Enguerrand V, Lord of Coucy
Enguerrand V, Lord of Coucy inherited the title of Lord of Coucy and castle from his maternal uncle, Enguerrand IV in 1311. He was lord of Oisy and Montmirail, Enguerrand was the second son of Arnould III de Guînes and Alix of Coucy, daughter of Enguerrand III. Some time before 1283, he married Christiana Lindsay in Scotland, Christiana was the daughter of William Lindsay and Ada Balliol, sister of John Balliol. Their wedding was blessed by their cousin, king Alexander III of Scotland. On 28 May 1283, Enguerrand pledged his service to Edward I of England, when Enguerrands maternal uncles died without leaving any heirs, the titles and lands of Coucy were passed to Enguerrand, as his older brother would inherit his fathers county. Enguerrand and Christiana had four sons, who inherited the title Enguerrand Baudouin Robert DuChesne, A. Preuves de l’Histoire des maisons de Guines, d’Ardres, Gand et Coucy
Robert III, Count of Flanders
Robert III, called Robert of Béthune and nicknamed The Lion of Flanders, was the Count of Nevers from 1273 and Count of Flanders from 1305 until his death. Robert was the oldest son of Guy of Dampierre from his first marriage with Matilda of Béthune and his father essentially transferred the reign of Flanders to him in November 1299, during his war with Philip IV of France. Both father and son were taken into captivity in May 1300, Robert of Béthune gained military fame in Italy, when he fought at the side of his father-in-law, Charles I of Sicily against the last Hohenstaufens and Conradin. Together with his father he took part in 1270 in the Eighth Crusade, Guy of Dampierre broke all feudal bonds with the French king mainly under his influence. When the resistance seemed hopeless Robert allowed himself to be taken prisoner, together with his father and his brother William of Crèvecoeur, shortly before that he had become the de facto ruler of Flanders. He was locked in the castle of Chinon, contrary to popular belief, and the romantic portrayal by Hendrik Conscience in his novel about these events, he did not take part in the Battle of the Golden Spurs.
In July 1305, after his father had died in captivity, the execution of the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge would mark the rule of Count Robert. Initially he achieved success in moving the countryside and the cities to fulfill their duties. However, in April 1310 he started to radically resist the French, with support of his subjects, both diplomatically and militarily he managed to make a stand against the French King. When he marched to Lille in 1319 the militia from Ghent refused to cross the Leie with him, when his grandson Louis I of Nevers pressured him as well, Robert gave up the battle and went to Paris in 1320 to restore feudal bonds with the French King. But even after that, he would hamper the execution of the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge to the point of being excommunicated, Robert died in 1322 and was succeeded by his grandson, Count of Nevers and Rethel. He was buried in Flanders in Saint Martins Cathedral in Ypres and his body was only allowed to be transferred to the abbey of Flines when Lille and Douai were again part of the County of Flanders.
His first wife and his father were buried in this abbey. His first wife was Blanche, daughter of Charles I of Sicily and Beatrice of Provence and they had one son, who died young. His second wife was Yolande II, Countess of Nevers, daughter of Odo, Count of Nevers and they had five children, Louis I, Count of Nevers, married December 1290 Joan, Countess of Rethel. Their son was Louis I of Flanders, Count of Marle, married c.1323 Joan of Brittany, Lady of Nogent-le-Rotrou, daughter of Arthur II, Duke of Brittany. Their children were, Seigneur of Cassel and Yolande, married 1288 Enguerrand IV, Lord of Coucy, Viscount of Meaux. Yolande, married c.1287 Walter II of Enghien, married c.1314 Matthias of Lorraine, Lord of Warsberg
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Catholic Church tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross and their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and the accuracy of the reports surrounding the discovery of the True Cross is questioned by some Christians. The medieval legends that developed concerning its provenance differ between Catholic and Orthodox tradition and these churches honour Helena as a saint, as does the Anglican Communion. The Golden Legend contains several versions of the origin of the True Cross, in The Life of Adam, Voragine writes that the True Cross came from three trees which grew from three seeds from the Tree of Mercy which Seth collected and planted in the mouth of Adams corpse. After many centuries, the tree was cut down and the used to build a bridge over which the Queen of Sheba passed.
