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English grammar

English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language. This includes the structure of words, phrases and sentences, right up to the structure of whole texts. There are historical, social and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar described here occur in some dialects; this article describes a generalized present-day Standard English – a form of speech and writing used in public discourse, including broadcasting, entertainment and news, over a range of registers from formal to informal. There are differences in grammar between the standard forms of British and Australian English, although these are more minor than differences in vocabulary and pronunciation. Modern English has abandoned the inflectional case system of Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions; the personal pronouns retain morphological case more than any other word class. For other pronouns, all nouns and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, by the "Saxon genitive or English possessive".

Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are distinguished in English: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and conjunctions. Nouns form the largest word class, verbs the second-largest. Unlike many Indo-European languages, English nouns do not have grammatical gender. Nouns, verbs and adverbs form open classes – word classes that accept new members, such as the noun celebutante, other similar new words; the others are considered to be closed classes. For example, it is rare for a new pronoun to enter the language. Determiners, traditionally classified along with adjectives, have not always been regarded as a separate part of speech. Interjections are another word class, but these are not described here as they do not form part of the clause and sentence structure of the language. Linguists accept nine English word classes: nouns, adjectives, pronouns, conjunctions and exclamations. English words are not marked for word class, it is not possible to tell from the form of a word which class it belongs to except, to some extent, in the case of words with inflectional endings or derivational suffixes.

On the other hand, most words belong to more than one word class. For example, run can serve as either a noun. Lexemes may be inflected to express different grammatical categories; the lexeme run has the forms runs, runny and running. Words in one class can sometimes be derived from those in another; this has the potential to give rise to new words. The noun aerobics has given rise to the adjective aerobicized. Words combine to form phrases. A phrase serves the same function as a word from some particular word class. For example, my good friend Peter is a phrase that can be used in a sentence as if it were a noun, is therefore called a noun phrase. Adjectival phrases and adverbial phrases function as if they were adjectives or adverbs, but with other types of phrases the terminology has different implications. For example, a verb phrase consists of a verb together with other dependents. Many common suffixes form nouns from other nouns or from other types of words, such as -age, -hood, so on, although many nouns are base forms not containing any such suffix.

Nouns are often created by conversion of verbs or adjectives, as with the words talk and reading. Nouns are sometimes classified semantically as proper nouns and common nouns or as concrete nouns and abstract nouns. A grammatical distinction is made between count nouns such as clock and city, non-count nouns such as milk and decor; some nouns can function both as countable and as uncountable such as the word "wine". Countable nouns have singular and plural forms. In most cases the plural is formed from the singular by adding -s, although there are irregular forms, including cases where the two forms are identical. For more details, see English plural. Certain nouns can be used with plural verbs though they are singular in form, as in The government were.... This is a form of synesis. See English plural § Singulars with collective meaning treated as plural. English nouns are not marked for case as they are in some languages, but they have possessive forms, through the addition of -'s or just an apostrophe in the case of -s plurals and sometimes other words ending with -s.

More the ending can be applied to noun phrases. The possessive form can be used either as a noun phrase; the status of the possessive as an affix or a clitic is the subject of debate. It differs from the noun in

Eric Clapton singles discography

The singles discography of Eric Clapton consists of 24 early career singles that Clapton recorded with various bands and artists including The Yardbirds, John Mayall & the Blues Breakers, John Lennon and the Plastic Ono Band as well as Derek and the Dominos. As a solo artist, Clapton released various promotional formats from 1970 to date, his commercially most successful singles are "Lay Down Sally", "Wonderful Tonight", "Change the World", "Tears in Heaven" and the cover of Bob Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff", released in 1974, that outplayed the original release, becoming a Billboard Hot 100 number-one hit. Clapton's best-selling single is "Wonderful Tonight" which has sold more than four million copies worldwide, although he is most known for his rock anthem "Layla", released in 1971. Clapton covered the song acoustically for his 1992 "Unplugged" million-seller, helped to cement Clapton's reputation as both a guitarist and singer; the British rock musician collaborated with friends along his extensive solo career.

Featured singles with artists like Elton John, Cher, Chrissie Hynde, Neneh Cherry and Zucchero Fornaciari helped to uplift Clapton's single performances. Eric Clapton videography


Ununiform is the thirteenth studio album by English trip hop artist Tricky. It was released by False Idols on 22 September 2017. Three singles were taken from this album,'The Only Way','When We Die' and'Running Wild', all of them released before the album, and alternative version of'The Only Way' was uploaded on Tricky personal Soundcloud account a few weeks after the original, released as a single in 2018, this version was included in the physical releases of the album, but unlisted in the back cover. The album features a variety of guest vocalists, including Russian rappers, American vocalists, his usual collaborator Francesca Belmonte, Tricky's frequent-collaborator and former girlfriend Martina Topley-Bird. American hip hop artist Jay-Z co-engineered the album. Tricky conceived the album while in Russia; the album was recorded in Germany. The album features a mixture of trip hop-inspired tracks as well as guitar-based tracks, including a cover version of "Doll Parts" by Hole, featuring vocals from Los Angeles-based artist Avalon Lurks.

Ununiform received positive reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 71, based on 12 reviews. Kitty Empire of The Observer gave the album 4 out of 5 stars, stating that "Tricky creates a claustrophobic world full of stark bass lines, pop digressions and slinky Bristol moments. Ben Cardew of Pitchfork gave the album 5.1 out of 10 stars, summarising: "ununiform may come nowhere near to the jaw-dropping impact of those early Tricky albums. But buried deep in his 13th studio release, Tricky may just have sown the seeds of a new musical contentment." The album was compared to The xx's Coexist. All tracks are written by Tricky. Note 1 ^ "Doll" is a cover of "Doll Parts" by Hole. 2 ^ "Running Wild" was co-written by Mina Rose. 3 ^ "New Stole" is a reworked version of Francesca Belmonte song Stole from her debut album Anima. Ununiform at AllMusic

Richard White (Irish judge)

Richard White was an Irish judge who held office as Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. He was born near Navan in County Meath. Like all Irish barristers of the time he studied law in England and was living there in 1352, when he was given a licence to import corn into Ireland, he returned to Ireland in 1354. In 1359 he was appointed King's Serjeant in Ireland, he became Lord Chief Justice in November 1363. At this time several senior Irish officials, most notably Thomas de Burley, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, were the subject of serious charges of corruption and maladministration. In 1364 White was a member of a delegation of nobles and officials, headed by Maurice FitzGerald, 4th Earl of Kildare and Simon Fleming, 1st Baron Slane, sent by the Irish House of Commons to England to report on the state of Irish government, to complain of the corruption of several officials, to ask for Burley's removal. White was in England from April to July 1364; the delegation had some success, at least in the short term: Burley was removed as Lord Chancellor and White himself was appointed to a new commission to inquire into the state of the Irish administration, whose other members included the Earl of Kildare, John Hussey, created the first Baron Galtrim.

White seems to have enjoyed the personal favour of King Edward III, who gave him a licence to acquire land to the value of £20, although as a rule it was forbidden for Irish officials to buy property. The King ordered that White and his colleagues should not be "troubled" at home for their mission to England, which suggests that they were afraid of reprisals from Burley and his allies. In 1365 he was entrusted with the task of keeping the peace in Munster, he died in 1367. The Richard Whyte, living at Clogell in 1541 was his descendant

Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf

The Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf renamed the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf, was a Marxist and Arab nationalist revolutionary organisation in the Persian Gulf Arab states. The PFLOAG was organized in 1968 as the successor to the Dhofar Liberation Front. Having close relations to the government of South Yemen, the PFLOAG opened an office there. With South Yemeni support, PFLOAG guerrillas were able to seize control over large sections of western Dhofar. In August 1969 PFLOAG captured the town of Rakhyut. In 1974 the organisation was divided into two separate bodies: the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Bahrain; the PFLOAG's activities were at its peak in the Dhofar Rebellion in Oman

Claire Saltonstall Bikeway

The Claire Saltonstall Bikeway known as the Boston to Cape Cod Bikeway, is a 135-mile bikeway marked as Bike Route 1 that starts on the Charles River Bike Path near Boston University in Boston and winds along Boston's Emerald Necklace, Using backroads and bikepaths, with occasional stretches of secondary highways, ends in Provincetown, Massachusetts. The bikeway was named in memory of Claire Saltonstall, the daughter of Senator William L. Saltonstall, on July 17, 1978. Claire was killed by an automobile in 1974. Senator Saltonstall was a sponsor of bicycle safety legislation and was instrumental in developing the bikeway. Dual signs, one with a picture of a bicycle in a green background and the green number 1 below the picture, another rectangular sign with the words Claire Saltonstall Bikeway below that, were erected along the route shortly after the bikeway opened. Few of these signs, survive today. In order to follow the route one needs a map. Google Map Is Available At: