide white line on the wall marked the location of the border. Later, gates were installed at stations that could be rolled into place at night while the guards were off-duty. Guard posts at other stations were staffed continuously, creating additional employment positions with the transport police, in the platform area, the guards always worked in pairs, and care was taken in their assignment to assure that there would be no personal ties between them.
In addition, superior officers could conduct surprise inspections at any time, other stations were secured by the border guards. Friedrichstraße station, though served by Western lines and located in East Berlin territory, was not a Geisterbahnhof, instead, it served as a transfer point between U6 and several S-Bahn lines
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands
Vesterbros Torv is a public square located at the corner of Vesterbrogade and Gasværksvej in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is dominated by Elijahs Church, the square was established in 1850. Its triangular shape of the space was determined by a series of walks which used to be located at the site. The two buildings which flank Elijahs Church date from the establishment of the square, the church was completed as an infill in 1907. It is designed by Martin Nyrop, the theatre was inaugurated in 1908 and is built to a design which mixes Art Nouveaux with other styles. The Hercules Fountain dates from 1915 and was a gift from the society Hovedstadens forskønnelse and it was designed by the sculptor Rasmus Harboe who had previously created the reliefs on the facade of Elijahs Church. 55A commemorates the World War II resistance fighter Erik Koch Michelsen and he was shot at the site on 3 March 1945. In 1901 city architect Ludvig Fenger fitted the square with underground lavatories, similar facilities were constructed at the City Hall Square and Nyhavn