Crawley is a town and borough in West Sussex, England. It is 28 miles south of Charing Cross,18 miles north of Brighton and Hove, Crawley covers an area of 17.36 square miles and had a population of 106,597 at the time of the 2011 Census. The area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, and was a centre of ironworking in Roman times, Crawley developed slowly as a market town from the 13th century, serving the surrounding villages in the Weald. Its location on the road from London to Brighton brought passing trade. A rail link to London opened in 1841, Gatwick Airport, nowadays one of Britains busiest international airports, opened on the edge of the town in the 1940s, encouraging commercial and industrial growth. After the Second World War, the British Government planned to move large numbers of people and jobs out of London, the New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley as the site of one of these. The town contains 13 residential neighbourhoods radiating out from the core of the old market town, the nearby communities of Ifield, Pound Hill and Three Bridges were absorbed into the new town at various stages in its development.
In 2009, expansion was being planned in the west and north-west of the town, the town has developed into the main centre of industry and employment between London and the south coast. Its large industrial area supports manufacturing and service companies, many of them connected with the airport, the commercial and retail sectors continue to expand. The area may have been settled during the Mesolithic period, locally manufactured flints of the Horsham Culture type have been found to the southwest of the town. Tools and burial mounds from the Neolithic period, and burial mounds, Crawley is on the western edge of the High Weald, which produced iron for more than 2,000 years from the Iron Age onwards. Goffs Park—now a recreational area in the south of the town—was the site of two late Iron Age furnaces and mineral extraction continued throughout Roman times, particularly in the Broadfield area where many furnaces were built. In the 5th century, Saxon settlers named the area Crows Leah—meaning a crow-infested clearing and this name evolved over time, and the present spelling appeared by the early 14th century.
By this time, nearby settlements were established, the Saxon church at Worth, for example. Although Crawley itself is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, the first written record of Crawley dates from 1202, when a licence was issued by King John for a weekly market on Wednesdays. Crawley grew slowly in importance over the few centuries, but was boosted in the 18th century by the construction of the turnpike road between London and Brighton. When this was completed in 1770, travel between the fashionable seaside resort and London became safer and quicker, and Crawley prospered as a coaching halt. By 1839 it offered almost an hourly service to both destinations, the George, a timber-framed house dating from the 15th century, expanded to become a large coaching inn, taking over adjacent buildings
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Ronald Antonio OSullivan, OBE is an English professional snooker and pool player. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the sports history and he is noted for his rapid playing style, mercurial temperament, and his ambivalent relationship with the sport, from which he has taken prolonged sabbaticals and repeatedly threatened to retire. Ronnie is based at the Legends Snooker Academy in Leytonstone, England, a childhood snooker prodigy, OSullivan made his first century break at age 10, and his first maximum break at age 15. He turned professional in 1992, at the age of 16 and he is the youngest player to have won the Masters, having captured his first title in 1995 at the age of 19 years and 69 days. His record in Triple Crown events now stands at five World Championship, a record seven Masters, OSullivan has held the world number one ranking on multiple occasions, most recently during the 2009/2010 season. His other achievements include ten Premier League titles and winning the Nations Cup with England in 2000, known as a prolific break-builder, OSullivan holds the record for the most competitive century breaks with 868.
OSullivans achievements in snooker began at an early age and he made his first century break at the age of 10, completed his first total clearance at age 12, and became British Under-16 Champion at age 13. He made his debut in The Thames Snooker Classic when he was 14. He compiled his first maximum break in the final of the 1991 British Amateur Championships at age 15 and he turned professional in 1992, aged 16. OSullivan began the 1992/1993 season by winning 74 of his first 76 professional matches, including a streak of 38 successive victories. At the qualifying stage of the Grand Prix he defeated Jason Curtis 5–0 in a time of 43 minutes 36 seconds, after this Alan Hughes gave him the nickname The Rocket. In September 1992, at the age of 16, he became the youngest player ever to qualify for the World Championship. He made his Crucible debut on 18 April 1993 at the age of 17 years and 134 days and he lost 7–10 to Alan McManus in the first round. OSullivan was named the WPBSAs Young Player of the Year for 1993, in the 1993/1994 season OSullivan defeated Hendry 10–6 in the final of the UK Championship to win his first ranking title.
At the age of 17 years and 358 days he became the youngest ever winner of a ranking tournament. He faced Hendry again in the final of the European Open and he won his second ranking title at the British Open by defeating James Wattana 9–4 in the final. He reached the round of the World Championship but lost 3–13 against John Parrott. Having started the season ranked number 57 in the world, he ended it ranked number 9 and he captured his first Masters title by defeating John Higgins 9–3 in the final, becoming the youngest player ever to win the tournament at the age of 19 years and 69 days
Mark Davis (snooker player)
Mark Davis is an English professional snooker player from St. Leonards in Sussex, England. The highlights of his career so far have been winning the Benson & Hedges Championship in 2002, Davis is the oldest snooker player to make an official maximum break of 147 points in a professional competition, at the age of 44 years and 202 days. He broke his own record of 44 years and 151 days. Davis came close to losing his Main Tour status in the late 1990s, reaching the quarter-finals of the 2001 Regal Scottish tournament, his second career quarter-final, was the main catalyst for this. His success in reaching the 2008 World Championship came after 2 poor seasons and he was beaten in the last 16 5–2 by Ali Carter. He followed this up by qualifying for the Bahrain and UK Championships, though he was forced to pull out early in his last-32 match against Joe Perry in the latter. He exceeded his 2007/2008 ranking points total after only five of the eight events of the 2008/2009 season, in 2009 Davis won the Six-Red World Championship.
In 2010, Davis reached the round of the World Championship for the first time in 15 years by defeating sixth seed Ryan Day. Davis has compiled over 200 competitive centuries in his career up to October 2016 and he got his career best tournamant break of 143 in the China Open on 29 March 2010, the 93rd century of his career, in a wild-card round match against Tian Pengfei. After an excellent 2009/2010 season, he reached the top 32 of the players and claim his highest rank, his strong performances continued and took him to a career high ranking of 18. Davis qualified for all but two of the events in the 2011/2012 season. He could only advance beyond the first round in the Australian Goldfields Open, Davis played in all 12 of the minor-ranking Players Tour Championship events during the season, reaching the final of Event 4, where he lost to Selby 0–4. This result was a contributory factor to Davis finishing 16th on the PTC Order of Merit. At the Finals he beat Tom Ford, before losing to Stephen Maguire in the last 16, Davis season came to an end when he suffered a heavy 2–10 loss, while feeling unwell, in the World Championship to Ali Carter.
He finished the season ranked world number 19, with the elite top 16 places still eluding him, Davis started the 2012/2013 season very successfully by reaching the first ranking event semi-final of his 21-year professional career at the Wuxi Classic. His run included wins over local favourite Ding Junhui, Jamie Burnett and he trailed 0–4 at the mid-session interval, before coming back to play inspired snooker to lead 5–4 in the best of 11 frames match. However, Bingham levelled the contest before compiling a 134 break to win the decider, at the Six-red World Championship he claimed the title by defeating Shaun Murphy 8–4 in the final. The winners cheque of £40,000 is the biggest of his career to date, in the Australian Goldfields Open Davis saw off Jack Lisowski, home favourite Neil Robertson and Martin Gould, to reach his second successive ranking semi-final
Barry Maurice William Hearn is an English sporting events promoter and the founder and chairman of promotions company Matchroom Sport. Through Matchroom, Hearn is involved in sports, including pool, tenpin bowling, Table Tennis. Hearn is currently the chairman of the Professional Darts Corporation, and was until July 2010 chairman of the World Professional Billiards, until July 2014, was the chairman of Leyton Orient F. C. Born in 1948 on an estate in Dagenham, Essex. He worked and ran a series of businesses as a teenager, from washing cars to picking fruit. After qualifying as an accountant, Hearn took over the role of director to a design company based in Kensal Green. He formed a new firm, Kensal House Investments, and DHA became Deryck Healey International, in the early 1970s, looking for a property investment, Hearn bought a snooker hall in Romford, Greater London. The same year, the BBC began promoting snooker on BBC1 in colour television and business partner Deryck John Healey bought Lucania Billiard Halls, which formed the basis of his future career, promoting snooker via colour television.
