Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei or of combining atomic nuclei, or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it includes the design and maintenance of systems and components like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, or nuclear weapons; the field includes the study of medical and other applications of radiation Ionizing radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel, or other related technology and the problems of nuclear proliferation. The United States generates about 18% of its electricity from nuclear power plants. Nuclear engineers in this field work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for national laboratories. Current research in the industry is directed at producing economical and proliferation-resistant reactor designs with passive safety features; some government labs provide research in the same areas as private industry and in other areas such as nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, nuclear weapon design and maintenance.
A principal pipeline/source of trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the US Navy Nuclear Power Program, including its Nuclear Power School in South Carolina. Employment in nuclear engineering is predicted to grow about nine percent to year 2022 as needed to replace retiring nuclear engineers, provide maintenance and updating of safety systems in power plants, to advance the applications of nuclear medicine. Medical physics is an important field of nuclear medicine. Specialized and intricately operating equipment, including x-ray machines, MRI and PET scanners and many other devices provide most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability—along with disclosing subtle treatment options. Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of nuclear materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, including studying structural changes to reactor components and studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators.
Radiation measurement is fundamental to the science and practice of radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of uncontrolled radiation. Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in developing more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, using these advances to improve imaging technologies. American Nuclear Society Nuclear Institute International Atomic Energy Agency Gowing, Margaret. Britain and Atomic Energy, 1939–1945. Gowing and Lorna Arnold. Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, Vol. I: Policy Making, 1945–52. "Creating a Canadian Profession: The Nuclear Engineer, 1940–68," Canadian Journal of History, Winter 2009, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp 435–466 Johnston, Sean F. "Implanting a discipline: the academic trajectory of nuclear engineering in the USA and UK," Minerva, 47, pp. 51–73 Ash, Milton, "Nuclear reactor kinetics", McGraw-Hill, Nuclear Safety Info Resources Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation Open-Access Journal Nuclear Engineering International magazine Nuclear Science and Engineering technical journal Electric Generation from Commercial Nuclear Power Hacettepe University Department of Nuclear Engineering
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering and management. Cranfield was founded as the College of Aeronautics in 1946. Through the 1950s and 1960s, the development of many aspects of aircraft research and design led to considerable growth and diversification into other areas such as manufacturing and management. In 1967, the Cranfield School of Management was founded. In 1969, the College of Aeronautics became The Cranfield Institute of Technology incorporated by Royal Charter and gained degree awarding powers and became a university in its own right. In 1993, it adopted its current name. Cranfield University has two campuses: the main campus is at Cranfield and the second is at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom at Shrivenham, southwest Oxfordshire; the main campus is unique in the United Kingdom and Europe for having a semi-operational airport on campus. Cranfield University operates the airport; the airport facilities are used by Cranfield University's own aircraft in the course of aerospace teaching and research.
Cranfield University's motto,'post nubes lux', means'after clouds light'. It is depicted on the Cranfield University coat of arms, introduced when the University was awarded its Royal Charter. Cranfield University was formed in 1946 as the College of Aeronautics, on the Royal Air Force base of RAF Cranfield. A major role was played in the development of the college by Roxbee Cox Lord Kings Norton, appointed to be the first governor of the college in 1945 and served as vice-chair and chair of the board, he led the drive for the college to diversify, with the Cranfield University School of Management being established in 1967, petitioned for a royal charter and degree awarding powers. When these were granted in 1969, he became the first chancellor of the Cranfield Institute of Technology, serving until 1997; the Cranfield Institute of Technology was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1969, giving the institution its own degree-awarding powers and making it a full university in its own right. In 1975 the National College of Agricultural Engineering, founded in 1963 at Silsoe, was merged with Cranfield and run as Silsoe College.
An academic partnership with the Royal Military College of Science at Shrivenham was formed in 1984. RMCS, whose roots can be traced back to 1772, is now a part of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom and now forms the Defence College of Management and Technology, known as'DCMT' and from 2009 as "Cranfield Defence and Security". RMCS became wholly postgraduate in c.2007 with undergraduate courses moved elsewhere. In 1993 the institution's Royal Charter was amended changing its name to Cranfield University. A decade in 2003, Cranfield became wholly postgraduate and the Shrivenham site admitted its last undergraduates. In 2009 Silsoe College was closed and its activities were relocated to the main campus at Cranfield. Cranfield campus is 50 miles north of central London and adjacent to the village of Cranfield, Bedfordshire; the nearest large towns are Milton Keynes and Bedford, the centres of which are both about 8 miles away. Cambridge is about 30 miles east. Shrivenham is about 73 miles west of London, adjacent to Shrivenham village, 7 miles from the centre of the nearest town and around 23 miles from Oxford.
The Cranfield campus sits within the Cambridge – Milton Keynes – Oxford corridor where there are plans to link these cities and stimulate economic growth. There are plans for a tram system between Milton Keynes and Cranfield University, although this is still at an early planning stage. There are a number of companies located on the Cranfield University Technology Park ranging from large international companies to small start-ups. Major companies on the park include: The Nissan Technical Centre Europe, which designs and develops cars for the European market; the NTC Europe facility occupies 19,700 square metres of the Technology Park, representing an investment of £46m by Nissan. Innovation Centre: the Technology Park is the location for a large number of smaller companies. Prior to 2016: Trafficmaster plc occupied a 10-acre site for its European Headquarters. A leading company in telematics, Trafficmaster's advanced technology enables cars and roads to be used more efficiently; the academic schools are: School of Aerospace and Manufacturing, known as SATM, incorporating the original College of Aeronautics, has a wide range of experimental research facilities for masters and doctoral students and commercial clients.
