Edmund is a masculine given name or surname in the English language. The name is derived from the Old English elements ēad, meaning "prosperity" or "riches", mund, meaning "protector". Persons named Edmund include: Edmund the Martyr, king of East Anglia Edmund I, King of England from 939 to 946 Edmund Ironside known as Edmund II, King of England in 1016 Edmund of Scotland Edmund Crouchback, son of King Henry III of England and claimant to the Sicilian throne Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, earl of Cornwall. All pages with titles beginning with Edmund Edmund Edmunds Edmond Edmund Ironside Edward
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is defined in contrast to totalitarianism and more corporate social forms. Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical liberalism and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization", it has been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual.
Individualism is thus associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors, as with humanist philosophical positions and ethics. In the English language, the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late 1830s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, a millenarian and a Christian Israelite. Although an early Owenite socialist, he rejected its collective idea of property, found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius." Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness. William Maccall, another Unitarian preacher, an acquaintance of Smith, came somewhat although influenced by John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, German Romanticism, to the same positive conclusions, in his 1847 work "Elements of Individualism".
An individual is any specific object in a collection. In the 15th century and earlier, today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual means "indivisible" describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person.". From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism. Individuality is the quality of being an individuated being; the principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. For Carl Jung, individuation is a process of transformation, whereby the personal and collective unconscious is brought into consciousness to be assimilated into the whole personality, it is a natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development. In L'individuation psychique et collective, Gilbert Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation rather than a cause.
Thus, the individual atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Individuation is an always incomplete process, always leaving a "pre-individual" left-over, itself making possible future individuations; the philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and upon similar ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. For Stiegler "the I, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, a collective individual; the I is constituted in adopting a collective tradition, which it inherits and in which a plurality of I's acknowledge each other's existence." Individualism holds that a person taking part in society attempts to learn and discover what his or her own interests are on a personal basis, without a presumed following of the interests of a societal structure. The individualist does not follow one particular philosophy, rather creates an amalgamation of elements of many, based on personal interests in particular aspects that he/she finds of use.
On a societal level, the individualist participates on a structured political and moral ground. Independent thinking and opinion is a common trait of an individualist. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, claims that his concept of "general will" in the "social contract" is not the simple collection of individual wills and that it furthers the interests of the individual. Societies and groups can differ in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly "self-regarding" behaviors, rather than "other-regarding" behaviors. Ruth Benedict made a distinction, relevant in this context, between "guilt" societies with an "internal reference standard", "shame" societies with an "external reference
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Iain Duncan Smith
George Iain Duncan Smith referred to by his initials IDS, is a British Conservative Party politician. The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions from 2010 to 2016, he was the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from 2001 to 2003, he was first elected to Parliament at the 1992 general election as the MP for Chingford—which he represented until the constituency's abolition in 1997—and he has since represented its successor constituency of Chingford and Woodford Green. Duncan Smith was born in Edinburgh and served in the Scots Guards from 1975 to 1981, seeing tours in Northern Ireland and Rhodesia, he joined the Conservative Party in 1981, succeeded William Hague as Conservative Leader in 2001. Duncan Smith was the first Catholic to serve as a Conservative Leader, the first to be born in Scotland since Arthur Balfour. In 2010, The Tablet named him one of Britain's most influential Catholics. Many Conservative MPs came to consider him incapable of winning an election when he was Conservative Party Leader.
In 2003, Conservative MPs passed a vote of no confidence in his leadership. Returning to the backbenches, he founded the centre-right Centre for Social Justice, a think tank independent of the Conservative Party, became a published novelist. On 12 May 2010, the new Prime Minister, David Cameron, appointed Duncan Smith to serve in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, he resigned from the Cabinet on 18 March 2016, in opposition to Chancellor George Osborne's proposed cuts to disability benefits. Duncan Smith was born in Edinburgh, the son of Wilfrid George Gerald "W. G. G." Duncan Smith, a decorated Royal Air Force flying ace of the Second World War, Pamela Summers, a ballerina. His parents married in 1946. One of his maternal great-grandmothers was Ellen Oshey, a Japanese woman living in Beijing who married Pamela's maternal grandfather, Irish merchant seaman Captain Samuel Lewis Shaw. Through Ellen and Samuel, Duncan Smith is related to Canadian CBC wartime broadcaster Peter Stursberg and his son, current CBC vice-president Richard Stursberg.
