Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei or of combining atomic nuclei, or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it includes the design and maintenance of systems and components like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, or nuclear weapons; the field includes the study of medical and other applications of radiation Ionizing radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel, or other related technology and the problems of nuclear proliferation. The United States generates about 18% of its electricity from nuclear power plants. Nuclear engineers in this field work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for national laboratories. Current research in the industry is directed at producing economical and proliferation-resistant reactor designs with passive safety features; some government labs provide research in the same areas as private industry and in other areas such as nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, nuclear weapon design and maintenance.
A principal pipeline/source of trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the US Navy Nuclear Power Program, including its Nuclear Power School in South Carolina. Employment in nuclear engineering is predicted to grow about nine percent to year 2022 as needed to replace retiring nuclear engineers, provide maintenance and updating of safety systems in power plants, to advance the applications of nuclear medicine. Medical physics is an important field of nuclear medicine. Specialized and intricately operating equipment, including x-ray machines, MRI and PET scanners and many other devices provide most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability—along with disclosing subtle treatment options. Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of nuclear materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, including studying structural changes to reactor components and studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators.
Radiation measurement is fundamental to the science and practice of radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of uncontrolled radiation. Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in developing more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, using these advances to improve imaging technologies. American Nuclear Society Nuclear Institute International Atomic Energy Agency Gowing, Margaret. Britain and Atomic Energy, 1939–1945. Gowing and Lorna Arnold. Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, Vol. I: Policy Making, 1945–52. "Creating a Canadian Profession: The Nuclear Engineer, 1940–68," Canadian Journal of History, Winter 2009, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp 435–466 Johnston, Sean F. "Implanting a discipline: the academic trajectory of nuclear engineering in the USA and UK," Minerva, 47, pp. 51–73 Ash, Milton, "Nuclear reactor kinetics", McGraw-Hill, Nuclear Safety Info Resources Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation Open-Access Journal Nuclear Engineering International magazine Nuclear Science and Engineering technical journal Electric Generation from Commercial Nuclear Power Hacettepe University Department of Nuclear Engineering
Computing is any activity that uses computers. It includes developing hardware and software, using computers to manage and process information and entertain. Computing is a critically important, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, information technology; the ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows: "In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; the list is endless, the possibilities are vast." and it defines five sub-disciplines of the computing field: computer science, computer engineering, information systems, information technology, software engineering. However, Computing Curricula 2005 recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context: Computing has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used.
For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult; because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, design, efficiency and application; the fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be automated?" The term "computing" is synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, before that, to human computers; the history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization; these concepts include one-to-one correspondence, comparison to a standard, the 3-4-5 right triangle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC, its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today; this was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program.
The program has an executable form. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm; because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type. The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express, they trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware. In contrast to hardware, software is intangible. Software is sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Application software known as an "application" or an "app", is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be published separately; some users need never install one. Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
Atomic force microscopy
Atomic force microscopy or scanning force microscopy is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. AFM is a type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit; the information is gathered by "feeling" or "touching" the surface with a mechanical probe. Piezoelectric elements that facilitate tiny but accurate and precise movements on command enable precise scanning; the AFM has three major abilities: force measurement and manipulation. In force measurement, AFMs can be used to measure the forces between the probe and the sample as a function of their mutual separation; this can be applied to perform force spectroscopy, to measure the mechanical properties of the sample, such as the sample's Young's modulus, a measure of stiffness.
For imaging, the reaction of the probe to the forces that the sample imposes on it can be used to form an image of the three-dimensional shape of a sample surface at a high resolution. This is achieved by raster scanning the position of the sample with respect to the tip and recording the height of the probe that corresponds to a constant probe-sample interaction; the surface topography is displayed as a pseudocolor plot. In manipulation, the forces between tip and sample can be used to change the properties of the sample in a controlled way. Examples of this include atomic manipulation, scanning probe lithography and local stimulation of cells. Simultaneous with the acquisition of topographical images, other properties of the sample can be measured locally and displayed as an image with high resolution. Examples of such properties are mechanical properties like stiffness or adhesion strength and electrical properties such as conductivity or surface potential. In fact, the majority of SPM techniques are extensions of AFM.
The major difference between atomic force microscopy and competing technologies such as optical microscopy and electron microscopy is that AFM does not use lenses or beam irradiation. Therefore, it does not suffer from a limitation in spatial resolution due to diffraction and aberration, preparing a space for guiding the beam and staining the sample are not necessary. There are several types of scanning microscopy including scanning probe microscopy. Although SNOM and STED use visible, infrared or terahertz light to illuminate the sample, their resolution is not constrained by the diffraction limit. Fig. 3 shows an AFM, which consists of the following features. Numbers in parentheses correspond to numbered features in Fig. 3. Coordinate directions are defined by the coordinate system; the small spring-like cantilever is carried by the support. Optionally, a piezoelectric element oscillates the cantilever; the sharp tip is fixed to the free end of the cantilever. The detector records the motion of the cantilever.
The sample is mounted on the sample stage. An xyz drive permits to displace the sample and the sample stage in x, y, z directions with respect to the tip apex. Although Fig. 3 shows the drive attached to the sample, the drive can be attached to the tip, or independent drives can be attached to both, since it is the relative displacement of the sample and tip that needs to be controlled. Controllers and plotter are not shown in Fig. 3. According to the configuration described above, the interaction between tip and sample, which can be an atomic scale phenomenon, is transduced into changes of the motion of cantilever, a macro scale phenomenon. Several different aspects of the cantilever motion can be used to quantify the interaction between the tip and sample, most the value of the deflection, the amplitude of an imposed oscillation of the cantilever, or the shift in resonance frequency of the cantilever; the detector of AFM measures the deflection of the cantilever and converts it into an electrical signal.
The intensity of this signal will be proportional to the displacement of the cantilever. Various methods of detection can be used, e.g. interferometry, optical levers, the piezoresistive method, the piezoelectric method, STM-based detectors. Note: The following paragraphs assume that'contact mode' is used. For other imaging modes, the process is similar, except that'deflection' should be replaced by the appropriate feedback variable; when using the AFM to image a sample, the tip is brought into contact with the sample, the sample is raster scanned along an x-y grid. Most an electronic feedback loop is employed to keep the probe-sample force constant during scanning; this feedback loop has the cantilever deflection as input, its output controls the distance along the z axis between the probe support and the sample support. As long as the tip remains in contact with the sample, the sample is scanned in the x-y plane, height variations in the sample will change the deflection of the cantilever; the feedback adjusts the height of the probe support so that the deflection is restored to a user-d
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.