Naryshkin Baroque referred to as Moscow Baroque or Muscovite Baroque, is the name of the particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration, fashionable in Moscow from the late 17th century into the early 18th century. In the late 17th century, the Western European Baroque style of architecture combined with traditional Russian architecture to form a unique style, known as Muscovite or Naryshkin Baroque; this style is called Muscovite Baroque as it was only found within the surrounding areas. It is more referred to as Naryshkin Baroque, as the first church built in this style was built on one of the Naryshkin family's estates; this style of architecture was contrasted with Petrine Baroque, favored by Peter the Great in St. Petersburg; the contrast of these two styles are exemplified by the color, form and the choice of materials. The St. Peter and Paul Cathedral, in St. Petersburg, the Menshikov Tower, in Moscow, are notable examples of the Petrine Baroque style; the first church built in this style was the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin in the village of Fili, built on the estate of the Naryshkin family of Moscow boyars.
The member of this family, most related with this style of architecture is Lev Krillovich Naryshkin, the uncle of Peter I. Lev Naryshkin erected this first church with the help of an architect, presumed to be Yakov Bukhvostov; this church became the staple of the Naryshkin Baroque style and inspired the building of other churches in this style. The churches that were built in the Naryshkin Baroque style were built in red brick, which differed them from other architecture of the time, they were thoroughly decorated with details in white stone. The structure of the building was different from anything else being built in Russia at the time; this style of architecture was classified as "under the bell" or "under the ring". Temples that are "under the bell" mean that the bell tower is placed on top of the main volume, instead of next to the building as was common in the 17th century; the bell towers were built in the shape of an octagon, with the main volume of the building being a quadrangle. This "octagon on quadrangle" shape was a classic baroque composition among temples.
The temple. The trim of the border around the windows were decorated, as on all Baroque style temples. Cupolas replaced the hipped roof, popular in Russian architecture; these placed upon a high drum created a feeling of altitude and created an impression of a variety of forms. The design for octagon on quadrangle churches was believed to have been taken from Ukrainian Baroque architecture, but further research proved that that wasn't true, as the first church built in this style was in Russia; this style continually spread to architecture that wasn't only churches and many monasteries remodeled themselves in this style, as it was the latest fashion. The most notable examples of these were the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow. Outside of Moscow there is Krutitsy and Solotcha Cloister, that are near Riazan. Other, non-religious, architecture adopted this style as well, seen in the Sukharev Tower in Moscow. In the 1730's the Naryshkin Baroque style's high point ended and it evolved into the Rastrelliesque, or the Elizabethan Baroque style.
The most important architects that worked in the Naryshkin Baroque style were Yakov Bukhvostov and Pytor Potapov. Yakov Grigorievich Buhvostov was born in the mid 17th-century, as a serf to Mikhail Tatishchev; the Tatishchev family were influential Boyars in Nikolskoe. Little is known about the early life of Bukhvostov, only that he was granted his freedom in the 1690's, when he was recognized as a great architect; the most notable example of his work as an architect is the Church of the Savior in Ubory. Pytor Potapov written as Peter Potapov, is the hypothetical architect of the Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin on Pokrovka. Nothing is known about his life, or if he was a real person, his name is known by the inscription on the Assumption Church, which reads "The summer of 7204 October 25 is the work of human hands, the work of Pytor Potapov." From this inscription it is unclear whether he was the architect or the stone carver, but it is believed that he was the architect. William Craft Brumfield.
A History of Russian Architecture ISBN 978-0-521-40333-7 Petrine Baroque Octagon on Cube Naryshkin-Stroganov Baroque
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Whigs (British political party)
The Whigs were a political faction and a political party in the parliaments of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with the Tories; the Whigs' origin lay in constitutional opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic; the Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels; the Whigs purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy; the first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784 with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted Whig Party, arrayed against the governing party of the new Tories under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians more than on popular votes, there were elections to the House of Commons, but a small number of men controlled most of the voters; the Whig Party evolved during the 18th century. The Whig tendency supported the great aristocratic families, the Protestant Hanoverian succession and toleration for nonconformist Protestants, while some Tories supported the exiled Stuart royal family's claim to the throne and all Tories supported the established Church of England and the gentry. On, the Whigs drew support from the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants, while the Tories drew support from the landed interests and the royal family. However, by the first half of the 19th century the Whig political programme came to encompass not only the supremacy of parliament over the monarch and support for free trade, but Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise.