Duncan Smith was educated at Bishop Glancey Secondary Modern, until the age of 14 until he was 18 at HMS Conway, a Merchant Navy training school on the Isle of Anglesey, where he played rugby union in the position of fly-half alongside Clive Woodward at centre. In 1975, he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and was commissioned into the Scots Guards. According to the BBC, Duncan Smith's biography on the Conservative Party website and his entry in Who's Who stated that he had studied at the University of Perugia in Italy. A BBC investigation in 2002 found this statement to be untrue. In response to the BBC story, Duncan Smith's office stated that he had in fact attended the Università per Stranieri, a different institution in Perugia, for a year, he did not sit exams, or gain any qualifications there. Duncan Smith's biography, on the Conservative Party website stated that he was "educated at Dunchurch College of Management" but his office confirmed that he did not gain any qualifications there either, that he completed six separate courses lasting a few days each, adding up to about a month in total.
Dunchurch was the former staff college for GEC Marconi. Duncan Smith was commissioned into the Scots Guards as a second lieutenant on 28 June 1975, with the service number 500263, he was promoted to lieutenant on 28 June 1977, retired from the military on 2 April 1981, moving to the Regular Army Reserve of Officers. He ceased to belong to the Reserve of Officers on 29 June 1983. During his service, Duncan Smith served in Northern Ireland and the region known as Southern Rhodesia, where he was aide-de-camp to Major-General Sir John Acland, commander of the Commonwealth Monitoring Force monitoring the ceasefire during elections. At the 1987 general election Duncan Smith contested the constituency of Bradford West, where the incumbent Labour Party MP Max Madden retained his seat. At the 1992 general election he stood in the London constituency of Chingford, a safe Conservative seat, following the retirement of Conservative MP, Norman Tebbit, he became a member of the House of Commons with a majority of nearly 15,000.
A committed Eurosceptic, Duncan Smith became a constant thorn in the side of Prime Minister John Major's government of 1992 to 1997, opposing Major's pro-European agenda at the time. Duncan Smith remained on the backbenches until 1997, when the new Conservative leader William Hague brought him into the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Social Security Secretary. At the 1997 general election, boundary changes saw his constituency renamed Chingford and Woodford Green and his majority of 14,938 was reduced to 5,714. Duncan Smith realised the dangers that he and neighbouring Conservative MPs faced, so redoubled his efforts: "We spent the final week of the campaign working my seat as if it was a marginal. I held on but everywhere around me went." In 1999, Duncan Smith replaced John Maples as Shadow Defence Secretary. William Hague resigned after the Labour Party continued in
The name Robert is a Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic *Hrōþi- "fame" and *berhta- "bright". Compare Old Dutch Robrecht and Old High German Hrodebert, it is in use as a surname. An alternate version of the name is Rupert. After becoming used in Continental Europe it entered England in its Old French form Robert, where an Old English cognate form had existed before the Norman Conquest; the feminine version is Roberta. The Italian and Spanish form is Roberto. Robert is a common name in many Germanic languages, including English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic, it can be used as a French, Scottish and Estonian name as well. The name Robert was a royal name in France and England during medieval period. Robert was the name of several kings and other rulers and noblemen. Robert, the name Joseph, were in the top 10 most given boys' names in the US for 47 years, from 1925 to 1972. In Italy during the Second World War, the form of the name, Roberto acquired a new meaning derived from, referring to the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.
As of 2014, 27.0% of all known bearers of the surname Robert were residents of France, 22.8% of Tanzania, 10.6% of Nigeria, 6.0% of the United States, 3.7% of Canada, 2.9% of Papua New Guinea, 2.5% of Malawi, 2.2% of Kenya, 2.1% of Rwanda, 1.9% of Togo, 1.3% Haiti, 1.2% of Belgium, 1.2% of Liberia, 1.1% of Sudan and 1.1% of South Africa. In France, the frequency of the surname was higher than national average in the following regions: 1. Réunion 2. Collectivity of Saint Martin 3. Saint Pierre and Miquelon 4. Pays de la Loire 5. Brittany 6. Bourgogne-Franche-Comté 7. Centre-Val de Loire 8. Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 9. Nouvelle-Aquitaine Kings of ScotlandRobert I of Scotland Robert II of Scotland Robert III of ScotlandKings of FranceRobert I of France Robert II of FranceKing of NaplesRobert of NaplesDukes of NormandyRobert I, Duke of Normandy known as Robert the Magnificent.