So struck was she by the portent contained in the timber of the bridge that she fell on her knees and revered it. On her visit to Solomon, she told him that a piece of wood from the bridge would bring about the replacement of Gods Covenant with the Jewish people, fearing the eventual destruction of his people, had the timber buried. But after fourteen generations, the wood taken from the bridge was fashioned into the Cross used to crucify Christ, Voragine goes on to describe its finding by Helena, mother of the Emperor Constantine. In the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, there was a general acceptance of the origin of the True Cross and its history preceding the Crucifixion. The Golden Legend and many of its sources developed after the East-West Schism of 1054, the above pre-Crucifixion history, therefore, is not to be found in Eastern Christianity. According to the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church the True Cross was made from three different types of wood, cedar and cypress.
The link between this verse and the Crucifixion lies in the words, the place of my feet, there is a tradition that the three trees from which the True Cross was constructed grew together in one spot. A traditional Orthodox icon depicts Lot, the nephew of Abraham, according to tradition, these trees were used to construct the Temple in Jerusalem. Later, during Herods reconstruction of the Temple, the wood from these trees was removed from the Temple and discarded, eventually being used to construct the cross on which Jesus was crucified. Following his conversion to Christianity, Emperor Constantine ordered in about 325–326 that the site be uncovered and instructed Saint Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, in his Life of Constantine, Eusebius does not mention the finding of the True Cross. Socrates Scholasticus, in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a description of the discovery that was repeated by Sozomen. In Socratess version of the story, Macarius had the three placed in turn on a deathly ill woman.
This woman recovered at the touch of the cross, which was taken as a sign that this was the cross of Christ
Trial by combat
In essence, it was a judicially sanctioned duel. It remained in use throughout the European Middle Ages, gradually disappearing in the course of the 16th century, unlike trial by ordeal in general, which is known to many cultures worldwide, the trial by combat is known primarily from the customs of the Germanic peoples. It was in use among the ancient Burgundians, Ripuarian Franks, Lombards and it was unknown in Anglo-Saxon law, Roman law nor in Irish Brehon Law and it does not figure into the traditions of Middle Eastern antiquity such as the code of Hammurabi or the Torah. The practice is regulated in various Germanic legal codes, being rooted in Germanic tribal law, the various regional laws of the Frankish Empire prescribed different particulars, such as equipment and rules of combat. The Lex Alamannorum prescribes a trial by combat in the event of two families disputing the boundary between their lands. A handful of earth taken from the piece of land is put between the contestants and they are required to touch it with their swords, each swearing that their claim is lawful.
The losing party besides forfeiting their claim to the land is required to pay a fine, capitularies governing its use appear from the year 803 onwards. Louis the Pious prescribed combat between witnesses of each side rather than between the accuser and the accused and briefly allowed for the Ordeal of the Cross in cases involving clerics, in medieval Scandinavia, the practice survived throughout the Viking Age in the form of the Holmgang. Otto the Great in 967 expressly sanctioned the practice of Germanic tribal law if it did not figure in the more imperial Roman law. The celebrated case of Gero, Count of Alsleben, is a good example, for the following three centuries, there was latent tension between the traditional regional laws and Roman law. The Sachsenspiegel of 1230 recognizes the judicial duel as an important function to establish guilt or innocence in cases of insult, injury or theft. The combatants are armed with sword and shield and may wear linen and leather clothing, the accuser is to await the accused at the designated place of combat.
If the accused does not appear after being summoned three times, the accuser may execute two cuts and two stabs against the wind, and his matter will be treated as if he had won the fight, the Kleines Kaiserrecht, anonymous legal code of c. 1300, prohibits judicial duels altogether, stating that the emperor had come to decision on seeing that too many innocent men were convicted by the practice just for being physically weak. Nevertheless, judicial duels continued to be throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. Trial by combat plays a significant role in the German schools of fencing in the 15th century. The last certain trial by battle in England occurred in 1446, a servant accused his master of treason, in Scotland and Ireland, the practice was continued into the sixteenth century. The wager of battle was not always available to the defendant in an appeal of murder
Lords of Coucy
The Lords of Coucy were a medieval lordship based on the fortress at Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, in Picardy. The fortress was founded by Herve, archbishop of Rheims, the exact status of Coucy becomes obscure for nearly a century before the emergence of Lord Aubrey. It was eventually absorbed at the end of the 14th century by Louis of Valois,1059, Aubrey or Albéric, lord of Coucy. Founder of the abbey of Nogent-sous-Coucy,1080 - †1116, Enguerrand I known as Enguerrand de Boves, son of predecessor. 1116 - †1130, Thomas, or Thomas de Marle, son of predecessor. 1130 - †1149, Enguerrand II known as de Fère or de Marle, lord of Coucy, Marle, Fère, Crécy, Pinon, Landousies and some places, son of predecessor. 1149 - †1191, Raoul I, son of predecessor,1191 - †1242, Enguerrand III known as the Great, Count of Roucy, son of predecessor. Known as the builder, because of his castle construction,1242 - †1250, Raoul II, son of predecessor, died in the Battle of el-Mansourah. 1250 - † March 20, Enguerrand IV, younger brother of predecessor,1321, Enguerrand V, lord of Coucy, Marle and La Fère, Oisy and Havraincourt en Cambrésis, Mont-Mirel, Condé-en-Brie, and Châlons-le-Petit, nephew of his predecessor.
