Roller hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using wheeled skates. Most professional-inline hockey games take place on an indoor or outdoor sport court, any dry surface can be used to host a game, typically a roller rink, macadam, or cement. The term Roller Hockey is often used interchangeably to refer to two variant forms chiefly differentiated by the type of skates and sticks used, there is traditional Roller hockey, played with quad skates, and Inline hockey, played with inline skates. Combined, roller hockey is played in nearly 60 countries worldwide, a minor variant of roller hockey is called skater hockey, played on both quad and inline skates. Roller Hockey is played on both Quad skates and Inline skates, have different rules and equipment, and involve different types of skating but share the category, the stick is more or less the same as in bandy and shinty. Roller Hockey bears close resemblance to ice hockey and is played on Inline skates, uses an ice hockey stick and includes a lot of fast racing back and forth action.
Inline hockey goalies use a glove called a catcher to catch shots made on goal, the Quad hockey goalie uses a flat batting glove that provides rebound characteristics when blocking a shot on goal. Quad hockey is a variation of roller hockey, Roller Hockey is the overarching name for a rollersport that has existed long before inline skates were re-invented in the 70s. Roller Hockey has been played on quad skates, in sixty countries worldwide, Roller hockey was a demonstration rollersport in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Inline hockey is a variation of roller hockey very similar to ice hockey, like ice hockey, Inline hockey is a contact sport therefore body checking isnt penalized. It is similar to ice hockey in that teamwork, excepting the use of inline roller skates in lieu of ice skates, the equipment of inline roller hockey is similar to that of ice hockey. The game is played by two teams, consisting of four skaters and one goalie, on a dry rink divided into two halves by a line, with one net at each end of the rink.
When played more informally, the game takes place on a smooth asphalt surface outdoors. The game is played in three 15-minute periods or if it is higher standard its played 20-minutes in each of the three periods. The game rules differ from ice hockey in a few ways, there is no icing. Generally speaking, only competitive level Inline hockey is strictly bound by the governing bodys rules, recreational hockey leagues may make modifications to certain aspects of the rules to suit local requirements. Roller hockey is a sport in Britain with teams cropping up all over the country. The fact that it can be played on any dry surface means that you can play it in almost any leisure center, most competitive youth hockey teams play in tournaments
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
Amaliehaven is a small park located between Amalienborg Palace and the waterfront in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark. A relatively new park, it was established in 1983 as a gift from the A. P. Møller, the park is now part of the so-called Frederiksgade axis, the shorter but more distinctive of the two axes on which Frederiksstaden is centred. Amaliehaven is located on a site where there used to be an established in 1802 by a wealthy ship-owner named Lars Larsen. The shipyard and its large lumberyard were situated right beside Amalienborg Palace, in 1898 the Thingvalla Line was acquired by DFDS, another Danish based shipping company, and the Scandinavian-American passenger service was operated under the name Scandinavian America Line. The park is the result of a donation from the A. P. Møller, construction started in 1981 and it was inaugurated in 1983. The garden was designed by the Belgian landscape architect Jean Delogne, amaliehaven is a rectangular park built to a stringent, symmetrical design centred on a large fountain to respect and accentuate the Frederiksgade axis which unifies the entire area.
On both sides of the fountain, the gardens continue on two levels, with shrubs and walls enclosing it from the waterfront on one side and the street on the other. The garden abounds with different varieties of plants and fragrant flowers whose colours, japanese cherry trees, blooming in April, plays a particularly distinctive role among the parks vegetation. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, the cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass. These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house in the suburbs of Paris.
Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century. This break with the past was particularly urged by the architectural theorist, for each function its material, for each material its form and its ornament. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, at the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France, it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously used for industrial structures.
Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectators view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style, in his book Moderne Arkchtekture he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on modern life. Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior, the reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, an open space of steel, glass. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings and his Steiner House, in Vienna, was an example of what he called rationalist architecture, it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. The fame of the new movement, which known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture and this residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a tower
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Copenhagen is a green city well endowed with open spaces. It has an extensive and well-distributed system of parks that act as venues for an array of events. As a supplement to the parks, there are a number of congenial public gardens. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. Kings Garden, the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen and its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV in 1606. Every year it more than 2.5 million visitors. It serves as a garden with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits during summer. Just north of Kings Garden a series of make up a green strand running right through the centre of the city. Fælledparken in the part of the city is, at 58 hectares. Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Gardens, which is a 32-hectare romantic landscape park and it houses a large colony of very tame grey herons along with other waterfowl.
The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house, designed by the world-famous British architect Norman Foster, some of Copenhagens newer parks draw from their position by the water. Amager Beach Park was founded in 1934, but in 2005 a 2. 4-kilometre-long artificial island was added, separated from the beach by a lagoon crossed by three bridges. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. In line with policy, several new parks are under development in areas poor in green spaces. One of those recently completed is Superkilen, a park for the ethnic inhabitants of the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen. Besides the regular parks, a number of open to the general public serve as important green spaces in central Copenhagen. Now open to the public during daytime, characteristic of Copenhagen is that a number of cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing and meditation.