1969–1997: Harold Roxbee Cox, Lord Kings Norton 1998–2010: Richard Vincent, Lord Vincent of Coleshill 2010–present: Baroness Young of Old Scone 1970–1989: Henry Chilver, Lord Chilver 1989–2006: Frank Robinson Hartley 2006–2013: Sir John O'Reilly 2013–present: Sir Peter Gregson Cranfield University’s specialist areas of focus, or Cranfield themes, aims to bring a range of academic disciplines together in order to tackle the grand challenges facing the world within a range of industrial and commercial sectors. These are Water, Agrifood and Power, Manufacturing, Transport Systems and Security and Business/Management. Within Cranfield University’s postgraduate environment, the academic disciplines work together, blending as they do in the commercial
Bournemouth University is a public university in Bournemouth, England, with its main campus situated in neighbouring Poole. The university was founded in 1992 as one of the new universities, however the origins of its predecessor date back to the early 1900s; the university has over 16,000 students, including over 3,000 international students. The university is recognised for its work in the media industries. Graduates from the university have worked on a number of Hollywood films, including "Gravity", awarded the Achievement in Visual Effects Oscar at the 86th Academy Awards in 2015. In 2017 Bournemouth University received silver rating in the Teaching Excellence Framework, a government assessment of the quality of undergraduate teaching in universities and other higher education providers in England; the university was first founded in the early 20th century as the predecessor Bournemouth Municipal College. The college offered courses to prepare students for University of London degrees. In the mid 1960s there were evening students.
As early as 1965, in the House of Commons, the number of students at the college was highlighted, the Secretary of State was asked to consider a university application. At the time the Government did not intend to create any new universities until the late 1970s. In the 1970s the college became the Bournemouth College of Technology; that decade, following a review by the Dorset Education Committee, the College of Technology changed to become Dorset Institute of Higher Education. Bernard MacManus was appointed Director in 1983 and presided over a significant expansion in curriculum and student numbers, against a backdrop of initial uncertainty over the Weymouth Campus. During this time the Talbot Campus was consolidated having been established in 1976; the neighbouring Student Village was constructed. A second campus was established at Lansdowne; the period between 1983 and 1994 saw the Institute expand into new disciplines including heritage, tax, public relations, computer animation and information systems.
Two foundation stones remain within university buildings. The foundation stone for the College of Technology resides in the main lobby of Poole House, Talbot Campus; the foundation stone for the Dorset Institute is mounted in Dorset House near what is now called The Edge. Bernard MacManus was honoured by Bournemouth University with an honorary doctorate in 2007; the expansion under Dr MacManus allowed the institute to make a strong case to become a polytechnic, gained in 1990. In 1992 all polytechnics were awarded university status and the institute was renamed to become Bournemouth University. By September 1994, over 9,000 students had been recruited nationally, internationally, to undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. By 1996 the university had 11 endowed professorial posts, including: Royal Mail Chair in Business Performance Improvement Intel Chair in Computer Supported Cooperation British Property Federation Chair in Archaeology and Development IBM Chair in Concurrent Engineering Intergraph Chair in Electronic Design Automation GPT Chair in Software Engineering Steele Raymond Chair in Business Law Hewlett Packard Chair in Computer Animation Sutcliffe Chair in Catering Management Marks & Spencer Chair in Retail ManagementIn recent years the university has announced a significant investment programme, by 2018 it plans to invest £200 million in new buildings and facilities including a new Student Centre, which opened in March 2015.
1992 - Caroline Cox, Baroness Cox First Chancellor of university 2001 - John Taylor, Baron Taylor of Warwick 2006 - Dione Digby, Lady Digby 2009 - Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, former President of the Supreme Court and Senior Law Lord 2019 - Kate Adie CBE, DL 1983 - Bernard MacManus, as Director of the Dorset Institute 1990 - Bernard MacManus, as first Vice Chancellor 1994 - Gillian Slater 2005 - Sir Paul Curran, now Vice Chancellor of City University London 2010–present - John Vinney The university coat of arms was granted in 1992 by the official heraldic authority for England, the College of Arms. The Talbots, the heraldic beasts on the shield, represent the location of the main campus; the crowns denote the three Saxon crowns of the Kingdom of Wessex, the nearby boroughs. The blue represents the nearby sea, reflecting the location of the university, on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset; the red dragon in the Coat of Arms represents Dorset, the scroll represents learning. The Latin motto Discere Mutari Est means To Learn is to Change.
Bournemouth University has two campuses: Lansdowne Campus. The Talbot Campus is situated at Fern Barrow on the Poole side of the boundary with Bournemouth, it is where the main University buildings are located, including the students' union and the main library. The campus contains cafes and refectories, Dylan's and The ground up bars, a doctors' surgery, shop and a branch of Santander; the Lansdowne Campus is just outside Bournemouth's town centre, housing six teaching and administrative buildings, the students' union nightclub and various halls of residence located around Christchurch Road, Oxford Road and Holdenhurst Road. A new Bournemouth University International College is being built at the campus. Unlike Talbot, Lansdowne is not a self-contained campus. Bournemouth University is divided into the following faculties: The Faculty of Science and Technology - home to the Festival of Design & Innovation The Faculty of Media and Communication – home to the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management, the Centre for Excellence in Media Practice, the National Centre for Compu
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I