In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps and two half steps in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other; the seven pitches of any diatonic scale can be obtained by using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches that form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: F—C—G—D—A—E—BAny sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Modern musical keyboards are designed so that the white notes form a diatonic scale, though transpositions of this diatonic scale require one or more black keys. A diatonic scale can be described as two tetrachords separated by a whole tone.
The term diatonic referred to the diatonic genus, one of the three genera of the ancient Greeks. In musical set theory, Allen Forte classifies diatonic scales as set form 7–35; this article does not concern alternative seven-note diatonic scales such as the harmonic minor or the melodic minor. Western music from the Middle Ages until the late 19th century is based on the diatonic scale and the unique hierarchical relationships created by this system of organizing seven notes. There is one claim that the 45,000-year-old Divje Babe Flute uses a diatonic scale, but there is no proof or consensus it is a musical instrument. There is evidence that the Babylonians used some version of the diatonic scale; this derives from surviving inscriptions that contain musical composition. Despite the conjectural nature of reconstructions of the piece known as the Hurrian songs from the surviving score, the evidence that it used the diatonic scale is much more soundly based; this is because instructions for tuning the scale involve tuning a chain of six fifths, so that the corresponding circle of seven major and minor thirds are all consonant-sounding, this is a recipe for tuning a diatonic scale.
9,000-year-old flutes found in Jiahu, China indicate the evolution, over a period of 1,200 years, of flutes having 4, 5 and 6 holes to having 7 and 8 holes, the latter exhibiting striking similarity to diatonic hole spacings and sounds. The scales corresponding to the medieval church modes were diatonic. Depending on which of the seven notes of the diatonic scale you use as the beginning, the positions of the intervals fall at different distances from the starting tone, producing seven different scales. One of these, the one starting on B, has no pure fifth above its reference note: it is for this reason that it was not used. Of the six remaining scales, two were described as corresponding to two others with a B♭ instead of a B♮: A–B–C–D–E–F–G–A was described as D–E–F–G–A–B♭–C–D C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C was described as F–G–A–B♭–C–D–E–F As a result, medieval theory described the church modes as corresponding to four diatonic scales only. Heinrich Glarean considered that the modal scales including a B♭ had to be the result of a transposition.
In his Dodecachordon, he not only described six "natural" diatonic scales, but six "transposed" ones, each including a B♭, resulting in the total of twelve scales that justified the title of his treatise. By the beginning of the Baroque period, the notion of musical key was established, describing additional possible transpositions of the diatonic scale. Major and minor scales came to dominate until at least the start of the 20th century because their intervallic patterns are suited to the reinforcement of a central triad; some church modes survived into the early 18th century, as well as appearing in classical and 20th-century music, jazz. Of Glarean's six natural scales, three are major scales, three are minor. To these may be added the seventh diatonic scale, with a diminished fifth above the reference note, the Locrian scale; these could be transposed not only to include one flat in the signature, but to all twelve notes of the chromatic scale, resulting in a total of eighty-four diatonic scales.
The modern musical keyboard originated as a diatonic keyboard with only white keys. The black keys were progressively added for several purposes: improving the consonances the thirds, by providing a major third on each degree; the pattern of elementary intervals forming the diatonic scale can be represented either by the letters T and S respectively. With this abbreviation, major scale, for instance, can be represented as T–T–S–T–T–T–S The major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scales, it is made up plus an eighth that duplicates the first an octave higher. The pattern of seven intervals separating the eight notes is T–T–S–T–T–T–S. In solfege, the syllables used to name each degree of the scale are Do–Re–Mi–Fa–Sol–La–Ti–Do. A sequence of successive natural notes starting from C is an example of major scale, called C-major scale; the eight degrees of the scale are known by traditiona
In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. Tuning systems, the various systems of pitches used to tune an instrument, their theoretical bases. Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones. Tuning is based on a fixed reference, such as A = 440 Hz; the term "out of tune" refers to a pitch/tone, either too high or too low in relation to a given reference pitch. While an instrument might be in tune relative to its own range of notes, it may not be considered'in tune' if it does not match the chosen reference pitch; some instruments become'out of tune' with temperature, damage, or just time, must be readjusted or repaired. Different methods of sound production require different methods of adjustment: Tuning to a pitch with one's voice is called matching pitch and is the most basic skill learned in ear training. Turning pegs to decrease the tension on strings so as to control the pitch.