Assistens Cemetery, the place of Hans Christian Andersen among others, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro
University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden
The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden, usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 10 hectares and is noted for its extensive complex of historical glasshouses dating from 1874. The garden is part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark and it serves both research and recreational purposes. The botanical garden was first established in 1600 but it was moved twice before it was given its current location in 1870. It was probably founded to secure a collection of Danish medicinal plants after the Reformation had seen many convents, the first garden, known as Hortus Medicus, was created on 2 August 1600 by royal charter on a piece of land donated by the king, Christian IV. It was located in Skidenstræde and a residence for one of the professors of the university was built at the site. It rested upon the professor in residence to maintain the garden, the smaller western section, covering just under half a hectare, was equipped with a greenhouse while the eastern section remained largely unplanted.
The garden was opened to the public in 1763, in 1770 part of Oeders Garden was put at the disposal of the Universitys botanical garden. The preceding year Christian VII had donated 2,500 thaler to the University and this had created the economical foundation for an enlargement but since there was no space for it at its original address, the off-site solution was ultimately opted for. Oeder became the Botanical Gardens first director, oeder was fired in 1771 in connection with the Johann Friedrich Struensee affair. Plans for this garden received royal approval on 22 July 1778 and it was to have two directors, one appointed by the University and the other by the King. The first University appointment to this post was Christian Friis Rottbøll, who had managed the garden since Oeders retirement. At the same event, a professor was employed at the garden. The first to hold this chair was Martin Vahl, who played a part in moving the plants from Oeders Garden to Charlottenborg Garden. In 1817, the model with a double directorship was abandoned when Jens Wilken Hornemann was made the director of the garden.
At this stage the garden encompassed approximately 1.6 hectares in a low, waterlogged area that was bounded by Charlottenborg, the Mint and Bremerholm. A main building was erected along the Nyhavn cabal, housing both a museum, a library and residences for the director and a botanical gardener. There were facilities for the storage of sensitive plants during winter, the gardens first greenhouse, Guiones Koldhus, was erected in 1784
Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The park plays host to art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, the garden contained a pavilion, statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples, pears, in the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a garden maze, a feature of the Baroque garden. It had a system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. The 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade, Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides. The two main entrance are the Kings Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, and the Queens Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade, there are four other entrances to the park.
The tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Kriegers Baroque garden, special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was originally a pavilion, in 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann, in 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen. The Commandants House is located just left of the entrance to Rosenborg Castle. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling, today the building plays host to special exhibitions. The building is used as an exhibition space. It was built in 1688 and extended with a story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park, the Gartners House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen.
It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Orpheus and Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy, along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side
Christianshavns Vold is a former rampart which was part of the bastioned fortification ring which used to surround Copenhagen, Denmark. Running along the full perimeter of Christianshavn and Holmen, it used to form a protective barrier towards the island of Amager. It consists of earthworks with 12 bastions and in front of it ran a moat, Stadsgraven, on the other side of Stadsgraven. On Amager, was a system of outworks called Christianshavns Enveloppe of which only the northern half survives. Along with Kastellet on the side of the harbour, it is the only intact part of the fortification system. Today Christianshavns Vold serves as an important greenspace for Christianshavns inhabitants, the southern half of the rampart is a municipal park whereas the northern portion is part of Freetown Christiania, a self-built, semi-autonomous community which has existed since the early 1970s. Part of Christiania is located on the far side of Stadsgraven, the town was laid out with low earthworks facing Amager.
The rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a city gate, known as Amagerport, through which all traffic to, in the 1670s, when Vestervold was extended to reach the sea, Christiansvold was moved and extended to match the new course of Vestervold. Only the two northernmost bastions, today known as Løvens Bastion and Elefantens Bastion, remained on their original location, the new Christianshavns Vold had 5 very large bastions. Around the entire complex was a moat with a protecting counterscarp, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was again extended this time in northwards, to guard the entrance to the harbour and protect the new base for the Royal Fleet at what was to become known as Nyholm. The extension included 7 new bastions, named for members of the Royal family, the last extension of Christianshavns Vold was constructed as late as 1878-82, when a rampart was constructed along the eastside of the newly reclaimed Refshaleø. Kalvebod Bastion takes its name after Kalveboderne, the waters which were located to the south of Copenhagen in what is now its Southern Docklands.
Magasinbygningen, the larger of the two, is a two-storey, L-shaped storage building from 1800, the other one is a small forge from 1757. Both are today owned by Karberghus, a privately owned property which mainly invests in historic properties, the bastion contains a gunpowder magazine from c.1675 which was formerly used as a storage space by Copenhagen Municipalitys park authority. It now serves as club house for Qajaq København, a kayak cluv, the bastion has for centuries housed various industrial enterprises. A large defunct chimney is left at the site, panterens Bastion contains a former military training facility for shooting with hand guns. The buildings, a complex of red brick buildings, has now converted into apartments. Am unnamed footbridge connects the bastion to Amager Boulevard on the side of Stadsgraven