John Hutchinson (Roundhead)
Colonel John Hutchinson was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England from 1648 to 1653 and in 1660. He was one of the Puritan leaders, and fought in the army in the English Civil War. As a member of the court of justice in 1649 he was 13th of 59 Commissioners to sign the death-warrant of King Charles I. Although he avoided the fate of some of the other regicides executed after the Restoration, he was exempted from the general pardon, in 1663, he was accused of involvement in the Farnley Wood Plot, was incarcerated and died in prison. Hutchinson was the son of Sir Thomas Hutchinson of Owthorpe Hall and he was baptised on 18 September 1615. He was educated at Nottingham Grammar School, Lincoln Grammar School and Peterhouse, in 1636 he entered Lincolns Inn to study law, but devoted himself to music and divinity rather than the study of law. Like his father, Sir Thomas Hutchinson, who represented Nottinghamshire in the Long parliament, he took and he first distinguished himself by preventing Lord Newark, the lord-lieutenant of the county, from seizing the county powder-magazine for the kings service.
He next accepted a commission as lieutenant-colonel in the regiment raised by Colonel Francis Pierrepont, the town was unfortified, the garrison weak and ill-supplied, with the committee torn by political and personal feuds. The neighbouring royalist commanders, Hutchinsons cousin, and William, Marquess of Newcastle, newcastles agent offered him £10,000, and promised that he should be made the best lord in Nottinghamshire, but Hutchinson indignantly refused to entertain such proposals. Sir Charles Lucas entered it in January 1644 and endeavoured to set it on fire, Hutchinson succeeded in making good these losses, and answered each new summons to surrender with a fresh defiance. The difficulties were increased by continual disputes between Hutchinson and the committee, which were a result, in Nottingham as elsewhere. But there is evidence that Hutchinson was irritable, quick-tempered, the Committee of Both Kingdoms endeavoured to end the quarrel by a compromise, which Hutchinson found great difficulty in persuading his opponents to accept.
On 16 March 1646 Hutchinson was returned to Parliament as member for Nottinghamshire, succeeding to the held by his father. His religious views led him to himself to the Independent rather than the Presbyterian party. As governor he had protected the separatists to the best of his ability and he was commissioner for exclusion from sacrament in 1646 and commissioner for scandalous offences in 1648. After serious consideration and prayer he signed the sentence against the king and his neighbours thought of electing him to the First Protectorate Parliament in 1656, but Major-general Whalleys influence induced them to change their minds. The real object of his action seems to have been the restoration of the Long parliament. He retained sufficient popularity to be returned to the Convention Parliament as one of the members for Nottingham, yet, as his wife owns, he was not very well satisfied in himself for accepting the deliverance
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In a narrower sense, in the British tradition, it refers to the execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial. More broadly, it can refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Before the Tudor period, English kings had been murdered while imprisoned or killed in battle by their subjects, elizabeth had originally been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, in Regnans in Excelsis, for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England. The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeths action, after the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. They tried to negotiate a compromise with him, but he stuck steadfastly to his view that he was King by Divine Right, on 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King.
In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London, the House of Commons of the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. From a Royalist and post-restoration perspective this Bill was not lawful, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. At his trial in front of The High Court of Justice on Saturday 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, I would know by what authority, I mean lawful. In view of the issues involved, both sides based themselves on surprisingly technical legal grounds. Charles did not dispute that Parliament as a whole did have some powers, but he maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead this was treated as a plea of guilty and he was found guilty on Saturday 27 January 1649, and his death warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet.
On the day of his execution,30 January 1649, Charles dressed in two shirts so that he would not shiver from the cold, in case it was said that he was shivering from fear. Charles was escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded. He forgave those who had passed sentence on him and gave instructions to his enemies that they should learn to know their duty to God, the King - that is, my successors - and the people. He gave a speech outlining his unchanged views of the relationship between the monarchy and the monarchs subjects, ending with the words I am the martyr of the people. His head was severed from his body with one blow, one week later, the Rump, sitting in the House of Commons, passed a bill abolishing the monarchy
New Model Army
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia, to establish a professional officer corps, the armys leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians, many of its common soldiers therefore held Dissenting or radical views unique among English armies. Ultimately, the Armys Generals could rely both on the Armys internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the Good Old Cause to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule. The New Model Army was formed as a result of dissatisfaction among Parliamentarians with the conduct of the Civil War in 1644, there was increasing dissension among Parliaments generals in the field. Parliament suspected that many of its officers, who were mainly Presbyterians, were inclined to favour peace with King Charles.