Instruments such as the harp and harpsichord require a wrench to turn the tuning pegs, while others such as the violin can be tuned manually. Modifying the length or width of the tube of a wind instrument, brass instrument, bell, or similar instrument to adjust the pitch; the sounds of some instruments such as cymbals are inharmonic—they have irregular overtones not conforming to the harmonic series. Tuning may be done aurally by sounding two pitches and adjusting one of them to match or relate to the other. A tuning fork or electronic tuning device may be used as a reference pitch, though in ensemble rehearsals a piano is used. Symphony orchestras and concert bands tune to an A440 or a B♭ provided by the principal oboist or clarinetist, who tune to the keyboard if part of the performance; when only strings are used the principal string has sounded the tuning pitch, but some orchestras have used an electronic tone machine for tuning. Interference beats are used to objectively measure the accuracy of tuning.
As the two pitches approach a harmonic relationship, the frequency of beating decreases. When tuning a unison or octave it is desired to reduce the beating frequency until it cannot be detected. For other intervals, this is dependent on the tuning system being used. Harmonics may be used to facilitate tuning of strings. For example touching the highest string of a cello at the middle while bowing produces the same pitch as doing the same a third of the way down its second-highest string; the resulting unison is more and judged than the quality of the perfect fifth between the fundamentals of the two strings. In music, the term open string refers to the fundamental note of the full string; the strings of a guitar are tuned to fourths, as are the strings of the bass guitar and double bass. Violin and cello strings are tuned to fifths. However, non-standard tunings exist to change the sound of the instrument or create other playing options. To tune an instrument only one reference pitch is given; this reference is used to tune one string, to which the other strings are tuned in the desired intervals.
On a guitar the lowest string is tuned to an E. From this, each successive string can be tuned by fingering the fifth fret of an tuned string and comparing it with the next higher string played open; this works with the exception of the G string, which must be stopped at the fourth fret to sound B against the open B string above. Alternatively, each string can be tuned to its own reference tone. Note that while the guitar and other modern stringed instruments with fixed frets are tuned in equal temperament, string instruments without frets, such as those of the violin family, are not; the violin and cello are tuned to beatless just perfect fifths and ensembles such as string quartets and orchestras tend to play in fifths based Pythagorean tuning or to compensate and play in equal temperament, such as when playing with other instruments such as the piano. For example, the cello, tuned down from A220, has three more strings and the just perfect fifth is about two cents off from the equal tempered perfect fifth, making its lowest string, C-, about six cents more flat than the equal tempered C.
This table lists open strings on their standard tunings. Violin scordatura was employed in the 17th and 18th centuries by Italian and German composers, Biagio Marini, Antonio Vivaldi, Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, Johann Pachelbel and Johann Sebastian Bach, whose Fifth Suite For Unaccompanied Cello calls for the lowering of the A string to G. In Mozart's Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major, all the strings of the solo viola are raised one half-step, ostensibly to give the instrument a brighter tone so the solo violin does not overshadow it. Scordatura for the violin was used in the 19th and 20th centuries in works by Niccolò Paganini, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns and Béla Bartók. In Saint-Saëns' "Danse Macabre", the high string of the violin is lower half a tone to the E♭ so as to have the most accented note of the main theme sound on an open string. In Bartók's Contrasts, the violin is tuned G♯-D-A-E♭ to facilitate the playing of tritones on open strings. American folk violinists of the Appalachians and Ozarks employ alternate tunings for dance songs and
Gioseffo Zarlino was an Italian music theorist and composer of the Renaissance. He was the most famous European music theorist between Aristoxenus and Rameau, made a large contribution to the theory of counterpoint as well as to musical tuning. Zarlino was born near Venice, his early education was with the Franciscans, he joined the order himself. In 1536 he was a singer at Chioggia Cathedral, by 1539 he not only became a deacon, but principal organist. In 1540 he was ordained, in 1541 went to Venice to study with the famous contrapuntist and maestro di cappella of Saint Mark's, Adrian Willaert. In 1565, on the resignation of Cipriano de Rore, Zarlino took over the post of maestro di cappella of St. Mark's, one of the most prestigious musical positions in Italy, held it until his death. While maestro di cappella he taught some of the principal figures of the Venetian school of composers, including Claudio Merulo, Girolamo Diruta, Giovanni Croce, as well as Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer, the famous reactionary polemicist Giovanni Artusi.