John (given name)
John is a common masculine given name in the English language of Semitic origin. The name is derived from the Latin Ioannes and Iohannes, which are forms of the Greek name Iōannēs borne by Hellenized Jews transliterating the Hebrew name Yohanan, "Graced by Yah", or Yehohanan, "Yahweh is Gracious". There are numerous forms of the name in different languages, it is among the most common given names in Anglophone, Persian and European countries. John owes its unique popularity to two revered saints, John the Baptist and the apostle John, it was a favorite name among the Greeks but it flourished in all of Europe after the First Crusade. The name John is a theophoric name originating from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן, or in its longer form יְהוֹחָנָן, meaning "YHWH has been gracious". Several obscure figures in the Old Testament bore this name, it grew in popularity once borne by the high priest Johanan and by king John Hyrcanus. In the second temple period, it was the fifth most popular male name among Jews in Judaea and was borne by several important rabbis, such as Yochanan ben Zakai and Yochanan ben Nuri.
The name has long extended among Semitic women Near Eastern Christian peoples such as the Assyrians, Syriac Arameans and Maronites, with various derivatives extant, such as Younan, Yonan and Youkhanan. The name John in its Greek form Ἰωάννης features prominently in the New Testament, being borne by John the Baptist, John the Apostle, several others; as a result, the name became immensely popular in Christian societies. In the Latin-speaking regions of the Roman Empire, the name was Latinized as Johannes; the local populations in these areas of the Roman Empire soon changed Roman names to fit their own dialect, which included dropping the suffixes -us and -es from such names. In the Roman sphere of influence, Johannes became the Italian Giovanni. In the Black Sea region, the name became the Romanian Ioan. In Iberia the name changed to the Spanish Juan, feminine Juana. In Gaul, it became the Old French Jehan and Jean. In the Occitano-Romance area, it became Joan and Jan in Occitan and Catalan, from older Iouan and Iohan.
In Ladin, it became Giuani. The Germanic languages produced the masculine Johann (also Johan, Joan and Janke, Jens, Jóhannes, Jóhann, Jön, Hans and the feminine Johanna. In England, the name John came from the Anglo-French language form Johan, itself from the Old French form Jehan. Prior to the standardization in English of the letter'J', the letter'I' was used interchangeably. Seventeenth-century English texts still spelled the name Iohn. Since it has been spelled in its current form, John; the feminine form changed from Jehanne to Joan and Jo. In Welsh, the name John is rendered as Ieuan, Iwan, Ioan or, borrowed from English, Siôn. A pet form is Ianto. Ifan became rendered into English as Evan. In Irish, it is written Eóin, or Seán; the latter is a Gaelicisation of the Norman–French'Jean'. In some cases, the pronunciation of the original initial "Y"/"I" changed to variants of "J". In Scotland, it is Ian. In Cornish and Devon dialects, the form Jan gives rise to the nickname of Plymothians as'Janners' and the midsummer festival of St. John, Golowan.
The Breton form of this name is Yann, the Manx is Juan, the Cornish is Yowann. In Hungarian, Johannes became János, in the Slavic languages Ivan, Jan, Ján, Honza and Jovan. In Albanian, Xhon and Jovan is used for males. Yahya written Yahia is a common Arabic male given name; because Yahya is a prophet in Islam, Yahya is a common name in the Muslim world. Yahya is the Arabic equivalent of the name of the Levitical priest Jehiah in the Bible. John has been a common given name in English-speaking countries, either it or William was the number one name in England and English-speaking North America from around 1550 until the middle of the 20th century. John was the most popular name given to male infants in the United States until 1924, though its use has fallen off since th
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate