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English Revolution

The term "English Revolution" has been used to describe two different events in English history. The first to be so called—by Whig historians—was the Glorious Revolution of 1688, whereby James II was replaced by William III and Mary II as monarch and a constitutional monarchy was established. In the twentieth century, Marxist historians introduced the use of the term "English Revolution" to describe the period of the English Civil Wars and Commonwealth period, in which Parliament challenged King Charles I's authority, engaged in civil conflict against his forces, executed him in 1649; this was followed by a ten-year period of bourgeois republican government, the "Commonwealth", before monarchy was restored in the shape of Charles' son, Charles II, in 1660. In the Glorious Revolution of 1688, James II was replaced by William III and Mary II as monarch and a constitutional monarchy was established and was described by Whig historians as the English Revolution; this interpretation suggests that the "English Revolution" was the final act in the long process of reform and consolidation by Parliament to achieve a balanced constitutional monarchy in Britain, laws were made that pointed towards freedom.

The Marxist view of the English Revolution suggests that the events of 1640 to 1660 in Britain were a bourgeois revolution in which the final section of English feudalism was destroyed by a bourgeois class and replaced with a state which reflected the wider establishment of agrarian capitalism. Such an analysis sees the English Revolution as pivotal in the transition from feudalism to capitalism and from a feudal state to a capitalist state in Britain. According to Marxist historian Christopher Hill: The Civil War was a class war, in which the despotism of Charles I was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords, on the other side stood the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside... the yeomen and progressive gentry, and... wider masses of the population whenever they were able by free discussion to understand what the struggle was about. Developments of the Marxist view moved on from the theory of bourgeois revolution to suggest that the English Revolution anticipated the French Revolution and revolutions in the field of popular administrative and economic gains.

Along with the expansion of parliamentary power the revolution broke down many of the old power relations in both rural and urban English society. The guild democracy movement of the period won its greatest successes among London's transport workers, most notably the Thames Watermen, who democratized their company in 1641–43, and with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642, rural communities began to seize timber and other resources on the estates of royalists, the royal family and the church hierarchy. Some communities improved their conditions of tenure on such estates; the old status quo began a retrenchment after the end of the main civil war in 1646, more after the restoration of monarchy in 1660. But some gains were long-term; the democratic element introduced in the watermen's company in 1642, for example, with vicissitudes, until 1827. The Marxist view developed a concept of a “Revolution within the Revolution” which placed a greater deal of emphasis on the radical movements of the period who attempted to go further than Parliament in the aftermath of the Civil War.

There were, two revolutions in mid-seventeenth century England. The one which succeeded established the sacred rights of property, gave political power to the propertied, removed all impediments to the triumph of the ideology of the men of property – the protestant ethic. There was, another revolution which never happened, though from time to time it threatened; this might have established communal property, a far wider democracy in political and legal institutions, might have disestablished the state church and rejected the Protestant ethic. Brian Manning has claimed that: The old ruling class came back with new ideas and new outlooks which were attuned to economic growth and expansion and facilitated in the long run the development of a capitalist economy, it would all have been different if Charles I had not been obliged to summon that Parliament to meet at Westminster on November 3rd, 1640. The term "English Revolution" is used by non-Marxists in the Victorian period to refer to 1642, as critic and writer Matthew Arnold in "the Function of Criticism at the present time".

The notion that the events of 1640 to 1660 constitute an "English Revolution" has been criticised by historians such as Austin Woolrych, who has pointed out that painstaking research in county after county, in local record offices and family archives, has revealed that the changes in the ownership of real estate, hence in the composition of the governing class, were nothing like as great as used to be thought. Woolrych argues that the notion that the period constitutes an "English Revolution" not only ignores the lack of significant social change contained within the period, but ignores the long-term trends of the early modern period which extend beyond this narrow time-frame. Long Parliament English Civil War Oliver Cromwell Commonwealth of England English Revolution in the Colonies Levellers Diggers Fifth Monarchi

Greener Prison Shotgun

The Martini–Henry is a breech-loading single-shot lever-actuated rifle, used by the British Army. It first entered service in 1871 replacing the Snider–Enfield, a muzzle-loader converted to the cartridge system. Martini–Henry variants were used throughout the British Empire for 47 years, it combined the dropping-block action first developed by Henry O. Peabody and improved by the Swiss designer Friedrich von Martini, combined with the polygonal rifling designed by Scotsman Alexander Henry. Though the Snider was the first breechloader firing a metallic cartridge in regular British service, the Martini was designed from the outset as a breechloader and was both faster firing and had a longer range. There were four main marks of the Martini–Henry rifle produced: Mark I, Mark II, Mark III, Mark IV. There was an 1877 carbine version with variations that included a Garrison Artillery Carbine, an Artillery Carbine, smaller versions designed as training rifles for military cadets; the Mark IV Martini–Henry rifle ended production in 1889, but remained in service throughout the British Empire until the end of the First World War.

It was seen in use by some Afghan tribesmen as late as the Soviet invasion. Early in 2010 and 2011, United States Marines recovered at least three from various Taliban weapons caches in Marjah, another was found near Urgun in Paktika Province by United States Army's 101st Airborne Division; the Martini–Henry was copied on a large scale by North-West Frontier Province gunsmiths. Their weapons were of a poorer quality than those made by Royal Small Arms Factory, but copied down to the proof markings; the chief manufacturers were the Adam Khel Afridi. The British called such weapons "Pass-made rifles". In the original chambering, the rifles fired a round-nosed, tapered-head.452-inch, soft hollow-based lead bullet, wrapped in a paper patch giving a wider diameter of.460 to.469-inch. It was crimped in place with two cannelures, ahead of 2 fibre card or mill board disks, a concave beeswax wad, another card disk and cotton wool filler; this sat on top of the main powder charge inside a rimmed brass foil cartridge made in drawn brass.

The cartridge case was paper lined so as to prevent the chemical reaction between the black powder and the brass. Known today as the.577/450, a bottle-neck design with the same base as the.577 cartridge of the Snider–Enfield. It was charged with 85 grains of Curtis and Harvey's No.6 coarse black powder, notorious for its heavy recoil. The cartridge case was ejected to the rear; the rifle was the steel barrel 33.22 inches. The Henry patent rifling produced a heptagonal barrel with seven grooves with one turn in 22 inches; the weapon weighed 8 pounds 7 ounces. A sword bayonet was standard issue for non-commissioned officers; the standard bayonet was a socket-type spike, either converted from the older Pattern 1853 or newly produced as the Pattern 1876, referred to as the "lunger". A bayonet designed by Lord Elcho was intended for chopping and other sundry non-combat duties, featured a double row of teeth so it could be used as a saw; the Mk2 Martini–Henry rifle, as used in the Zulu Wars, was sighted to 1,800 yards.

At 1,200 yards, 20 shots exhibited a mean deflection from the centre of the group of 27 inches, the highest point on the trajectory was 8 feet at 500 yards. A 0.402 calibre model, the Enfield–Martini, incorporating several minor improvements such as a safety catch, was phased in to replace the Martini–Henry from about 1884. The replacement was gradual. However, before this was complete, the decision was made to replace the Martini–Henry rifles with the.303 calibre bolt-action magazine Lee–Metford, which gave a higher maximum rate of fire. To avoid having three different rifle calibres in service, the Enfield–Martinis were withdrawn, converted to 0.45 calibre, renamed Martini–Henry Mk IV "A", "B" and "C" pattern rifles. Some 0.303 calibre black-powder carbine versions were produced, known as the Martini–Metford, 0.303 calibre cordite carbines, called Martini–Enfields. During the Martini–Henry's service life the British army was involved in a large number of colonial wars, most notably the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879.

The rifle was used in the Battle of Isandlwana, by the company of the 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot at the battle of Rorke's Drift, where 139 British soldiers defended themselves against several thousand Zulus. The weapon was not phased out until 1904; the rifle suffered from cartridge-extraction problems during the Zulu War due to the thin, pliable foil brass cartridges used: they expanded too much into the rifle's chamber on detonation, to the point that they stuck or tore open inside the rifle's chamber. It would become difficult to move the breech block and reload the rifle diminishing its effectiveness, or rendering it useless if the block could not be opened. After investigating the matter, the British Army Ordnance Department determined the fragile construction of the rolled brass cartridge, fouling due to the b

Crux Easton

Crux Easton is a hamlet in the Ashmansworth civil parish of Hampshire, about 7 miles south of Newbury, Berkshire. The Church of England parish church of St Michael and All Angels was built in 1775, restored in 1894 and is a Grade II* listed building. In 1870 official records showed that Crux Easton parish covered 1,099 acres, had a population of 76, had 17 houses. There is a wind engine at Crux Easton, made by John Wallis Titt in about 1892. During the Second World War, the British Union of Fascists leader Sir Oswald Mosley bought Crux Easton House, where he and his wife Diana were placed under house arrest in 1944. Geoffrey de Havilland's father was vicar of Crux Easton. A grant of corn was made by Thomas Croc to the Canons of the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Sandleford of three quarters de meliori frumento annually in his town and manor of Estun. Witnesses: Sir Henry de Wodecote, John Lanceleuee, Robert Lord de Vrleston, William de Edmundestrop, Richard de Quercu, Bartholomew Croc, son of Ranuld de Vndecote and Richard Croc.