While he was a moderately prolific composer, his motets are polished and display a mastery of canonic counterpoint, his principal claim to fame was his work as a theorist. While Pietro Aaron may have been the first theorist to describe a version of meantone, Zarlino seems to have been the first to do so with exactitude, describing 2/7-comma meantone in his Le istitutioni harmoniche in 1558. Zarlino described the 1/4-comma meantone and 1/3-comma meantone, considering all three temperaments to be usable; these are the precursors to the 50- 31- and 19-tone equal temperaments, respectively. In his Dimostrationi harmoniche of 1571, he revised the numbering of modes to make the finales of the mode conform to the notes of the natural hexachord. Zarlino was the first to theorize the primacy of triad over interval as a means of structuring harmony, his exposition of just intonation based on proportions within the "Senario" and 8 is a departure from the established Pythagorean diatonic system as passed on by Boethius.
See: Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale. He was one of the first theorists to offer an explanation for the prohibition of parallel fifths and octaves in counterpoint, to study the effect and harmonic implications of the false relation. Zarlino's writings published by Francesco Franceschi, spread throughout Europe at the end of the 16th century. Translations and annotated versions were common in France, Germany, as well as in the Netherlands among students of Sweelinck, thus influencing the next generation of musicians who represented the early Baroque style. Zarlino's compositions are more conservative in idiom than those of many of his contemporaries, his madrigals avoid the homophonic textures used by other composers, remaining polyphonic throughout, in the manner of his motets. His works were published between 1549 and 1567, include 41 motets for five and six voices, 13 secular works madrigals, for four and five voices, his 10 motets on the Song of Songs used the text of Isidoro Chiari's translation of the Bible.
Gioseffo Zarlino, Canticum Canticorum Salomonis. Michael Noone, Ensemble Plus Ultra. GCD921406 "Zarlino: Modulationes sex vocum", Singer Pur, OEHMS CLASSICS 873 Article "Gioseffo Zarlino", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Gioseffo Zarlino, Istituzioni armoniche, tr. Oliver Strunk, in Source Readings in Music History. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1950. Le istituzioni armoniche Free scores by Gioseffo Zarlino at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Gioseffo Zarlino in the Choral Public Domain Library http://euromusicology.zoo.cs.uu.nl/dynaweb/tmiweb/z/@Generic__CollectionView. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Johann Caspar Kerll
Johann Caspar Kerll was a German baroque composer and organist. He is known as Kerl, Giovanni Gasparo Cherll and Gaspard Kerle. Born in Adorf in the Electorate of Saxony as the son of an organist, Kerll showed outstanding musical abilities at an early age, was taught by Giovanni Valentini, court Kapellmeister at Vienna. Kerll became one of the most acclaimed composers of his time, known both as a gifted composer and an outstanding teacher, he worked at Vienna and Brussels, travelled widely. His pupils included Agostino Steffani, Franz Xaver Murschhauser, Johann Pachelbel, his influence is seen in works by Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach: Handel borrowed themes and fragments of music from Kerll's works, Bach arranged the Sanctus movement from Kerll's Missa superba as BWV 241, Sanctus in D major. Although Kerll was a well-known and influential composer, many of his works are lost; the losses are striking in vocal music, with all 11 known operas and 24 offertories missing. The surviving oeuvre shows Kerll's mastery of the Italian concerted style, employed in all of his masses, his developed contrapuntal technique.
He was influenced by Heinrich Schütz in his sacred vocal music, by Girolamo Frescobaldi in keyboard works. Kerll was the son of Catharina Hendel, he was born in 1627 in Adorf. Caspar Kerll gave music lessons to his son, who demonstrated exceptional musical abilities. Kerll's professional career started in Vienna, where he served as organist, continued in 1647/8, when Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria employed him as chamber organist for the new residential palace in Brussels. During the following several years Kerll was somehow able to combine travelling with working in Brussels without losing his job. First, Leopold Wilhelm sent him to Rome to study under Giacomo Carissimi; this was around 1648/9. Returning to Brussels for a brief time, he left again in the winter of 1649-1650, travelling to Dresden, he attended the wedding of Philip IV of Spain and Marie-Anne of Austria, visited Vienna several times in 1651 and 1652 and spent some time in Göttweig and Moravia. Abraham van den Kerckhoven substituted for Kerll while he was away and succeeded him in 1655, when Kerll left.
In February 1656 Kerll accepted a temporary post of Vice-Kapellmeister at the Munich court under Elector Ferdinand Maria. In March he succeeded Giovanni Giacomo Porro as court Kapellmeister. Kerll's fame started growing as he was given more and more important tasks. Important of these are his opera Oronte, which inaugurated the Munich opera house in January 1657, a vocal mass composed in 1658 for the coronation of Emperor Leopold I at Frankfurt. While in Munich, Kerll married Anna Catharina Egermayer in 1657; the couple had eight children. The Munich years were important for Kerll: he was favoured by Ferdinand Maria, who would provide support for the rest of Kerll's life. Kerll gave up his post in Munich in 1673 for unclear reasons - it is believed that there was a serious quarrel with other court musicians which made him leave. Kerll did, maintain contact with Elector Ferdinand Maria until his death. In 1674 Kerll moved to Vienna. A pension was granted to him in 1675 by the emperor, who in 1677 employed him as one of his court organists.
Although it has been suggested that Kerll might have worked at the Stephansdom, there is no proof. If he did, Johann Pachelbel would have been his deputy organist there; the 1679 plague, commemorated by Kerll in Modulatio organica, a collection of liturgical organ music, resulted in Anna Catharina's death. He married Kunigunde Hilaris in 1682/3 and stayed in Vienna for the next 10 years, surviving the Turkish invasion of 1683, which he commemorated in music in Missa in fletu solatium, he visited Munich several times between 1684 and 1692, publishing his Modulatio organica and Missae sex there. At the end of 1692 Kerll relinquished his Vienna position and returned to Munich, where he died shortly afterwards. Although Kerll was a renowned teacher during his lifetime, his pupils did not, in all probability, include any important composers, although Johann Joseph Fux studied with him for a time. Agostino Steffani is his best-known pupil. Kerll's influence on composers, however, is undeniable. Johann Pachelbel studied Kerll's style, obvious from his organ chaconnes, which are reminiscent of Kerll's ostinato works.
The two most important German composers of the late Baroque era, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, both studied Kerll's work: Bach arranged the Sanctus part of Kerll's Missa superba in his Sanctus in D major, Handel borrowed themes, sometimes whole pieces, from Kerll's canzonas (the theme from Canzona No. 6 is taken for Let all the Angels of God from Messiah, Eg
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Prince Vladimir Fyodorovich Odoyevsky was a prominent Russian philosopher, music critic and pedagogue. He became known as the "Russian Hoffmann" on account of his keen interest in phantasmagoric tales and musical criticism; the last member of the princely House of Odoyev, he was genealogically the most senior member of the House of Rurik. He was born to a state councillor, his father started out as an adjutant of Prince Grigory Potyomkin in 1798 he entered civil service as the director of the Moscow Assignant bank. According to one version, his mother, Ekaterina Alekseevna Filippova, was a serf, this version has been proven wrong, it was found out that his mother was a daughter of a praporschik, his widow, Avdotya Petrovna, had a house on the Prechistenka street in Moscow, several servants and a small fortune from her husband. His mother was a well-educated young lady. However, the Odoyevsky family regarded this marriage as misalliance, and after his father's death in 1808, his mother was married twice.
Part of his childhood was spent with his grandfather, colonel Prince Sergey Ivanovich Odoyevsky, but when he died, his estate in Kostroma Governorate ended up in the hands of an acquaintance of Vladimir's maternal grandmother, the widow of a general, Agrafena Glazova, who took over the properties. In 1812 his mother's house in Moscow was burned down in fire, he and his mother lived at the estate of Drokovo in Ryazan Governorate, which she took over. While her son was away studying at a boarding school, in 1818—1819 she married sub-porutchik Pavel Sechenov, having given custody of her son to Agrafena Glazova, settled at Drokovo with her new husband. P. Sechenov turned out to be an abusive husband. Vladimir ended up owing much debt to Glazova, having settled liabilities, he moved to his grandfather's estate being completely broke. Considered by his contemporaries as a typical Muscovite, he was educated at the Nobility School of the Moscow University in 1816-22. In the mid-1820s, Odoyevsky presided over the Lyubomudry Society, where he and his fellow students met to discuss the ideas of Friedrich Schelling and other German philosophers.
At that period, he came to know many future Slavophiles and Westernizers, but refused to identify himself with any of these movements. Since 1824, Odoyevsky was active as journalist. In 1824 he and Wilhelm Küchelbecker founded the short-lived Moscow literary magazine Mnemozina. Most famously, he co-edited the Sovremennik with Alexander Pushkin in the mid-1830s. In 1826, he moved to St Petersburg. Two decades he was put in charge of the Rumyantsev Museum. Odoyevsky returned to Moscow in 1861 but continued to serve as a senator until his death, he is buried in the Donskoy monastery necropolis. Aspiring to imitate Ludwig Tieck and Novalis, Odoyevsky published a number of tales for children and fantastical stories for adults imbued with the vague mysticism in the vein of Jakob Boehme and Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin. Following the success of Pushkin's The Queen of Spades, Odoyevsky wrote a number of similar stories on the dissipated life of the Russian aristocracy. On account of his many short stories from the 1820s and 1830s, Odoyevsky should be listed among the pioneers of the impressionistic short story in Europe.
His most mature book was the collection of novellas entitled Russian Nights. Loosely patterned after the Noctes Atticae, the book took two decades to complete, it contains some of Odoyevsky's best known fiction, including the dystopian novellas The Last Suicide and The Town with No Name. The stories are interlaced with philosophic conversations redolent of the French Encyclopedists; as a music critic, Odoyevsky set out to propagate the national style of Mikhail Glinka and his followers, denigrating their forebears such as Dmitri Bortniansky. He wrote a romanticised biography of the Russian violinist Ivan Khandoshkin, whose career he presented as thwarted by the malign influence of such Italian musicians as Giuseppe Sarti. Among his many articles on musical subjects, a treatise about old Russian church singing deserves particular attention, though he expressed strong distaste for strochnoy chant: "No human ear could bear the succession of seconds that are to be encountered." Johann Sebastian Bach and Beethoven appear as characters in some of his novellas.
Odoyevsky was active in the foundation of the Russian Musical Society, Moscow Conservatory, St. Petersburg Conservatory. Odoyevsky took part in development of electroplating technology, invented by Moritz von Jacobi in Russia. In 1844 Odoyevsky wrote a book, Galvanism applied in technology, he made a number of developed cobalt electroplating. The Living Corpse Princess Mimi, The Sylph, The Live Corpse, from Russian Romantic Prose: An Anthology, Translation Press, 1979; the Salamander and Other Stories, Gerald Duckworth, 1992. Two Princesses, Hesperus Press, 2010. Two Days in the Life of the Terrestrial Globe and Other Stories, Ama Classics, 2012. SourcesRitzarev, Marina. Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 0754634663. Russian website on Odoyevsky Odoyevsky on the Russian National Library Website Works of Odoyevsky Mosnews.com - Blogging Predicted by a 19th-century Russian Prince at the Wayback