Hearn began promoting sporting events in 1974, working with amateur snooker players Geoff Foulds, father of Neal Foulds, in 1976 he became manager of Steve Davis, who went on to win the World Championship six times. Hearn prospered from the boom of the 1980s when he formed Matchroom with players Davis. Later Matchroom snooker players include Terry Griffiths, Dennis Taylor, Willie Thorne, Neal Foulds, Jimmy White, Cliff Thorburn, Hearn appeared alongside many Matchroom players in the video for Snooker Loopy, a hit for rockney pop rock duo Chas & Dave. Until July 2010, Hearn was chairman of the World Professional Billiards, in June 2010, following a vote by the members, Hearn took a controlling interest in the organisations commercial arm, World Snooker Limited with a view to revitalising the game. Hearn moved into boxing in 1987, his first promotion being the Frank Bruno versus Joe Bugner bout at White Hart Lane in October 1987. He offered the rights to Greg Dyke of London Weekend Television for £200,000.
Hearn has since promoted many leading British and Irish boxers, including Chris Eubank, Nigel Benn, Lennox Lewis, Naseem Hamed, Steve Collins, Hearn said, But to be honest I was very pleased with myself in Hong Kong. In April 2008 Hearn introduced the Prizefighter series, a tournament featuring 8 different boxers in a sort of last man standing competition. His son Eddie now manages the side of the business. He has made attempts to buy out the rival body, which would reunify the game
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Scottish Open (snooker)
The Scottish Open is a ranking professional snooker tournament held in Scotland. The tournament had many changes in its history, as the tournament was formerly called International Open, Goya Matchroom Trophy. Apart from a hiatus in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons, the tournament remained a ranking event until 2003/2004, in the 2012/2013 season the tournament was added back to the calendar as part of the Players Tour Championship minor-ranking series. The last champion was Marco Fu, the tournament began in 1981 as the International Open at the Assembly Rooms in Derby, and became the following year the second ranking event after the World Championship. The event moved to the Eldon Square in Newcastle upon Tyne, until 1984 the event was sponsored by Jameson Whiskey. In 1985 the event moved to the Trentham Gardens in Stoke-on-Trent and was renamed to the Goya Matchroom Trophy due to sponsorship from Matchroom, the International Open name returned the following year and the sponsorship was overtaken by BCE and Fidelity Unit Trusts.
After 1989 the event went on a two-year hiatus, the event returned in the 1992/1993 season with the sponsorship of Sky Sports. The event was moved to the half of the season and was played at the Plymouth Pavilions. The event was moved again in 1994, this time to the Bournemouth International Centre, after an unsponsored year Sweater Shop took over for 1995 and 1996. In 1997 the event was moved to the Aberdeen Exhibition Centre, in 1998 the event was renamed to Scottish Open, and it was sponsored by Imperial Tobacco through their Regal brand, who sponsored the Scottish Masters and Welsh Open. In 2003 the event was moved to Royal Highland Centre in Edinburgh, for the first time in twelve years no top 16 player reached the final. The event than was renamed to the Players Championship for 2004, the event was sponsored by Daily Record and held at the SECC in Glasgow. After the event Sky decided not to renew their contract, the event was added back to the calendar in the 2012/2013 season as minor-ranking tournament and was known as the Scottish Open.
It was held at Ravenscraig as the event of the European Tour. In 2015 Barry Hearn announced that the tournament will return in the 2016/17 season, the event will be held in Glasgow and will be part of the Home Series events, which will feature tournaments in the other home nations and have a one million pound bonus. Steve Davis was the tournaments most prolific winner, with a record 6 wins from 8 finals and this included a 9–0 whitewash of Dennis Taylor in the 1981 final. There were three breaks in the history of the tournament, two at the 2000 event. Stephen Maguire at the first qualifying round against Phaitoon Phonbun and Ronnie OSullivan in the last 32 against Quinten Hann, in 2012 Kurt Maflin achieved a 147 in the last 32 against Stuart Carrington
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
EventCity is an exhibition centre on Barton Dock Road close to the Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester, England. It opened in 2011 and is the 2nd largest exhibition space in the United Kingdom outside London, EventCity lies on the edge of the Trafford Park industrial area, adjacent to the retail/leisure Barton Square development and close to the Trafford Centre. It is close to Junction 9 of the M60 motorway, the proposed EventCity Metrolink station, if built, will be close to EventCity. The building was built in 1995 as a factory for Manchester Tobacco, peel Group subsequently acquired the building from them and leased it to Argos who used the building as a warehouse. Once the lease expired, the became the Museum of Museums from October 2010 to January 2011. EventCity has hosted events including the Caravan and Motorhome Show 2012, the Manchester auditions for The X Factor, amir Khan had his wedding ceremony here on June 9,2013 EventCity hosts a series of corporate Christmas parties throughout December every year.
Official website Manchester Christmas Parties at Event City