Kirkland Lake is a town and municipality in Timiskaming District in Northeastern Ontario, Canada. The 2016 population, according to Statistics Canada, was 7,981; the community name was based on a nearby lake which in turn was named after Winnifred Kirkland, a secretary of the Ontario Department of Mines in Toronto. The lake was named by surveyor Louis Rorke in 1907. Ms Kirkland never visited the town, the lake that bore her name no longer exists because of mine tailings; the community comprises Kirkland Lake,as well as Swastika, Chaput Hughes and Morrisette Twp. Kirkland Lake was built on gold, but it is well known for producing world-famous hockey players. Indeed, legendary hockey broadcaster Foster Hewitt called Kirkland Lake "the town that made the NHL." The town celebrated this via Hockey Heritage North, renamed in the meantime to Heritage North. Until January 1, 1972, the town was known as Township of Teck. A by-law was introduced, on July 20, 1971 to change the municipality's name to Town of Kirkland Lake, effective January 1, 1972.
Tom Price discovered a boulder containing gold on a visit to the area in 1906. In 1911, important claims were made along the Main Break. John Hunton staked claims on 18 Feb. 1911, which were incorporated as the Hunton Gold Mines Ltd. in April 1914 becoming part of the Amalgamated Kirkland. Stephen Orr filed claims on 22 Feb. 1911, the basis for the Teck-Hughes Mine and the Orr Gold Mines Ltd, incorporated in June 1913. George Minaker staked claims on 23 Feb. 1911, part of which he sold to Oakes in Sept. 1912, becoming part of the Lake Shore Mine. John Reamsbottom filed claims on 18 April 1911. C. A. McKane staked claims on 20 April 1911. A. Maracle staked claims on 5 June 1911. Melville McDougall staked claims on 27 June 1911, which he transferred to Oakes on 6 Sept. 1912, became the part of the Lake Shore Mine. Jack Matchett staked a claim on 7 July 1911 acquired by Oakes, which became part of the Townsite Mine. On 10 July 1911, Dave Elliott staked claims. "Swift" Burnside staked claims on 26–28 July 1911 which became part of the Tough-Oakes Burnside Mine.
Bill Wright filed claims on 27–29 July 1911, on 16 Sept. 1911 with his brother-in-law Ed. Hargreaves, which became part of the Sylvanite Mine; this claim extended into the lake's southeastern portion. More Wright found free gold near the future site of the Discovery Shaft. Ed. Horne staked a claim on 12 Oct. 1911, which became part of the Townsite Mine, the incorporation of Kirkland Townsite Gold Mines Ltd. in 1917. On 8 Jan. 1912, Harry Oakes partnered with the Tough brothers plus Clem. Foster, who owned the Foster Silver Mine in Cobalt, staked claims which incorporated the No. 2 Vein and led to the incorporation of Tough-Oakes Gold Mines Ltd. in 1913. Oakes filed additional claims on 30 July 1912, Wright on 26 Aug. 1912, both within the lake and becoming parts of the Lake Shore Mine. By 1914, there was one mine in operation, the Tough-Oakes, which included electric power transmitted from Charlton. A settlement had formed at the southwest arm of the lake, which included a post office, stores and a hotel.
In order to maximize taxation revenue from existing and potential mines in the area, the six square mile Municipal Corporation of the Township of Teck was formed with Wellington J. McLeod as the first reeve in 1919, their first task was the establishment of public utilities, including roads and water pipes, in the growing area. Kirkland Lake had numerous mines, in the early years, including the Teck-Hughes, Lake Shore, Kirkland Minerals, Wright-Hargreaves, Tough-Oakes-Burnside, Macassa Mine; the Kirkland Lake camp produced $636,667 worth of gold in 1918 and that rose to a value of $17,000,000 in 1930. As Pain points out, "Kirkland Lake camp came to occupy a position of real importance in the mining world." By 1934 the production had reached 2,000,000 tons were being milled annually. Peak employment of 4761 wage earners occurred in 1939, but that dropped to 2064 by 1944; the 1939 population was 24,200. Early in the Second World War gold production in the area decreased due to personnel being lost to more essential war industries.
In 1942, gold mining was declared a non-essential industry to the war effort which resulted in gold mines across the country being at a lower priority for personnel and supplies relative to producers of base metals. After the war, local soldiers returned to the newly created Federal area in the northern section of the town; the Kirkland Lake Cemetery is a member of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and is the location of the graves of 12 soldiers, 3 airmen of the Canadian forces who died during the Second World War. Kirkland Lake's first fire hall was established in 1935 and the second fire hall in 1955. In 1963 the open pit Adams Mine began developing its iron ore resources; the mine would stay in production until 1990. The Kirkland Lake Community Complex, now the Joe Mavrinac Community Complex, opened in 1979. In the early eighties, LAC Minerals reopened the main shaft of the Lake Shore Mine and worked it from 1982 to 1987 to extract pockets of gold, left behind. Between 1987 and 1991 Vancouver based Eastmaque Gold Mines reprocessed tailings, or "slimes", from early inefficient mill operations, extracting 70,000 ounces of gold.
Between October and December 1988, Kirkland Lake was the filming location for the drama film Termini Station. On the morning of Sunday, May 20, 2012, a forest fire was discovered about 3 km north of Kirkla
Ontario Highway 11
King's Highway 11 referred to as Highway 11, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. At 1,784.9 kilometres, it is the second longest highway in the province, following Highway 17. Highway 11 begins at Highway 400 in Barrie, arches through northern Ontario to the Ontario–Minnesota border at Rainy River via Thunder Bay. North and west of North Bay, Highway 11 forms part of the Trans-Canada Highway; the highway is part of MOM's Way between Thunder Bay and Rainy River. Although many of the roads that make up the route were constructed before the highway was designated, Highway 11 became a provincial highway in 1920 when the network was formed. At the time, it only extended to north of Orillia. In 1937, the route was extended to Hearst, northwest of Timmins; the route was extended to Nipigon by 1943. In 1965, Highway 11 was extended to Rainy River; the section through Barrie and south to Toronto was decommissioned as a provincial highway in 1998. Since ongoing construction resulted in the highway being four-laned as far north as North Bay by 2012.
A section concurrent with Highway 17 was rebuilt as a divided highway in the early 2010s, while construction of a twin-span bridge at Nipigon is underway. The earliest established section of Highway 11 is Yonge Street, in Toronto, though it is no longer under provincial jurisdiction. Yonge Street was built under the order of the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe. Fearing imminent attack by the United States, he sought to create a military route between York and Lake Simcoe. In doing so, he would create an alternative means of reaching the upper Great Lakes and the trading post at Michilimackinac, bypassing the American border. In late 1793, Simcoe determined the route of his new road; the following spring, he instructed Deputy Surveyor General Augustus Jones to blaze a small trail marking the route. Simcoe initiated construction of the road by granting land to settlers, who in exchange were required to clear 33 feet of frontage on the road passing their lot. In the summer of 1794, William Berczy was the first to take up the offer, leading a group of 64 families north-east of Toronto to found the town of German Mills, in modern Markham.
By the end of 1794, Berczy's settlers had cleared the route around Thornhill. However, the settlement was hit by a series of setbacks and road construction stalled. Work on the road resumed in 1795, they began their work at Eglinton Avenue and proceeded north, reaching the site of St. Albans on February 16, 1796. Expansion of the trail into a road was a condition of settlement for farmers along the route, who were required to spend 12 days a year to clear the road of logs, subsequently removed by convicted drunks as part of their sentence; the southern end of the road was in use in the first decade of the 19th century, became passable all the way to the northern end in 1816. For several years the Holland River and Lake Simcoe provided the only means of transportation; the military route to Georgian Bay prior to, during the War of 1812, crossed Lake Simcoe to the head of Kempenfelt Bay by the Nine Mile Portage to Willow Creek and the Nottawasaga River. The Penetanguishene Military Post was started before the war.
