Hungarian mythology includes the myths, folk tales, fairy tales and gods of the Hungarians known as the Magyars. Much of Magyar mythology is believed to be lost. However, in the last hundred years scholars of the history of Hungarian culture have tried eagerly to recover a significant amount of Hungarian mythology; the most important sources are: Folklore, as many mythical persons remain in folk tales, folk songs, legends special traditions linked to special dates, unknown elsewhere Medieval chronicles such as codices and manuscripts Secondary sources such as accounts about Hungarians by other authors Archaeological research In Hungarian myth, the world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World, the home of the gods. In the center of the world stands a tall tree: the World Tree / Tree of Life, its foliage is the Upper World, the Turul bird dwells on top of it. The Middle World is located at its trunk and the underworld is around its roots. In some stories, the tree has fruit: the golden apples.
The gods and the good souls live in the Upper World. Gods have the same rank, he controls the world, shapes the fate of humans, observes the Middle World from the sky, sometimes gives warning by lightning. Isten created the world with the help of Ördög. Other gods include: Istenanya known as Boldogasszony, Hadúr; the major celestial bodies, are located in the Upper World. The sky was thought to be a big tent held up by the Tree of Life; the several holes in it are the stars. The Sun and symbols of the cosmic word, are known from Hungarian grave findings from the period of Hungarian conquest; the Middle World is shared among many mythological creatures. There are ghosts of the waters, who are ordered to scare humans, they have different names in different places. There are females, for example, the sellő, which lives in water and has a human torso with the tail of a fish; the wind is controlled by an old lady called Szélkirály. The Sárkány is a frightening beast: he is the enemy of many heroes in fairy tales, symbolising the psychical inner struggle of the hero.
The Sárkány has 1-7 heads. The lidérc is a ghostly, mysterious creature with several different appearances, its works are always malicious; the manók and the törpék are foxy beings living under the ground. Óriások live in the mountains. They have both bad qualities. Favourite creatures are the tündérek, who are female creatures, they aid humans. Their opposites are the bábák; the Underworld is the place of bad souls and the home of Ördög, creator of everything bad for humans: for example, annoying animals such as fleas and flies. Research about the ancient Hungarian religion has led to that it was a form of Tengrism, a shamanic religion common among the early Turkic and Mongolian people, influenced by Zoroastrianism from the Persians and Hinduism and Buddhism whom the Huns and Avars had encountered during their westward migration. Another theory ties the religion to that of the Huns and Scythians of Central Asia due to similar or identical legends to the Hungarian origin myth; the shamanic role was filled by the táltos.
Their souls were thought to be able to travel between the three spheres via révülés. They were doctors. A taltos was selected by fate; the steps of their introduction: Climbing up on the "shaman ladder / shaman tree" symbolized the World Tree. They had the ability to contact spirits by specific praying. Thus, they interpreted dreams, mediated between humans and spirits and removed curses, had an ability to find and bring back lost souls, they guessed the reason of an ancestor's anger. After death, the human soul leaves the body; the body is buried by relatives on the other bank of a river. If the soul had been good, it gets for eternal peace. If it had been bad, it must suffer in the underworld, where numerous evil ghosts live. Comparative methods can reveal that some motifs of folktales, fragments of songs or rhymes of folk customs preserved pieces of the old belief system; some records tell about shaman-like figures directly. Shamanic remnants in Hungarian folklore was researched among others by Vilmos Diószegi, based on ethnographic records in Hungary and comparative works with various shamans of some Siberian peoples.
Ethnographer Mihály Hoppál continued his work of studying Hungarian shamanistic belief remnants, comparing shamanistic beliefs of Uralic language
Hunor and Magor
Hunor and Magor were, according to a famous Hungarian legend, the ancestors of the Huns and the Magyars. The legend was first promoted in Gesta Hungarorum; the legend's aim in providing a common ancestry for the Huns and the Magyars was to suggest historical continuum of the Kingdom of Hungary with the Hun Empire. Magyars led by prince Árpád had conquered the area in the 890s; the territory had been held by Attila the Hun in the 5th century. The legend thus tried to prove that the Magyars were reclaiming their ancient homeland as descendants of Attila. According to Simon of Kéza, Hunor and Magor were the sons of Ménrót, a mythical giant, who he identified with Nimrod of the Bible; the brothers Hunor and Magor were the legendary forefathers of the Huns and the Hungarians, or Magyars, according to most Hungarian chronicles. Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, written in the 1280s, contains the first version of their legend. Other Hungarian chronicles wrote, the brothers were the sons either of Ménrót or of Magog, king of the Scythians.
Their mother was Ménrót's wife, whose name was derived from the Hungarian word for hind, according to Simon of Kéza. Historians Zoltán Kordé and Gyula Kristó say that her name shows, the Hungarians once regarded a hind as their totemistic ancestor, but this pagan concept was reinterpreted after their conversion to Christianity in the 11th century; the Chronicon Pictum makes Magor sons of Iaphet. Hunor and Magor, hunters like their father, were on a hunting trip when they saw their descendants multiplied and populated the nearby lands, founding the 108 clans of the Scythian nation. From them descended Attila the Hun and High Prince Álmos, the father of Árpád. After the confusion of tongues the giant entered the land of Havilah, now called Persia, there he begot two sons and Mogor, by his wife Eneth, it was from them. However, it seems the giant Ménrót had other wives apart from Eneth, on whom he sired many sons and daughters besides Hunor and Magor; these sons and their posterity inhabit the land of Persia and resemble the Huns in stature and colour differing a little in speech like the Saxons and the Thuringians.
But as Hunor and Mogor were Ménrót's first born, they journeyed separately from their father in tents. Now it happened one day when they had gone out hunting in the Meotis marshes that they encountered a hind in the wilderness; as they went in pursuit of it, it fled before them. It disappeared from their sight altogether, they could not find it no matter how long they searched, but as they were wandering through these marshes, they saw that the land was well suited for grazing cattle. They returned to their father, after obtaining his permission they took all their possessions and went to live in the Meotis marshes.... So they remained there for five years without leaving. In the sixth year they went out, when by chance they discovered that the wives and children of the sons of Belar were camped in tents in a lonely place without their menfolk, they carried them off with all their belongings as fast as they could into the Meotis marshes. Two daughters of Dula, prince of the Alans, happened to be among the children.
Hunor took one of them in marriage and Mogor the other, to these women all the Huns owe their origin. The myth was employed by writers, most notably chief Justice and jurisconsult István Werbőczy, who used it to extol the Hungarian nobility in his influential collection of Hungarian customary law, the Tripartitum. According to Werbőczy, the Hungarians, as descendants of Hunor and Magor, were of'Scythian' origin and subject to'Scythian' law. "The Hungarians inherited their moral values and customs from the'Scythians', who had once defeated Darius and Alexander the Great. Their true vocation was war, the only activity, noble enough to suit them." The nobles were equal. Werbőczy thus used the Magor myth to justify Hungarian serfdom. Werbőczy's ideas were eagerly adopted by the Hungarian nobility and became the charter of common law for three centuries; the poorer smaller nobles cherished their'Scythian' identity. According to Engel:It made the nobility inclined to think in terms of historical fictions and to cherish illusions.
They thought. It involved an extreme respect for traditions, gave birth to what was an early form of'nationalism'; the nobility's ideology overvalued everything that was, or was thought to be, regarded everything that seemed strange or unusual with aversion or hostility The nobility took delight in hearing about'Scythian' values, for they imagined they recognised their own virtues in them. Among the petty nobility the ideal of martial simplicity must have become popular, for it made a virtue out of their misery and illiteracy." János Arany retold. Gog and Magog Lech and Rus Romulus and Remus Hengest and Horsa Sarmatism Gothicismus
Enikő Eszenyi is a Hungarian actress and theater director, recipient of Kossuth Prize. She appeared in 1991's Paths of Angels. Night Rehearsal Eldorado The Pregnant Papa Paths of Death and Angels Enikő Eszenyi on IMDb
Enikő Bollobás is a Hungarian literary scholar, Professor of the Department of American Studies at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. Homepage: www.bollobaseniko.com Bollobás has written seven books on literature as well as numerous cultural and critical articles. A graduate of ELTE, she has been affiliated with this school since 1990, when she co-founded the Department of American Studies with two colleagues, Zoltán Kövecses and Gyula Kodolányi. On several occasions she was Visiting Professor and Visiting Scholar in the U. S, she has been invited to speak at various universities, including Cambridge University, Berkeley, Stanford and George Washington University. Her research and publication fields include American literature and culture, Hungarian literature, Women's studies/Gender studies, Jewish studies, social issues. Recipient of several awards in recognition of her scholarly achievement, Bollobás has been awarded the HUSSE Best Book Award, the László Országh Prize for lifetime achievement, the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic, the Albert Szent-Györgyi Prize.
During the 1980s, Ms. Bollobás was active in the political opposition. For her participation in human and minority rights movements in Transylvania, Romanian authorities permanently expelled her from Ceauşescu's Romania in 1982; as part of her commitment to human rights, in 1989 she founded the Szeged-based political discussion group Hungarian Feminists, the first non-communist organization to address women's issues. After the regime change Ms. Bollobás worked in government administration: as Deputy Chief of Mission and Chargé d'Affaires at the Hungarian Embassy in Washington, D. C. and as Director of the Department of Atlantic, Northern European, Israeli Affairs of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry in Budapest. She served as Vice Chair and Secretary General of the Hungarian Atlantic Council, lobbying at the time for Hungary's NATO membership, her professional interests range from theories of modernism and postmodernism, American modern and postmodern literatures, the traditions of experimentation and avant-garde, free verse prosodies to post-deconstruction theories, feminist theory and criticism, American studies theories.
She has published seven books on American literature: Az amerikai irodalom rövid története Vendégünk a végtelenből – Emily Dickinson költészete * see Egy képlet nyomában – Karakterelemzések az amerikai és a magyar irodalomból They Aren't, Until I Call Them — On Doing Things with Words in Literature Az amerikai irodalom története Charles Olson Tradition and Innovation in American Free Verse. “Önérték és távlatiság. Narratív személyköziség Henry James rövidprózájában”. Alföld, 69/2. 43–53. “»Lába mint két ceruza hagyta írásnyomát az erdő haván«. Nyelvtani, kapcsolati és testi alanyiság H. D. HERmione című regényében”. In: A szubjektum színeváltozásai. Narratív, kapcsolati és testi alanyiság az irodalomban és a kultúrában. Ed. Enikő Bollobás. Szeged: AMERICANA eBooks, 2017. 69–77. “Irodalom és szórakoztatás. Jonathan Franzen regényeiről”. Irodalmi Jelen, April 20, 2015. “Az amerikai megtérési történetek performatív retorikája”. In: CONVERSIO Vallástudományi konferencia. Ed. Balázs Déri. Budapest: ELTE Vallástudományi Központ, 2013.
429–437. “Játék a metafizikával: katakrézis és dekonstrukció két amerikai drámában ”. In: A fattyú művészet nyomában. Írások amerikai drámáról és színházról. Ed. Réka M. Cristian. Szeged: AMERICANA eBOOKS, 2012. “Troping the Unthought: Catachresis in Emily Dickinson’s Poetry.” The Emily Dickinson Journal 21.1. 25–56. “Tropes of Intersubjectivity—Metalepsis and Rhizome in the Novels of H. D..” AMERICANA—E-Journal of American Studies VII/2. „Posztmodern paradigmaváltás az amerikanisztikában”. Magyar Tudomány 172/3. 308–316. “The Declaration of Independence and the Making of Americans: On how Performatives Perform the Performer.” Emlékkönyv Frank Tibor 60. Születésnapjára. Ed. Tamás Magyarics and Miklós Lojkó. Budapest: Prime Rate, 2008. 180–185. “Dangerous Liaisons: Politics and Epistemology in Post-Cold War American Studies.” American Quarterly 54/4. 563–579. “Hogyan készül a nő? Lehetséges válaszok Ignotus, Szőcs Géza, Jonathan Swift, valamint Gertrude Stein és Djuna Barnes szerint”. Holmi XIV/3
Enikő Mihalik is a Hungarian model who rose to prominence after placing 4th in the Elite Model Look 2002 and is known for her work with Dutch photography team Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin. Mihalik was born in Békéscsaba, the capital of the Hungarian Békés County; when she was young, her classmates teased her about her thin physique, some claiming it was caused by illness. She was discovered by a Valve scout in a shopping mall. In 2002, she won. With her win, she moved on to the international level of the competition, held in Tunisia, she placed 4th. Her career started on the runway, she debuted at the Chanel haute couture show JUL 2006. She walked for only a few designers each season thereafter, but in the S/S 09 shows, she got her big break, she walked for over 50 designers internationally, including Shiatzy Chen, Blumarine, Diane von Furstenberg, Versace. Mihalik was one of the fresh faces to land in one of the fourteen covers of V magazine fall 2008 issue; each cover boasts a head shot of a famous model, either from the new crop of leading models or the supermodel era, it was lensed by duo Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin.
Her campaign work includes Cesare Paciotti, Kenzo, MaxMara, Samsonite by Viktor & Rolf, Barneys New York. She has worked with Retro and Paola Frani, her face is seen in magazines on covers. This has included the cover of top fashion magazines i-D, V, Self Service, most Vogue Japan and Vogue Italia Beauty, her face is seen in the pages of Vogue and Numéro. Her most recent cover is for the June 2013 issue of Elle Brazil. Mihalik is ranked No. 28 on the Models.com Top 50-Women List. She walked in the 2009 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show in 2014 in London. Mihalik's looks have been compared to Daria Werbowy's because of her eyes, she was chosen to be in the 2010 Pirelli Calendar photographed by Terry Richardson in Brazil. Mihalik was the Playboy Playmate of the Month for December 2016. Mihalik is friends with models Iekeliene Barbara Palvin, she dated with businessman Vladimir Restoin Roitfeld. Enikő Mihalik on Models.com Enikő Mihalik at FMD Enikő Mihalik at NYmag.com Enikő Mihalik in Pirelli Calendrar 2010 sur Automoto.fr Enikő Mihalik at Divatportal.hu
Enikő Somorjai is a soloist dancer with the Hungarian National Ballet in Hungarian State Opera House. Born in Budapest, she began dancing at the age of four, she took her degree in 2001 at Hungarian Dance Academy. Prior to becoming a soloist, she was in the Company corps de ballet, she has danced in many ballets including The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, The Wooden Prince and many others. In 1997 Somorjai won the gold medal at the Győr International Ballet Competition and the third place at Vienna International Ballet Competition in 1999. Opera.hu: Somorjai Enikő
Mihály Vörösmarty was an important Hungarian poet and dramatist. He was born at Puszta-Nyék, of a noble Roman Catholic family, his father was a steward of the Nádasdys. Mihály was educated at Székesfehérvár at Pest by the Piarists; the death of the elder Vörösmarty in 1817 left his widow and numerous family poor. As tutor to the Perczel family, however, Vörösmarty contrived to pay his own way and go through his academical course at Pest; the activities of the diet of 1825 gave a new direction to his poetry. He had begun a drama entitled Salomon, he flung himself more recklessly into public life until he fell in love with Etelka Perczel, far above him. Many of his lyrics concern this unrequited love. Meanwhile, his patriotism found expression in the heroic epic Zalán futása; this new epic marked a transition from the classical to the romantic school. Henceforth Vörösmarty was hailed by Károly Kisfaludy and the Hungarian romanticists as one of their own, he had forsaken the law for literature, his financial situation deteriorated.
Between 1823 and 1831 he composed four dramas and eight smaller epics historical fanciful. Of these epics he always regarded Cserhalom as the best, but criticism preferred A két szomszédvár; when the Hungarian Academy was established on 17 November 1830 he was elected a member of the philological section, succeeded Károly Kisfaludy as director with an annual pension of 500 florins. He was one of the founders of the Kisfaludy Society, in 1837 started two periodicals: the Athenaeum and the Figyelmező; the first was the chief bellettristic periodical, the second was a critical periodical. From 1830 to 1843 he devoted himself to the drama, including Csongor és Tünde, a five-act play inspired by Albert Gergei's Prince Árgirus and by A Midsummer Night's Dream. Csongor és Tünde was described by György Lukács in 1911 as the best Hungarian play of the nineteenth century, he published several volumes of poetry. His song Szózat was to become a second national anthem, he wrote Az elhagyott anya and Az uri hölgyhöz.
His marriage in 1843 to Laura Csajághy inspired him to compose a new cycle of love poems. They had five children, including Ilona. In 1848, in conjunction with Arany and Petőfi, he contributed to a translation of Shakespeare's works. With the support of Lajos Kossuth and Imre Cseszneky, he was elected to represent Jankovác at the diet of 1848, in 1849 was made one of the judges of the high court; the national catastrophe profoundly affected him. For a short time he was an exile, when he returned to Hungary in 1850 he was in serious decline. In 1854 he wrote A vén cigány, he moved back to Pest to be close to doctors, died there, in the same house where Károly Kisfaludy had died twenty-five years before. He was buried in Kerepesi Cemetery, his funeral, on 21 November, was a day of national mourning. His penniless children were provided for by a national subscription collected by Ferenc Deák, who acted as their guardian. A monument by Ede Kallós, constructed in the 1900s, stands in Budapest in the square which bears his name.
Mihály Vörösmarty stamp was issued by Hungary on 5 May 1937 showing his portrait. Another stamp was issued by Hungary on 28 July 1955 in the Poets series. Works by or about Mihály Vörösmarty at Internet Archive Works by Mihály Vörösmarty at LibriVox