The 19th century Whig support for Catholic emancipation was a complete reversal of the party's historic anti-Catholic position at its late 17th century origin. The term "Whig" was short for "whiggamor", a term meaning "cattle driver" used to describe western Scots who came to Leith for corn. In the reign of Charles I the term was used during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms to refer derisively to a radical faction of the Scottish Covenanters who called themselves the "Kirk Party", it was applied to Scottish Presbyterian rebels who were against the King's Episcopalian order in Scotland. The term "Whig" entered English political discourse during the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678–1681 when there was controversy about whether or not King Charles II's brother, should be allowed to succeed to the throne on Charles's death. "Whig" was a term of abuse applied to those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. The fervent Tory Samuel Johnson joked that "the first Whig was the Devil".
Under Lord Shaftesbury's leadership, the Whigs in the Parliament of England wished to exclude the Duke of York from the throne due to his Roman Catholicism, his favouring of monarchical absolutism, his connections to France. They believed the heir presumptive, if allowed to inherit the throne, would endanger the Protestant religion and property; the first Exclusion Bill was supported by a substantial majority on its second reading in May 1679. In response, King Charles prorogued Parliament and dissolved it, but the subsequent elections in August and September saw the Whigs' strength increase; this new parliament did not meet for thirteen months, because Charles wanted to give passions a chance to die down. When it met in October 1680, an Exclusion Bill was introduced and passed in the Commons without major resistance, but was rejected in the Lords. Charles dissolved Parliament in January 1681, but the Whigs did not suffer serious losses in the ensuing election; the next Parliament first met in March at Oxford, but Charles dissolved it after only a few days, when he made an appeal to the country against the Whigs and determined to rule without Parliament.
In February, Charles had made a deal with the French King Louis XIV, who promised to support him against the Whigs. Without Parliament, the Whigs crumbled due to government repression following the discovery of the Rye House Plot; the Whig peers, the Earl of Melville, the Earl of Leven, Lord Shaftesbury, Charles II's illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth, being implicated, fled to and regrouped in the United Provinces. Algernon Sidney, Sir Thomas Armstrong and William Russell, Lord Russell, were executed for treason; the Earl of Essex committed suicide in the Tower of London over his arrest for treason, whilst Lord Grey of Werke escaped from the Tower. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Queen Mary II and King William III governed with both Whigs and Tories, despite the fact that many of the Tories still supported the deposed Roman Catholic James II. William saw that the Tories were friendlier to royal authority than the Whigs and he employed both groups in his government, his early ministry was Tory, but the government came to be dominated by the so-called Junto Whig
Czech Baroque architecture
Czech Baroque architecture refers to the architectural period of the 17th and 18th century in Bohemia and Czech Silesia, which comprised the Crown of Bohemia and today constitute the Czech Republic. The Baroque style changed the character of the Czech countryside. Czech Baroque architecture is considered to be a unique part of the European cultural heritage thanks to its extensiveness and extraordinariness. In the first third of the 18th century the Czech lands were one of the leading artistic centers of the Baroque style. In Bohemia there was completed in a original way the development of the Radical Baroque style created in Italy by Francesco Borromini and Guarino Guarini; the leading architects of the Czech High Baroque style were Christoph Dientzenhofer, Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer and Jan Blažej Santini-Aichel. The spread of the Baroque style in the Crown of Bohemia was coupled with the victory of the Catholic Church during the Thirty Years' War when the Catholic Church became the only legal church in the Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia.
The heyday of Baroque style in the Czech lands can be seen in the early 18th century. Many of the Baroque architects who worked and also died in the Czech lands came from different countries or were of foreign origin Italian, some came from Bavaria, Austria or France; the Baroque style penetrated Bohemia in the first half of the 17th century. Prague was one of the main centers of Mannerist art under Rudolph II. At the end of his reign and during the reign of his brother Mathias there were built some late Renaissance or Mannerist buildings with Early Baroque elements in Prague, but it is hard to distinguish between the Mannerist style and the Early Baroque style because there is no clear break, therefore some scholars consider these buildings to be Early Baroque while others consider them to be Mannerist. Among these transitional buildings is the Italian chapel consecrated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, adjoining the former Jesuit college called Clementinum built in 1590-1600 for Italians residing in Prague, designed by the Italian O. Mascarino.
Although it is a Late Renaissance or Mannerist chapel, it is important for Czech Baroque architecture because of its elliptical ground plan, much more typical for Baroque architecture than for the rational Renaissance style. The Matthias Gate of the Prague Castle, built before 1614 by Giovanni Maria Filippi is traditionally designated the first Baroque structure in Prague; the clear Baroque style came to the Crown of Bohemia during the Thirty Years' War when it replaced the Renaissance style. The Baroque style, coming from Catholic Italy, was supported by the rich Catholic aristocracy and the Catholic church, which became the only legal church after 1627; the architects of early Baroque in the Czech lands were foreigners Italians. The first Baroque palace in Prague and also the first in Central Europe was built in 1621–1630 for a Czech nobleman, general of the imperial army in the Thirty Years' War, Albrecht von Wallenstein. Wallenstein Palace was designed and built by Italian architects Giovanni Pieroni and Andrea Spezza and was inspired by the newest Italian architecture of its time but the influence of Mannerism can be seen.
The Church of Our Lady Victorious in the Lesser Town of Prague is considered to be the first Baroque church in Prague. It was built by Giovanni Maria Filippi in 1611-13 for Lutherans in the late Renaissance style. In the 1620s the church was rebuilt in the early Baroque style; the new Baroque facade was completed in 1644. Important architect of the early Baroque style in Prague was Carlo Lurago who came from Italy and worked for the Jesuits, he started to rebuild the Clementinum and the older Renaissance Church of the Holy Savior in the Old Town, for the Jesuits he built St. Ignatius Church on Charles Square in the New Town and the Church in Březnice, he built the Humprecht Chateau in 1666-1668 with an interesting elliptical ground floor. Another Italian architect who settled in the Czech lands was Francesco Carrati, who designed the Černín Palace in Prague. In the early Baroque style was renovated the residence of the archbishops of Olomouc in Kroměříž by Italian-Swiss architect Filiberto Lucchese and by Italian Giovanni Pietro Tencalla.
The Kroměříž Archbishop's Palace was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Jean Baptiste Mathey was an important French architect, his works include the Church of St. Francis Seraph in the Old Town of Prague and Troja Palace, built near Prague for count of Sternberg, he rebuilt the Archbishp's Palace in Prague. His works prefigure the High Baroque style in the Czech lands; the High Baroque period in the Czech lands begins around the year 1690 and lasts to the mid-18th century. The architects of this time were born in Bohemia or Moravia but were of foreign origin; the most significant architects of this period were Christoph Dientzenhofer, who came to Bohemia from Bavaria and lived in Prague, his son Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer. They are known for their style called "radical Baroque", inspired by examples from northern Italy by the works of Guarino Guarini, which seeks to express movement, it is characterized by the curvature of walls and intersection of oval spaces. Together and son Dientzenhofer built in 1702–1715 and 1737–1751 the St. Nicholas Church in the Lesser Town of Prague, due to its architecture one of the most important B
Baroque in Poland
The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century. As with Baroque style elsewhere in Europe, Poland's Baroque emphasized the richness and triumphant power of contemporary art forms. In contrast to the previous, Renaissance style which sought to depict the beauty and harmony of nature, Baroque artists strove to create their own vision of the world; the result was manifold, regarded by some critics as grand and dramatic, but sometimes chaotic and disharmonious and tinged with affectation and religious exaltation, thus reflecting the turbulent times of the 17th-century Europe. The Polish Baroque was influenced by the culture of the Polish nobility. Sarmatism became influenced by the Baroque style and produced a unique mix of Eastern and Western styles. "East" refers here to the Oriental culture of the Ottoman Empire, not the culture of the Orthodox Slavs of Eastern Europe. Those Oriental influences stemmed from a large border shared by Poland with the Ottoman Empire, it frequent invasions.
Sarmatist thought had praised the idyllic countryside-existence, the liberal Golden Freedom of the nobility, which stood against the absolute power of the monarchy. Sarmatism stressed the military prowess going back to the times when szlachta first emerged from the knight class. Sarmatian nobles felt superior to the nobility of the other nations, whom they considered non-free and enslaved by their rulers. With the progression of time, the Sarmatism ideals became corrupted. By the time of the 18th-century Enlightenment in Poland, Sarmatism was regarded as a backward and ultraconservative relic of the past – an opposite of progress, leading the country to its downfall. On a more material realm, Oriental influences were visible in nobles' attire and decorations. New Polish costume was based on the Ottoman Empire's robe, which spread from nobility to city dwellers and peasants. A Polish nobleman wore long robe-like garment such as żupan and kontusz lined with expensive cloth. Arabian horses were common in Polish cavalry.
During the 17th century shaving one's head in the Tatar fashion became popular. The symbol of the noble class was the curved blade weapon, the szabla, a cross between saber and scimitar. Ottoman daggers, carpets, saddles, rugs and embroideries were common: what was not acquired from trade came as loot from many military conflicts along the Commonwealth southern border; the manor of the Polish nobleman was decorated with such war trophies. Some luxury items were of domestic produce imitating the Orient style. Displaying one's wealth was important, excuses where many: from the name day of the patron saint to weddings and funerals, they be observed in extravagant fashion. A distinctive art of coffin portraits emerged during that period; the Roman Catholic Church became one of the major patrons of the arts. There the pious Catholic king Sigismund III Vasa sponsored many Baroque sacral constructions. In its first phase, ecclesiastical Baroque architecture was associated with the Jesuit Order, who arrived in Poland in 1564, as part of the counter-reformation, a trend which over the next century would triumph in Poland.
The Jesuits established churches and schools in many major cities winning over the Protestant educational centers in Thorn and Elbing, Leszno. The eventual victory of the counter-reformation in Poland would be one of the reasons that would contribute to its cultural stagnation. Early Polish baroque buildings were designed by foreign architects; the first baroque structure in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the Corpus Christi Church in Nieśwież. The first baroque building in present-day Poland was the Church of St. Peter and Paul in Kraków by Giovanni Battista Trevano; the Jewish population in this period was large and prosperous, many handsome Polish Jewish synagogues were built in baroque style. A handful of these buildings survive, including the Włodawa Synagogue. Secular Baroque architecture grew; the royal Warsaw Castle was reconstructed between 1596 and 1619 by the Italian architects Giacomo Rotondo, Matteo Castelli and Jan Trevano. Outside the Castle, a column with the Statue of King Zygmunt, sculpted by Clemente Molli and cast by Daniel Tym was raised by his son, Władysław IV Waza, in 1644.
Park Ujazdowski with a new palace, the palace of Ujazdów, was built by Trevano between 1619 and 1625. Palace of Ujazdów was soon overshadowed by the Wilanów Palace, raised by King John III Sobieski between 1677 and 1696. Style of those new royal mansions was soon imitated by numerous magnates who did not want to fall behind the times, leading to numerous baroque residences springing throughout Polish countryside, such as at Kruszyna, Łańcut, Wiśnicz, Ujazd. Churches Palaces Castles Tenements Interiors Church interiors Judaica
Sir John Vanbrugh was an English architect and dramatist best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. He wrote two argumentative and outspoken Restoration comedies, The Relapse and The Provoked Wife, which have become enduring stage favourites but occasioned much controversy, he was knighted in 1714. Vanbrugh was in many senses a radical throughout his life; as a young man and a committed Whig, he was part of the scheme to overthrow James II, put William III on the throne and protect English parliamentary democracy, he was imprisoned by the French as a political prisoner. In his career as a playwright, he offended many sections of Restoration and 18th century society, not only by the sexual explicitness of his plays, but by their messages in defence of women's rights in marriage, he was attacked on both counts, was one of the prime targets of Jeremy Collier's Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage. In his architectural career, he created, his architectural work was as bold and daring as his early political activism and marriage-themed plays, jarred conservative opinions on the subject.
Born in London and baptised on 24 January 1664, Vanbrugh was the fourth child, eldest surviving son, of Giles Vanbrugh, a London cloth-merchant of Flemish-Protestant background, his wife Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Barker, daughter of Sir Dudley Carleton, of Imber Court, Thames Ditton, Surrey. He grew up in Chester, where his family had been driven by either the major outbreak of the plague in London in 1665, or the Great Fire of 1666, it is possible that he attended The King's School in Chester, though no records of his being a scholar there survive. Another candidate would have been the school at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, founded by Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, it was not uncommon for boys to be sent to study at school away from home, or with a tutor. The architectural historian Kerry Downes is sceptical of earlier historians' claims of a lower middle-class background, writes that a 19th-century suggestion that Giles Vanbrugh was a sugar-baker has been misunderstood. "Sugar-baker" implies wealth, as the term refers not to a maker of sweets but to the owner of a sugar house, a factory for the refining of raw sugar from Barbados.
Sugar refining would have been combined with sugar trading, a lucrative business. Downes' example of one sugar baker's house in Liverpool, estimated to bring in £40,000 a year in trade from Barbados, throws a new light on Vanbrugh's social background, one rather different from the picture of a backstreet Chester sweetshop as painted by Leigh Hunt in 1840 and reflected in many accounts. To dispel the myth of Vanbrugh's low origins, Downes took pains to explore Vanbrugh's background examining the family and connexions of each of his four grandparents: Vanbrugh, Jacobs or Jacobson and Croft, summing up the characteristics of each line and concluding that, far from being of lower middle class origins, Vanbrugh was descended from Anglo-Flemish or Netherlandish Protestant merchants who settled in London in the 16th and 17th centuries, minor courtiers, country gentry; the complex web of kinship Downes' research shows that Vanbrugh had ties to many of England's leading mercantile and noble families.
These ties reveal the decidedly Protestant and sometimes radical milieu out of which Vanbrugh's own political opinions came. They gave him a wide social network that would play a role in all sections of his career: architectural, dramatic, military and social. Taken in this context, though he has sometimes been viewed as an odd or unqualified appointee to the College of Arms, it is not surprising, given the social expectations of his day, that by descent his credentials for his offices there were sound, his forebears, both Flemish/Dutch and English, were armigerous, their coats of arms can be traced in three out of four cases, revealing that Vanbrugh was of gentle descent. After growing up in a large household in Chester, the question of how Vanbrugh spent the years from age 18 to 22 was long unanswered, with the baseless suggestion sometimes made that he had been studying architecture in France. In 1681 records name a ` John Vanbrugg' working for Giles Vanbrugh's cousin, it was not unusual for a merchant's son to follow in his father's trade and seek similar work in business, making use of family ties and connections.
However, Robert Williams proved in an article in the TLS that Vanbrugh was in India for part of this period, working for the East India Company at their trading post in Surat, Gujarat where his uncle, Edward Pearce, had been Governor. However, Vanbrugh never mentioned this experience in writing. Scholars debate whether evidence of his exposure to Indian architecture can be detected in any of his architectural designs; the picture of a well-connected youth is reinforced by the fact that Vanbrugh in January 1686 took up an officer's commission in his distant relative the Earl of Huntingdon's foot
New Spanish Baroque
New Spanish Baroque refers to Baroque art in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. During this period, artists of New Spain experimented with expressive and realistic creative approaches, making art that became popular in New Spanish society. Among notable artworks are polychrome sculptures, which as well as the technical skill they display, reflect the expressiveness and the colour contrasts characteristic of New Spanish Baroque. Two styles can be traced in the architecture of New Spain: the Salomónico, developed from the mid-17th century, the Estípite which began in the early 18th century. A model of the Cathedral of Puebla represents the architectural magnificence of New Spain. A choir book and a harpsichord of the 18th century highlight the importance of music for the colonial society of the Baroque period in Mexico. In the realm of painting, New Spanish baroque had great artists whose works are in museums such as the Museum of the Viceroyalty in Tepotzotlán, El Carmen Museum in San Ángel, Santa Mónica Museum in Puebla, Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City.