Page, W. H. ed.. A History of the County of Hampshire, Volume 4. Victoria County History. Pp. 311–314. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 188. "Crux Easton". GENUKI. 15 March 2012. Norgate, Jean. "Crux Easton". Old Hampshire Gazetteer. University of Portsmouth. "The History of St Michael's Church Crux Easton". The Churches of Hampshire. Southern Life. Archived from the original on 2006-01-13. Retrieved 2005-12-13. Map sources for Crux Easton Media related to Crux Easton at Wikimedia Commons

Port Adelaide v South Australia (1914)

The Port Adelaide v South Australia exhibition match played between Port Adelaide and the South Australian state team was an Australian rules football match played at the Jubilee Oval on 14 October 1914. The match saw one of seven South Australian Football League clubs in Port Adelaide take on a composite team of players from the remaining 6 clubs. Port Adelaide won the match by 58 points. Prior to the match Port Adelaide had won the 1914 SAFL Grand Final after going through the season undefeated. In addition to winning the South Australian premiership the club defeated the Victorian Football League premier Carlton at Adelaide Oval for the 1914 Championship of Australia; the match was held as the key attraction for the Eight Hours Day public holiday. A clear and sunny October day provided perfect, if warm, conditions for the match; the wind in the first quarter was in favour of South Australia. With the benefit of the wind in the second quarter Port Adelaide surged ahead kicking 5 goals 5 behinds to South Australia's 4 behinds.

The third quarter featured a tussle between Albert Klose. Horrie Pope relieved Harold Oliver of centre duties for a period. In the final quarter Port Adelaide's system and fitness overwhelmed South Australia kicking 6 goals 5 behinds to nothing; the medal for the best player during the match was awarded to Harold Oliver of Port Adelaide

Will Roberts

Will Roberts was a Welsh expressionist painter. Roberts was born in Ruabon, the son of a railwayman of the Great Western Railway; the family moved to Neath in Glamorgan in 1918. His gift for drawing was apparent from early on and, as a part-time student for four years from 1928, Roberts took classes at Swansea Art School under William Grant Murray. In 1945, he met the Polish artist Josef Herman. At that time, Herman was living in the neighbouring town of Ystradgynlais, they shared an appreciation of Expressionism and painted together. Roberts was to acknowledge Herman's influence on his work. Roberts found inspiration in the local community, painting industrial workers and farmers, domestic scenes of family life; some of Roberts' most striking works are of Welsh landscapes and he is now acknowledged as one of Wales's modern masters. In 1962, Roberts won the Byng-Stamper Prize for landscape painting, judged by Sir Kenneth Clark, for Farm at Cimla, acquired by the National Museum of Wales. In 1992, he was awarded an honorary Fellowship by University College, in 1994 a retrospective exhibition of his work was the centrepiece of the arts exhibit at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.

In 1998, the National Library of Wales accepted a donation of 600 drawings from Roberts. He was one of the original members of the arts group 56 Group Wales, which set out to raise the profile of modern Welsh art. Roberts died in Neath, where his 24 charcoal drawings of the Stations of the Cross may be seen in St David's Church. Another of his works, The Three Magi, is on the choir vestry wall. A memorial exhibition of drawings and some paintings was shown at the National Library of Wales in 2001. "Will Roberts - A Retrospective 1927-1992", ISBN 0-906860-24-5 Joyner, P: "Will Roberts RCA Drawings", ISBN 1-86225-025-1 The Official Will Roberts website Will Roberts exhibition at the Attic Gallery, Swansea at'Farm at Cimla', National Museum of Wales Will Roberts at 43 paintings by or after Will Roberts at the Art UK site

Walinong Sari

In Pahang Malay folklore, Walinong Sari was a legendary princess of Inderapura renowned for her beauty and fighting skills. The tale of the princess was immortalized in a folk song named after her. Princess Walinong Sari was said to have lived in the Old Pahang Kingdom, she is described as an exceptionally beautiful princess with a strong character. Skilled with spears and swords, she was renowned for her mastery of silat, the Malay martial art; as the tales of her beauty and skills spread across the neighboring kingdoms, many came to ask for her hand in marriage, but the princess found none of them acceptable. Her father became worried about finding a suitable husband for his daughter. At the same time, the celestial king, Raja Mambang Segara, whose abode was Mount Tahan, heard of the princess, he was decided to find out the truth about her. Disguised as an ugly man, he came down from the mountain to look for her; when he got an audience with the princess, Raja Mambang Segara found that she kept her face covered with a veil all the time.

He decided claiming that he could defeat her. This was a challenge. At an agreed time and place, the duel started; as both of them were good warriors, the duel prolonged for three days and three nights. But at the end of the third day, the princess’s veil fell off, exposing her extraordinary beauty to Raja Mambang Segara for the first time; the king was stunned by her beauty, fainted. When they washed him, his true appearance emerged and Princess Walinong Sari fell in love with him, but when the celestial king’s father, Raja Laksamana Petir, saw the events unfold from the peak of Mount Tahan, he became angry, for no celestial being could faint or lose a fight with a mere mortal beauty. He threw bolts of thunder and lightning at Inderapura, when the storm was over, Raja Mambang Segara had disappeared into thin air; that night, Princess Walinong Sari had a dream, in which a wise man told her that Raja Mambang Segara was the celestial king of Mount Tahan. After she awoke the next day, she disappeared from the palace to look for her beloved, never to be seen again.

The story is referenced in the folk song Walinong Sari. Among the earliest contemporary renditions of the song was by Rafeah Buang who included the song in her album Bingkisan dari Pahang which she dedicated to Pahang folk songs. Another famous rendition was by Siti Nurhaliza, who included the song in Seri Balas. Othman Puteh.