However, lacking a suitable overland transport route, passage from York to Lake Huron continued via the Nottawasaga. The Penetanguishene Road, begun in 1814, replaced this route by the time the military post was opened in 1817. In 1824, work began to extend Yonge Street to Kempenfelt Bay near Barrie. A north-western extension was branched off the original Yonge Street in Holland Landing and ran into the new settlement of Bradford before turning north towards Barrie. Work was completed by 1827. A network of colonization roads built in the 1830s pushed settlement northeast along the shores of Lake Simcoe and north towards the shores of Georgian Bay. By 1860 the Muskoka Road penetrated the southern skirts of the Canadian Shield, advancing towards Lake Nipissing. Further extensions into Northern Ontario would await the arrival of the automobile, consequent need for highway networks. In order to be eligible for federal funding, Ontario's Department of Public Highways established a network of provincial highways on February 26, 1920.
What would become Highway 11 was routed along Yonge Street, its extension to the Penetanguishene Road, the Muskoka Road as far as the Severn River. It received its numerical designation in the summer of 1925. Highway 11 was planned as a trunk road to connect the communities of Southern Ontario to those of Northern Ontario, as a continuous route from Toronto to North Bay. In 1919, Premier of Ontario Ernest Charles Drury created the Department of Public Highways, though much of the responsibility for establishing the route he left to minister of the new cabinet position, Frank Campbell Biggs. By linking together several built roads such as Yonge Street, Penetanguishene Road, Middle Crossroad and the Muskoka Road, all early colonization roads in the region, a continuous route was created between Toronto and North Bay. Roads north of that point were maintained by the Department of Northern Development. Further expansion was planned with a new highway from North Bay to Cochrane. Construction began in 1925, including reconstruction of portions of the old Muskoka Road from Sev
Latchford is a Single-tier municipality town in Timiskaming District in Northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is located on Bay Lake on the Montreal River near the town of Cobalt and the municipality of Temagami and is 20 kilometres from the city of Temiskaming Shores; the population of the town in the Canada 2011 Census was 387, which makes it the smallest town by population in Ontario. The town's slogan is "The Best Little Town by a Dam Site!" Latchford was first settled in 1902 when the decision to build the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway was struck. It was decided the railway would cross the Montreal River at the location of what is today Latchford, a bridge was finished in 1904. Hence, the settlement was known first as Montreal River Station, it was renamed Latchford in 1905 in honour of the provincial commissioner of public works, Francis Robert Latchford, was incorporated as a town on July 15, 1907. A dam that provided hydroelectric power, as well as a vehicle crossing over the river, was built in 1910, Ontario Highway 11 including a bridge over the river was built finished through the town in 1927.
Silver mining and tourism, drove Latchford’s economy throughout the 20th century. In 2006, the boundaries of the town were expanded to include the South Part of geographic Gillies Limit Township. A plaque was erected in 2009 commemorating the founding of the town. Latchford has good road links because of Ontario Highway 11, part of the Trans-Canada Highway as it passes through the town. Ontario Northland offers a twice-daily bus service north towards Cochrane and south towards North Bay; the Sgt. Aubrey Cosens VC Memorial Bridge, which carries Ontario Highway 11, is the town's most recognized symbol, it was named after a World War II recipient of the Victoria Cross from Latchford. The bridge failed on a cold day in 2003, but is again in service. Latchford is home to the world's shortest covered bridge. W. J. B. Greenwood Provincial Park is in Latchford south of the town centre. Population trend: Population in 2011: 387 Population in 2006: 370 Population in 2001: 363 Population in 1996: 338 Population in 1991: 345Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 152 Mother tongue: English as first language: 78.2% French as first language: 12.6% English and French as first language: 2.3% Other as first language: 6.9% Official website
A railway town, or railroad town, is a settlement that originated or was developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. During the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the 1860s, temporary, "Hell on wheels" towns, made of canvas tents, accompanied the Union Pacific Railroad as construction headed west. Most faded away but some became permanent settlements. In the 1870s successive boomtowns sprung up in Kansas, each prospering for a year or two as a railhead, withering when the rail line extended further west and created a new endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. Becoming rail hubs made Los Angeles grow from small towns to large cities. Sayre and Atlanta, Georgia were among the American company towns created by railroads in places where no settlement existed. In western Canada, railway towns became associated with brothels and prostitution, concerned railway companies started a series of YMCAs in the late nineteenth century in response. In some cases, a railroad town would be started by the railroad using a separate town or land company when another town existed nearby.
The population of the existing town would shift to the railroad town. This would create a boon for the town company and its railroad founder, which would sell off lots near the station at a substantial profit before the railroad arrived at the new townsite; such is the case with Colorado. In the spring of 1880, William Bell of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad scoured the La Plata County area in the vicinity of Animas City, located on the Animas River; when negotiations to acquire land through the local homesteaders fell through, Bell acquired property downstream to the south under more favorable conditions in the name of the Durango Land and Coal Company. By the end of the year, a Durango newspaper reported all of "Animas City is coming to Durango as fast as accommodations can be secured." The population, at the time estimated between 2,500 and 3,000 people, crammed into the little "box town," where the only permanent structures were saloons, dance halls and stores. When the railroad arrived in August 1881, the train stopped in a jubilant Durango, not Animas City.
The railroad pushed on up the Animas River, reaching Silverton in July 1882, passing through Animas City without a stop. Animas City subsisted as a de facto suburb of the Durango area before annexation by Durango in 1948; the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, a heritage railroad and successor to the Rio Grande in La Plata County, still passes by the townsite. In Denmark and Norway, a related concept is the stationsby or "station town". Stationsbyer are rural towns that grew up around railways, but they were based on agricultural co-operatives and artisan communities rather than on railway industries. In Victorian Britain, the spread of railways affected the fate of many small towns. Peterborough and Swindon became successful due to their status as railway towns; some new towns grew up around railway works. Middlesbrough was the first new town to be developed due to the railways, growing from a hamlet of 40 into an industrial port after the Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended in 1830.
Wolverton was fields before 1838 and had a population of 1,500 by 1844. Other examples of early railway towns include Ashford and Neasden. Crewe grew after the Grand Junction Railway Company moved there in 1843; the railway town of'New Swindon' displaced the neighbouring pre-existing town after the Great Western Railway moved there: a market town of 2,000 in 1840 became a railway town of 50,000 in 1905. Railways became major employers, with 6,000 people employed by them in Crewe in 1877, 14,000 in Swindon in 1905; the growth of railway towns was in the mould of the'paternalistic employer' providing housing, hospitals and civic buildings for their workers, similar to Cadbury's Bournville. Workforces were loyal and obedient: industrial action in railway towns was rare because the workforce depended on the company. Railwaymen dominated local politics in railway towns Francis Webb's'Independent Railway Company Party' in Crewe and George Leeman in York; the chief mechanical engineer of GWR, Daniel Gooch, was MP for Swindon for twenty years.
Crewe was a'company town' for its first few decades as workers moved in their thousands from other parts of the country. Most social amenities and organisations were sponsored by the railway, but moves such as the establishment of a town council in 1877 reduced company influence, the railway company began to consider spending on town amenities as a municipal concern. Workers organised their own institutions such as clubs, trade unions, co-operatives to gain independence from company control, they became the basis for political opposition in railway towns. Changchun in China was built by the Japanese occupying Manchuria, as a'model town' as part of Japan's imperialist modernisation; the first railway town at Changchun was begun by the Russians in 1898, but it excluded Chinese residents. A second major railway town was designed and built from 1905 by the South Manchuria Railway, inspired by Russian railway towns such as Dalian, it was based on a rectangular system that contrasted with the circular walled town of old Changchun, grid patterns became the standard for Chinese railway towns.
The SMR developed dozens of railway towns in north-east China from 1906-1936, such
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The Northlander was a passenger train operated by the Ontario Northland Railway in Ontario, Canada. The Northlander operated six days per week year-round in both directions and connected Cochrane with Toronto; the train consisted of one engine, an auxiliary power unit, two coaches and a cafeteria lounge car. It ran on ONR tracks from Cochrane on CN tracks south of North Bay to Toronto. In March 2012, the Ontario Northland Transportation Commission announced plans to discontinue the Northlander and replace it with bus service; the final train ran on September 28, 2012. To push for the service's restoration, an advocacy group called All Aboard Northern Ontario was formed in October 2017; the Northlander made scheduled stops at the following stations: Service to Barrie and Orillia Ontario ended in 1996 when the Northlander was rerouted to the Bala subdivision when that section of the Newmarket subdivision was abandoned and removed by the Canadian National Railway. Official Website
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th