Among the most distinguished artists were: Miguel Cabrera Juan Correa Cristóbal de Villalpando Simón Pereyns Simón Pereyns lived in Antwerp circa 1530 Mexico circa 1600. He was a Flemish painter and in 1558, he moved to Lisbon and to Madrid, where he worked as a court artist. In 1566, he went to New Spain, achieved fame with his paintings in Mexico. Many works are attributed to him. Pereyns was put on trial on religious charges, his beliefs were inherited from his ancestors his father, a Lutheran. While he was in prison, he painted, he was released and donated the painting to the Archbishop of Mexico, whose successors mounted it on the Altar del Perdón at the Metropolitan Cathedral. Juan Correa was a Novohispanic painter active between 1676 and 1716, his painting covers topics both secular. One of his best works is considered to be the "Assumption of the Virgin" in the Cathedral of Mexico City, he made paintings of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Rome in 1669. Some of Cristóbal de Villalpando's early work dates from 1675 with the high altar of the Franciscan convent of St. Martin of Tours in Huaquechula, where there are 17 of his paintings.
It is that the painter was born in Mexico City in 1649. Little is known about his childhood and adolescence, the earliest documented date being his wedding in 1669, he married María de Mendoza. Undoubtedly, Villalpando was one of the foremost painters of Mexico City during the latter part of the 17th century, as evidenced by the collection of triumphal paintings that were commissioned by the council of the Cathedral of Mexico, for decorating the walls of the sacristy of the church; the canvases prepared for that commission were: The Triumph of the Catholic Church, The Triumph of St. Peter, St. Michael's victory and the appearance of St. Michael on Mount Gargano. Due to structural faults in the vaults of the building, Villalpando was unable to complete the intended set of six paintings. Due to this hindrance to his work at Mexico City, Villalpando moved to Puebla de los Ángeles where he carried out similar work at the Cathedral there, he produced a well-known oil painting titled "Glorification of the Virgin", in the dome of the Chapel de Los Reyes located in the end wall of the church.
It is worth noting the amount of his work found in the church of the Profesa in Mexico City. His importance was recognized by the painters' guild, of which he became leader on several occasions, he reached old age with a great reputation, he was recognized as an important stylistic influence on generations. He is considered one of the last exponents of Baroque painting in New Spain: after his death New Spanish plastic art took a different path. Miguel Cabrera was an extraordinarily prolific artist, specialising in depictions of the Virgin Mary and other saints, he is regarded as the leading colourist of the 18th century. His paintings were much in demand: many requests for pictures came from convents, churches and noble houses. A wide range of poets and writers fell within the New Spanish Baroque tradition. Gutierre de Cetina was a Spanish poet of the Spanish Golden Age, he was born in Seville and died in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Of a noble and wealthy family, he lived for a long time in Italy, where he was a soldier under the command of Charles I.
Spending much time in the court of the Prince of Ascoli, to whom he dedicated numerous poems, associated with Luis de Leyva and distinguished humanist and poet Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. He adopted the nickname "Vandalio" and composed a song in the Petrarchan style to a beautiful woman named Laura Gonzaga. To such a woman was dedicated the famous madrigal, included in all anthologies of poetry in the Spanish language: In the same songbook there are many sonnets whose pattern was the rendering of a loving thought of Petrarch or Ausiàs March in the quartets, a further, more personal development in the tercets. In 1554 Cetina returned to Spain and in 1556 went to Mexico, he fell in love again, with Leonor de Osma, was mort