Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern or Berne is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau; the canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,031,126. As of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners; the cantonal capital the "federal city" of Switzerland, is Bern. Other major cities are Biel/Bienne. Bern joined the Old Swiss Confederation in 1353. Between 1803 and 1814 it was one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation; the earliest traces of a human presence in the area of the modern Canton is found in three caves in the Simmental region. These caves were used at various times during the last ice age; the first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf.
During the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level. Important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental. During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, the Toteisbecken and along rivers. Several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann. In the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, came from one of these villages. Simple copper objects were in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann.
Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development. Settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas; the area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled. Archeological finds include scattered items along mountain passes, a fortified hilltop settlements at Spiezberg, Cholis Grind by Saanen and at Pintel by Wimmis, along with cemeteries at Thun-Allmendingen and Hilterfingen. Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the Early Iron Age changes in climate forced the Hallstatt culture to abandon settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus and hills. With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the cultural influence of the Mediterranean region grew in the area. Evidence of this trade include a hydria, discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time; the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods.
In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by several burials. Several grave mounds combined to become a necropolis, such as at Grossaffoltern, Bannwil, Langenthal and Bützberg. Most of the knowledge about the Hallstatt culture in the Canton comes from graves; the only discovered settlement is around Blanche Church in La Neuveville. The grave goods show that iron was forged into swords, spearheads and wagon accessories. Gold, collected from river sand, was made into diadems and pendants. Thin bronze arm and neck plates with geometric designs were buried in the graves at Allenlüften in Mühleberg, at Ins and at Bützberg; the jewelry, buried included bracelets and rings which were made of jet and lignite coal. At Münchringen, the grave pottery was both shaped by hand or thrown on a potter's wheel, was painted with multi-colored ornamentation; the transition to the Late Iron Age of the La Tène culture is indicated by a sudden change of style in the metalworking and ceramic industries.
Numerous graves, along with the two oppida at Bern-Engehalbinsel and Jensberg by Studen, mark the population centers during the late Iron Age. Gold coins along with bronze coins first start to appear during this era. A sword with Greek characters that said Korisios was found at the Port site. At the oppidum at Bern-Engehalbinsel, there were studios for glass and ceramic production, iron working achieved a high level of skill, along with craftsmen who worked in wood and goldsmithing. There was a nearby place of worship in the Bremgarten wood, cemeteries at Münsingen and Bern-Engehalbinsel. After the Roman era victory at Battle of Bibracte in 58 BCE, the Helvetii were forced to return to their homes as foederati of the Romans. Under increasing Roman influence, the local economy and trade flourished; the main settlements lay on the Central Plateau. The existing roads were expanded the Aventicum-Vindonissa and the Petinesca-Augusta Raurica roads. A fourth alpine pass, the Rawil pass, was added to the traditional three.
Wald is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. On January 2004 it incorporated the two independent municipalities of Englisberg. Englisberg, population: 201 Zimmerwald, population: 870Englisberg is first mentioned in 1166 as Endlisperc. Zimmerwald was first mentioned in 1296 as Zymmerwalt; until 1902 it was known as Obermuhlern und Zimmerwald. Englisberg first appears in a historic record with the Kyburg Ministerialis family of Englisberg. By the 15th century Bernese patrician families owned surrounding Herrschaft; the right to hold court in the Herrschaft was sold to the villagers in 1570 and split into 70 shares. This situation remained until the 18th century, when Bernese patricians bought the majority of the shares back, it was part of the parish of Belp, but in 1699 became an independent parish. The village economy always relied on agriculture. However, by 1900 fewer workers were needed on the farms and the population began to decline.
A poorhouse opened in 1890 and became the Kühlewil nursing home, now a major employer in the village. The oldest trace of a settlement in the area are several neolithic artifacts found at Äppenacker. Roman era artifacts and a lime kiln have been discovered scattered around the municipal area; the village and surrounding lands were owned by several Bernese families as well as Interlaken Abbey, Köniz and Münchenbuchsee Commanderys and the Obere Spital in Bern. In 1528 Bern adopted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation, secularized the monasteries and acquired their estates, including Zimmerwald; the village was combined to form the court of Zimmerwald in the Seftigen District. Until 1697 it was part of the large parish of Belp it formed an independent parish with the parish church in Zimmerwald. In 1641 the wealthy Bernese Werdt family built a hunting lodge in the village. In 1860 the Pension Beau Séjour was built in the park near the lodge; the Pension became famous. The Zimmerwald Conference was the first of three international socialist conferences convened by anti-militarist socialist parties from countries that were neutral during World War I.
The Zimmerwald movement grew out of the conferences. The delegates included Leon Trotsky; the Pension was demolished and no trace remains of the building. In 1956 the University of Bern opened the Zimmerwald Observatory in the municipality. In 1988 a satellite monitoring station was added. Today, the village economy still relies on farming and raising livestock. Wald has an area of 13.3 km2. As of 2012, a total of 9.9 km2 or 74.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.55 km2 or 19.2% is forested. The rest of the municipality is 6.3 % is settled. During the same year and buildings made up 3.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.1%. A total of 17.5% of the total land area is forested and 1.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 40.1% is used for growing crops and 32.7% is pasturage, while 1.7% is used for orchards or vine crops. On 1 January 2004 the former municipalities of Englisberg and Zimmerwald merged into the municipality of Wald. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved.
On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Bern-Mittelland. Wald has a population of 1,171; as of 2012, 5.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Between the last 2 years the population changed at a rate of 0.8%. Migration accounted for -0.3%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.9%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Italian is the third; as of 2008, the population was 51.1 % female. The population was made up of 24 non-Swiss men. There were 33 non-Swiss women; as of 2012, children and teenagers make up 20.2% of the population, while adults make up 59.0% and seniors make up 20.9%. As of 2010, there were 118 households that consist of only one person and 33 households with five or more people; the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2013, was 0.9%. In 2011, single family homes made up 48.5% of the total housing in the municipality. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party which received 36.5% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the Conservative Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party and the Green Party. In the federal election, a total of 812 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 59.8%. As of 2011, Wald had an unemployment rate of 1.04%. As of 2011, there were a total of 498 people employed in the municipality. Of these, there were 164 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 59 businesses involved in this sector. 16 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 8 businesses in this sector. 318 people were employed with 63 businesses in this sector. In 2008 there were a total of 343 full-time equivalent jobs; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 122, of which 113 were in agriculture and 9 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 10 of which 9 or were in manufacturing and
Zimmerwald was an independent municipality in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland until 31 December 2003. It is located on a hill in the proximity of the city of Bern in the Bernese Mittelland. On 1 January 2004 Zimmerwald united with the municipality of Englisberg to form the new municipality of Wald. On 31 December 2002 the population was 870; the coat of arms is three fir trees on three green mountain peaks with a background that ranges from silver to green. Zimmerwald was only settled in the late phase of the Germanic colonisation of Switzerland. Between 800 and 900, Ciberni entering Southern Germany first settled on the Längenberg, the hill on which Zimmerwald lies; the town is first mentioned in documents in the Middle Ages. In 1999, Zimmerwald celebrated its 700th anniversary. Zimmerwald is remembered in world history for the Zimmerwald Conference held in September 1915. Prominent socialists met among them Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin; the conference was called by Robert Grimm of Bern. The international workers' movement split as a result of the conference into a social democratic and a revolutionary wing.
The collection of the Zimmerwald wind instruments museum covers some 1,000 wind instruments from all periods, as well as percussion instruments. They include rare pieces such as bull horns, old Germanic lures and flap trumpets, but Swiss alphorns; the Zimmerwald Observatory is the reference point for the CH1903+ Swiss coordinate system. Adrian Guggisberg, Swiss politician Gunvor Guggisberg, Swiss entertainer Peter Guggisberg, Swiss hockey player Ulrich Guggisberg, Swiss soccer player, national league Dominique Jann, actor Bruno Messerli, geographer Hans Rudolf Streit, Swiss federal official Katrin Streit-Eggimann, Swiss politician Judith Wyder, athlete
The Pittsburgh Penguins are a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the Penguins are one of two NHL franchises in Pennsylvania. The cities' proximity has led to a rivalry known as the "Battle of Pennsylvania"; the club is owned by Mario Lemieux and Ronald Burkle, who purchased the Penguins in 1999 and brought the club out of bankruptcy. The franchise was founded in 1967 as one of the first expansion teams during the league's original expansion from six to twelve teams; the Penguins played in the Civic Arena known as The Igloo, from the time of their inception through the end of the 2009–10 season, when they moved to the Consol Energy Center, renamed PPG Paints Arena. The 1992–93 Penguins won the franchise's first-ever Presidents' Trophy for being the team with the most points at the end of the regular season. In addition to their eight division titles, they have qualified for six Stanley Cup Finals, winning the Stanley Cup five times – in 1991, 1992, 2009, 2016, 2017.