The Earl of Manchester was one of the prominent members favouring peace and Cromwell clashed publicly over this issue several times. Parliaments senior commander, the Earl of Essex, was suspected of lack of determination and was on poor terms with his subordinates. The tensions among the Parliamentarian generals became a public argument after the Second Battle of Newbury. Some of them believed that King Charless army had escaped encirclement after the battle through inaction on the part of some commanders. In response, Parliament directed the Committee of Both Kingdoms, the body that oversaw the conduct of the War. On 19 December, the House of Commons passed the Self-denying Ordinance, originally a separate matter from the establishment of the New Model Army, it soon became intimately linked with it. Once the Self-denying Ordinance became Law, the Earls of Manchester and Essex, on 6 January 1645, the Committee of Both Kingdoms established the New Model Army, appointing Sir Thomas Fairfax as its Captain-General and Sir Philip Skippon as Sergeant-Major General of the Foot.
The Self-denying Ordinance took time to pass the House of Lords, although Oliver Cromwell handed over his command of the Armys cavalry when the Ordinance was enacted, Fairfax requested his services when another officer wished to emigrate. Cromwell was commissioned Colonel of Vermuydens former regiment of horse, and was appointed Lieutenant General of the Horse in June and his son-in-law Henry Ireton were two of the only four exceptions to the Self-denying Ordinance, the other two being local commanders in Cheshire and North Wales. They were allowed to serve under a series of temporary commissions that were continually extended. They were intended to reduce the remaining Royalist garrisons in their areas, some of their regiments were reorganised and incorporated into the New Model Army during and after the Second English Civil War. Although the cavalry regiments were well up to strength and there was no shortage of volunteers
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, Charles IIs father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim, after 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charless English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England, Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
In 1670, he entered into the treaty of Dover. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oatess revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charless brother, the crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed, Charless wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James, Charles II was born in St Jamess Palace on 29 May 1630.
His parents were Charles I and Henrietta Maria, Charles was their second son and child. Their first son was born about a year before Charles but died within a day, England and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican and Roman Catholic. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, at or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary, by spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646, at The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married
On his fathers death Richard became Lord Protector, but lacked authority. He attempted to mediate between the army and civil society, and allowed a Parliament which contained a number of disaffected Presbyterians. Suspicions that civilian councilors were intent on supplanting the army were brought to a head by an attempt to prosecute a major-general for actions against a Royalist. The army made a show of force against Richard, and may have had him in detention. Without a king-like figure, such as Cromwell, as head of state the government lacked coherence, monck presided over the Restoration of 1660. Richard Cromwell subsisted in straitened circumstances after his resignation, he went abroad and he eventually returned to his English estate, dying in his eighties. None of his children had offspring of their own and he has no descendants, Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 4 October 1626, the third son of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth. Little is known of his childhood and he and his three brothers were educated at Felsted School in Essex close to their mothers family home.
There is no record of his attending university, in May 1647, he became a member of Lincolns Inn. He may have served as a captain in Thomas Fairfaxs lifeguard during the late 1640s, in 1649 Cromwell married Dorothy Maijor, daughter of Richard Maijor, a member of the Hampshire gentry. He and his wife moved to Maijors estate at Hursley in Hampshire. During the 1650s they had nine children, five of whom survived to adulthood, Cromwell was named a Justice of the Peace for Hampshire and sat on various county committees. Better than idleness, or mere outward worldly contents and these fit for public services, for which a man is born. He fought in none of the English civil wars, Oliver Cromwell had risen from unknown member of Parliament in his forties to being commander of the New Model Army, which emerged victorious from the English Civil War. A Puritan regime strictly enforced the Sabbath, and banned almost all form of public celebration, in 1653, Cromwell was passed over as a member of Barebones Parliament, although his younger brother Henry was a member of it.
Under the Protectorates constitution, Oliver Cromwell was required to nominate a successor and he was present at the second installation of his father as Lord Protector in June, having played no part in the first installation. In July he was appointed chancellor of Oxford University, and in December was made a member of the Council of State, Oliver Cromwell died on 3 September 1658, and Richard was informed on the same day that he was to succeed him. Richard was faced by two immediate problems, the first was the army, which questioned his position as commander given his lack of military experience
Commonwealth of England
The republics existence was declared through An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth, adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament, the Rump was created by Prides Purge of those members of the Long Parliament who did not support the political position of the Grandees in the New Model Army. Just before and after the execution of King Charles I on 30 January 1649, with the abolition of the monarchy, Privy Council and the House of Lords, it had unchecked executive and legislative power. The English Council of State, which replaced the Privy Council and it was selected by the Rump, and most of its members were MPs. However, the Rump depended on the support of the Army with which it had an uneasy relationship. After the execution of Charles I, the House of Commons abolished the monarchy and it declared the people of England and of all the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging to be henceforth under the governance of a Commonwealth, effectively a republic.
In Prides Purge, all members of parliament who would not accept the need to bring the King to trial had been removed, thus the Rump never had more than two hundred members. Most Rumpers were gentry, though there was a proportion of lesser gentry. Less than one-quarter of them were regicides and this left the Rump as basically a conservative body whose vested interests in the existing land ownership and legal systems made it unlikely to want to reform them. For the first two years of the Commonwealth, the Rump faced economic depression and the risk of invasion from Scotland and Ireland, by 1653 Cromwell and the Army had largely eliminated these threats. There were many disagreements amongst factions of the Rump, some wanted a republic, but others favoured retaining some type of monarchical government. Most of Englands traditional ruling classes regarded the Rump as a government made up of regicides. However, they were aware that the Rump might be all that stood in the way of an outright military dictatorship.
High taxes, mainly to pay the Army, were resented by the gentry, limited reforms were enough to antagonise the ruling class but not enough to satisfy the radicals. Despite its unpopularity, the Rump was a link with the old constitution, by 1653, France and Spain had recognised Englands new government. Though the Church of England was retained, episcopacy was suppressed, mainly on the insistence of the Army, many independent churches were tolerated, although everyone still had to pay tithes to the established church. Some small improvements were made to law and court procedure, for example, there were no widespread reforms of the common law. This would have upset the gentry, who regarded the law as reinforcing their status
William Heveningham was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1653. He supported the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War and was one of the Regicides of Charles I of England, the son of Sir John Heveningham, he was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1633. In April 1640, he was elected Member of Parliament for Stockbridge in the Short Parliament and he was re-elected MP for Stockbridge for the Long Parliament in November 1640 and sat until 1653 in the Rump Parliament. He served on committee of Eastern Association in 1646, as a member of high court he refused to sign death-warrant of Charles I in 1649. He was a member of council of state in 1649 and was appointed Vice-Admiral of the Coast for Suffolk in 1651, at the Restoration Heveninghams life was saved by the exertions of his wifes relations in 1661. He was imprisoned at Windsor in 1664, Heveningham married firstly Katherine Walop, d. 1648, daughter of Sir Henry Wallop and they had two children, William Heveningham, d.
1675, married Barbara Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Viscount Grandison Abigail Heveningham, 1660-1686, married Sir John Newton, 3rd Baronet of Barrs Court
John Bradshaw (judge)
John Bradshaw was an English judge. He is most notable for his role as President of the High Court of Justice for the trial of King Charles I, as a child he attended the free school at Stockport, as well as schools in Bunbury and Middleton. During his teenage years he attended The Kings School, Macclesfield and he was articled as clerk to an attorney in Congleton. Almost opposite the hall, the White Lion public house bears a blue plaque, placed by the Congleton Civic Society. Said to have housed the office where John Bradshaw, regicide. After studying English law in London, he was called to the bar at Grays Inn on 23 April 1627 and he served on the provincial bar of Congleton until he became mayor in 1637. On 3 January 1638 he was married to Mary, a daughter of Thomas Marbury, at some time between 1640 and 1643, Bradshaw moved from Congleton to Basinghall Street in London. In 1643, he was elected judge of the London sheriffs court and he maintained the post until his death. Following the death of the Earl of Essex in 1646, Parliament voted Somerhill House to Bradshaw and he was appointed a serjeant-at-law by Parliament and in 1648 Chief Justice of Chester and North Wales.
In 1649 he was president of the parliamentary commission to try the king. Other lawyers of greater prominence had refused the position, Bradshaw was a controversial choice as Lord President, and opinions of his efficiency as a judge varied. Bulstrode Whitelocke believed that he was learned in his profession, but Thomas Fuller dismissed him as a man of execrable memory, the King himself, as well as much of the court, professed to having never heard of him. While he served as the Lord President, he was flanked by a personal guard. He wore scarlet robes and a broad-brimmed, bullet-proof beaver hat, King Charles refused to recognise the authority of the court and would not plead. After declaring Charles I guilty as a Tyrant, Murderer, under English law, a condemned prisoner was no longer alive and therefore did not have the right to speak, and Bradshaw followed this tradition strictly. On 12 March 1649 Bradshaw was elected President of the Council of State, which was to act as the Executive of the government in place of the King.
From 1 August 1649, Bradshaw held the post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, after wars in Scotland and Ireland the Long Parliament had still not dissolved itself or called for re-elections. On 30 April 1653, Oliver Cromwell declared Parliament and the Council dissolved, after that date Bradshaw served as commissioner of the Duchy, jointly with Thomas Fell, until mounting differences with Cromwell culminated in his resignation in 1654
Oliver St John
Sir Oliver St John, was an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1653. He supported the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War, St John was the son of Oliver St John of Cayshoe and his wife Sarah Bulkeley, daughter of Edward Bulkeley of Odell, Bedfordshire. His sister, Elizabeth St John, married Reverend Samuel Whiting and emigrated to Boston and he matriculated from Queens College, Cambridge at Lent 1616, and was admitted at Lincolns Inn on 22 April 1619. He was called to the bar in 1626, St John appears to have got into trouble with the court in connection with a seditious publication, and to have associated himself with the future popular leaders John Pym and Lord Saye. In 1638 he defended John Hampden, along with co-counsel Robert Holborne, on his refusal to pay Ship Money, on which occasion he made a notable speech which established him as a leading advocate. In the same year he married, as his wife, Elizabeth Cromwell. The marriage led to a friendship with Cromwell.
In April 1640, St John was elected Member of Parliament for Totnes in the Short Parliament and he was re-elected MP for Totnes for the Long Parliament in November 1640. He acted in close alliance with Hampden and Pym, especially in opposition to the impost of Ship Money, in 1641, with a view of securing his support, the king appointed St John solicitor-general. This did not prevent him taking a role in the impeachment of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford. As a result, he was dismissed from the office of Solicitor General in 1643, on the outbreak of the Civil War, St John became recognised as one of the parliamentary leaders. In the quarrel between the parliament and the army in 1647 he sided with the latter, and was not excluded under Prides Purge in 1649, throughout this period he enjoyed Cromwells confidence. Apart from Cromwell he had few friends, his manner was described as cold and forbidding. In 1648 St John was appointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and he refused to act as one of the commissioners for the trial of King Charles I, and had no hand in the constitution of the Commonwealth.
In 1651 he went to The Hague as one of the envoys to negotiate a union between England and the Dutch Republic, a mission in which he failed, leading to the First Anglo-Dutch War. In the same year he conducted a similar negotiation with Scotland. He became Chancellor of Cambridge University in 1651 and retained the post until 1660, St John built Thorpe Hall at Longthorpe in Peterborough between 1653 and 1656. He was a member of the Council of State from 1659 to 1660, after the Restoration St John published an account of his past conduct, and this apologia enabled him to escape any worse retribution than exclusion from public office
Alexander Popham, of Littlecote, Wiltshire was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1669. He was patron of the philosopher John Locke, Popham was born at Littlecote House in Wiltshire, the son of Sir Francis Popham and Anne Gardiner Dudley, and grandson of Sir John Popham and wife Amy Games. He was educated at Balliol College and admitted to the Middle Temple in 1622, Popham was a prominent figure and Justice of the Peace in Somerset. In April 1640 he was elected Member of Parliament for Bath in the Short Parliament and he was re-elected MP for Bath for Long Parliament in November 1640. Popham came from a Presbyterian family and was himself an elder in the church and he supported the Parliamentary cause and fought in the Parliamentary army with the rank of colonel and had a garrison stationed at Littlecote House. In 1654 he was elected MP for Bath again in the First Protectorate Parliament and he was elected MP for Wiltshire in the Second Protectorate Parliament and for Minehead in the Third Protectorate Parliament.
He did not support the Protectorate and although he sat in the Protectorate parliaments he refused to take his seat in Cromwells Other House, in April 1660 he was elected MP for Bath again in the Convention Parliament. After the restoration of the monarchy, he made his peace with Charles II and he was re-elected MP for Bath in 1661 to the Cavalier Parliament. Popham married Letitia Carre, daughter of William Carre of Ferniehurst, half brother to Robert Carre and their daughter, married firstly Edward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, and secondly Francis Seymour, of Sherborne, Dorset. Letitia Popham, who married Sir Edward Seymour, 5th Baronet and her son was Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset, who inherited the dukedom from his fathers 6th cousin Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset who died in 1750 without male children. Essex Popham, eldest daughter, who married on 17 August 1663 John Poulett, Letitia Popham, who became the second wife of Sir Edward Seymour, 4th Baronet, of Berry Pomeroy in Devon.
He is considered to be one of the earliest cases of a deaf person learning to talk. Sources Elliott, Find could end 350-year science dispute, BBC News, retrieved 2008-07-27 Helms, Irene, Alexander, of Houndstreet, Som. and Littlecote, Wilts. in Henning, B. D