1321 -1335, lord of Coucy, Marle, La Fère, Oisy and Mont-Mirel,1335 -1347, Enguerrand VI, lord of Coucy, son of his predecessor. 1347 - February 18,1397, Enguerrand VII, lord of Coucy, earl of Bedford, made count of Soissons by the king of England,1397 - November 15,1400, daughter of her predecessor. November 15,1400, Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans purchased the lordship of Coucy, château de Coucy The Coucy Castle, History
Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy
Enguerrand III de Boves, Lord of Coucy was the eldest son and successor of Ralph I, Lord of Coucy and Alix of Dreux. He succeeded as Lord of Coucy in 1191, and held it until his death, he was lord of Marle. Enguerrand III was born at the Château de Coucy, Enguerrand had an illustrious military career, helping the King of the French Philip Augustus reduce the French territories of the King of England. Enguerrand campaigned in Anjou in 1205, and in 1214 fought in the French victory over an Anglo-German alliance at the Battle of Bouvines and his arms at Bouvines were blazoned, Barry of six vair and gules. He was a member of the French force which invaded the Kingdom of England to depose King John. He participated in the Albigensian Crusade, Enguerrand married into the family of King Henry III of England, taking as his second wife the latter kings cousin, the granddaughter of Henry II of England. His first wife was Beatrix de Vignory, widow of John I, there are no known children from this marriage His second wife was Matilda of Saxony, the aforementioned granddaughter of Henry II, Duke of Saxony and niece of Richard the Lion-hearted.
This marriage took place in 1204 and his third wife was Marie de Montmirail. Enguerrand and Marie had five children, Raoul II, Lord of Coucy, married Philippe of Dammartin Enguerrand IV, married 1) Margaret of Gueldres, daughter of Otto II, Count of Guelders and 2) Joan of Flanders, daughter of Robert III, Count of Flanders. John de Coucy, lord of Amboise Marie de Coucy, married to King Alexander II of Scotland Alix de Coucy, married Arnold III and their son, Enguerrand V inherited the title after his uncles. Enguerrand died in 1242 by falling off of his horse onto his sword and he was succeeded by his eldest son Raoul II, Lord of Coucy
The livre tournois was, one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages, and a unit of account used in France in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The denier tournois coin was minted by the abbey of Saint Martin in the Touraine region of France. The livre tournois was, in common with the original livre of Charlemagne, divided into 20 sols, between 1360 and 1641, coins worth one livre tournois were minted, known as francs. Other francs were minted under Charles V of France, Henri III of France, the use of the name franc became a synonym for livre tournois in accounting. The first French paper money, issued between 1701 and 1720, was denominated in livres tournois and this was the last time the name was used officially, as notes and coins were denominated simply in livres, the livre parisis having finally been abolished in 1667. With many forms of domestic and international money circulating throughout Europe in the late Middle Ages and the modern period. In the world of banking of the 13th century, it was the florin.
For example, the Louisiana Purchase treaty of 1803 specified the relative ratios of the franc and livre tournois. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549, since coins in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Early modern period did not have any indication of their value, their official value was determined by royal edicts. In cases of financial need, French kings could use the value for currency devaluation. By reversing these techniques, currencies could be reinforced, royal finance officers faced many difficulties. For more on issues, see Monetary policy and Greshams Law. French livre Livre parisis French franc Louis Luxembourgish livre Écu Roman currency