Along with the Edmonton Oilers, the Penguins are tied for the most Stanley Cup championships among non-Original Six teams and sixth overall. With their Stanley Cup wins in 2016 and 2017, the Penguins became the first back-to-back champions in 19 years and the first team to do so since the introduction of the NHL salary cap, they became the fifth team to accomplish this feat multiple times. Before the Penguins, Pittsburgh had been the home of the NHL's Pirates from 1925 to 1930 and of the American Hockey League Hornets franchise from 1936 to 1967. In the spring of 1965, Jack McGregor, a state senator from Kittanning, began lobbying campaign contributors and community leaders to bring an NHL franchise back to Pittsburgh; the group focused on leveraging the NHL as an urban renewal tool for Pittsburgh. The senator formed a group of local investors that included H. J. Heinz Company heir H. J. Heinz III, Pittsburgh Steelers owner Art Rooney, the Mellon family's Richard Mellon Scaife; the projected league expansion depended on securing votes from the then-current NHL owners.
The effort was successful, on February 8, 1966, the National Hockey League awarded an expansion team to Pittsburgh for the 1967–68 season. The Penguins paid $2.5 million $750,000 more for start-up costs. The Civic Arena's capacity was boosted from 10,732 to 12,500 to meet the NHL requirements for expansion; the Pens paid an indemnification bill to settle with the Detroit Red Wings, which owned the Pittsburgh Hornets franchise. The investor group named McGregor president and chief executive officer, he represented Pittsburgh on the NHL's Board of Governors. A contest was held. Mark Peters had the winning entry, a logo was chosen that had a penguin in front of a triangle, which symbolized the "Golden Triangle" of downtown Pittsburgh." The Penguins' first general manager, Jack Riley, opened the first pre-season camp for the franchise in Brantford, Ontario, on September 13, 1967, playing the franchise's first exhibition match in Brantford against the Philadelphia Flyers on September 23, 1967. The Pens, along with the rest of the expansion teams, were hampered by restrictive rules which kept most major talent with the existing "Original Six" teams.
Beyond aging sniper Andy Bathgate, All-Star defenseman Leo Boivin and Ranger veteran Earl Ingarfield, the first Penguins team was manned by a cast of former minor leaguers. A number of the players had played for the Hornets the previous season: Bathgate, wingers Val Fonteyne and Ab McDonald, goaltenders Hank Bassen and Joe Daley. George Sullivan was named the head coach for the club's first two seasons, McDonald was named the team's first captain. On October 11, 1967, league president Clarence Campbell and McGregor jointly dropped the ceremonial first puck of the Penguins' opening home game against the Montreal Canadiens. On October 21, 1967, they became the first team from the expansion class to defeat an Original Six team, as they defeated the Chicago Black Hawks 4–2. However, the Penguins went 27–34–13 and finished in fifth place in the West Division, missing the playoffs and ending with the third worst record in the league; the team's best player proved to be longtime Cleveland Barons AHL goaltender Les Binkley, who recorded a 2.88 goals against average and was second in the league in shutouts with six.
Defensive winger Ken Schinkel won the team's sole league honor, being named to represent the Penguins in the NHL All-Star Game. Bathgate retired at season's end. McDonald, who led the team in goals and was second in team scoring, was gone at season's end, traded to the St. Louis Blues in exchange for center Lou Angotti; the next season, 1968–69, saw the team slip in the standings in the midst of a sharp drop in form by Binkley, into sixth place and with the league's worst record. Several changes were made to try to improve the team, resulting in Boivin and several others being traded, new players—including longtime future Pens star Jean Pronovost—making their debuts. No captain
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Rudolf Joder is a member of the Swiss National Council representing the canton of Berne and the president of the Bernese branch of the Swiss People's Party. Joder served on the Grand Council of Berne from 1982 to 1998 and as mayor of Belp from 1989 to 2004, he was elected to the National Council in 1999. During his presidency of the cantonal party, to which he was elected in 2006, numerous leading office-holders left the People's Party to found the more liberal Conservative Democratic Party. Rudolf Joder, an attorney by profession, is resident in Belp. Personal website Biography of Rudolf Joder on the website of the Swiss Parliament